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  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
  • John Harrison Presentation AASMIC Conference CEMENT EMMISSIONS Cement manufacture contributes significantly to global warming as I am sure Vijay Rangan has or will tell you. As members of the industry we are trying to do something about the problem. That is why we are all here today
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY – CHANGING THE TECHNO-PROCESS I am sure you will have all heard of the three R’s. Reduce, reuse and recycle, to which some add re-make. Industrial ecology, the idea that the waste output of one kind of activity can be resource input for another, is most easily achieved in the construction industry. The materials used determine many properties including weight, embodied energies, fuel related and chemical emissions, lifetime energies, user comfort and health, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere. If you cannot recycle for chemical property recycle on the basis of physical properties the material would contribute to a composite. There is huge scope for sequestration and conversion of waste to resource given the massive size of the materials flows involved in the built environment. With the right materials technology, because of its sheer size, the built environment could reduce the take from the bio-geo-sphere and utilise many different wastes including carbon dioxide
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar BIOMIMICRY The philosophy and chemistry of TecEco technology is backed by the greatest and longest experiment of all time – that of life on this planet. Little is wasted in nature, the waste from one living thing being the home or food for another. We must, like nature, devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes.
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALS Materials are our footprint on the planet and of first consideration in our quest to devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes. Building materials comprise: 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.)
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar ECONOMICALLY DRIVEN SUSTAINABILITY Our approach must not only be holistic, but also economic if we are to have any hope of success. Working for sustainability market forces will make all the difference. The challenge is to move the supply and demand of resources towards more sustainable outcomes by stimulating and harnessing human behaviours which underlay economic demand phenomena, through cultural change push by governments and other leaders, and real improvement in technical and other properties as I will explain in the next slide. Sustainable processes like the new TecEco technologies are more efficient and therefore more economic.
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar CULTURAL CHANGE AND PARADIGM SHIFTS IN TECHNOLOGY Changes in the market interaction of demand and supply reducing energy and resource usage and detrimental linkages with the planet can be achieved through cultural change and innovative changes in the technical paradigm .
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
  • John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Solution to Global Warming is to Change the Way we do Things. Why? John Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA TecEco Managing Director
    • 2. The Atmosphere Source: Sam Nelson Greenbase Source: IPCC Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth's_atmosphere 17 Feb 08 Even if the annual flow of emissions was frozen today, the level of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere would still reach double its pre-industrial levels by 2050. In fact, emissions are increasing rapidly and the level of 550 ppm could be reached as early as 2035. Stern review Executive Summary Page 3 para 6 The Challenge is to Keep the Atmosphere Stable. To do this we must take a long term view and engineer a new way for us to live.
    • 3. The Population Paradox Developed Countries Undeveloped Countries Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet are continuing to rise strongly. ? ? Demographic Explosion => The paradox: Affluence = Population Control A Planet in Crisis
    • 4. CO 2 in the Atmosphere 450 ppm Gigaton CO 2 Year BAU Emissions ? ?
    • 5. Correlation CO 2 and Temperature Reducing emissions will be difficult because of the correlation between energy and fossil fuels. Even if emissions reductions were to succeed we must still get the CO 2 out of the air. Source of graphic: Hansen, J et. al. Climate Change and Trace Gases The correlation between temperature and CO 2 in the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is very good. All things being equal the simple answer is usually the right answer (Occam’s razor) The best plan is a holistic one that reduces emissions and profitably balances the inevitable releases from our activities with massive sequestration.
    • 6. Balancing CO2 in the Atmosphere
      • The problem is fundamentally one of CO 2 balance, not emissions
      • There are two ways the CO 2 in the atmosphere can be balanced
        • By reducing emissions.
        • By using (sequestering) at least as much carbon as we produce.
      • Both strategies require
        • technological change on a scale never before imagined.
        • A high long term high price for carbon to drive investment that will result in this change.
    • 7. Where are We?
      • The Kyoto Protocol
        • A treaty intended to implement the objectives and principles agreed in the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
        • Requires governments to agree to quantified limits on their greenhouse gas emissions, through sequential rounds of negotiations for successive commitment periods.
        • The Kyoto treaty is the result of political negotiation and diplomatic compromise and on the surface not a lot more than short term promises to reduce emissions that make politicians look good, but that their successors cannot possibly keep.
        • The Kyoto treaty is not a viable strategy for survival in the future - A treaty agreeing to a long term plan is required.
      • Constraint
        • With lots of silly “targets” with no strategy for their achievement
      • Talk about Carbon Capture and Storage
        • Not a lot else
    • 8. We are Hooked On Fossil Fuel Energy Emissions targets are unlikely to be met whilst fossil fuels remain Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions will be 41% higher in 2010 than in 1990 ( Ford, M., Matysek, A, Jakeman, G., Gurney, A & Fisher B. S. 2006, Perspectives on International Climate Change, paper presented at the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics society 50th Annual Conference). www.aares.info/files/2006_matysek.pdf. A solution is needed of the utmost urgency to preserve history for many, many generations to come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the Virgin Earth Prize Gaia Engineering is the way to do so – John Harrison
    • 9. Fossil Fuels “ Renewable energy growth is unlikely to even match the forecast growth for the overall electricity market” "History shows that transforming the primary sources of energy require enormous investments in infrastructure and is likely to be a 100-year challenge“ “ ExxonMobil's own research had shown that by 2030 fossil fuels would still supply about three-quarters of the world's total energy demand” Exxon Mobil Australia chairman John Dashwood American Chamber of Commerce in Australia Business Luncheon 28 August, 2009
    • 10. Global Primary Energy Consumption Fuel Mix Source: Abare
    • 11. Oil will Decline Oil prices will naturally rise as demand outstrips supply. Where is the R & D for oil replacement?
    • 12. Research and Development into Alternatives Composition of Australian Government energy research and development in 2002 There is not enough research into alternatives
    • 13. The Correlation Between WIP and Emissions World Industrial Product (deflated world `GDP' in real value - i.e. World physical production). CO2 emissions (in CO2 mass units: Doubling time = 29 years. Data: CDIAC; statistics: GDI. The correlation between the WIP and the CO2 emissions is very high. Source: Di Fazio, Alberto, The fallacy of pure efficiency gain measures to control future climate change, Astronomical Observatory of Rome and the Global Dynamics Institute
    • 14. The Correlation Between WIP and Emissions
      • The correlation between emissions and GDP is high because:
        • Fossil fuels supply >> 90% of the world's energy. There is still a lot of coal left.
        • Energy is used to produce goods (WIP).
        • Only in recent years
          • have we been seriously trying to improve efficiency (most of the Kyoto effort)
          • there has been a shift to services with lower CO 2 intensity
      Energy ~ Money ?
    • 15. The Limits to Efficiency Improvements There are may ways the second law of thermodynamics can be enunciated but relevant to us is Lord Kelvin’s version. “ It is impossible to convert heat completely into work” Using Carnot’s law it is possible to calculate the theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine such as a power station turbine or engine of a car, bus or train. (Try the calculator at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/carnot.html ) Most heat engines run at much lower efficiencies than the theoretical limit so there is still scope for improvements however the law of diminishing returns applies in terms of cost.
    • 16. Efficiency Limitations to Emissions Reduction Per capita emissions reduction through Pilzer 1 st law substitution (Technology change = resource use change) Rate of Per Capita Emissions Reduction The Future 2008 Per capita emissions reduction through thermodynamic efficiency Total per capita emissions reduction Conclusion: It is essential that R& D into substitution technologies occurs now in order to ramp up Pilzer first law substitution later and avoid thermodynamic constraints. This is not happening in Australia
    • 17. Kyoto Strategies are Not Working Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions will be 41% higher in 2010 than in 1990, 1% less than without Kyoto. A solution is needed of the utmost urgency to preserve history for many, many generations to come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the Virgin Earth Prize Ford M, Matyseka M, et al. (2006). Perspectives on international climate policy. Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society 50th Annual Conference, Sydney, ABARE. www.aares.info/files/2006_matysek.pdf. “ We are tracking on worst case scenarios.” Whetton, P, Leader, Climate Impacts & Risk Group, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Vic, Australia in presentation “Climate Change: What is the science telling us? “
    • 18. The Techno - Process Underlying the techno-process that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks and flows. If out of synch with earth systems these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects. To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems. I am contemplating profitable bottom up change of immense proportion and importance. John Harrison, TecEco Detrimental affects on earth systems Move 500-600 billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnes Biosphere Anthroposphere Take Geosphere Waste Materials Materials Manipulate Make and Use
    • 19. Detrimental Linkages of the Techno - Process Take manipulate and make impacts End of lifecycle impacts Greater Utility Less Utility Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows. There is no such place as “away” Use impacts. Materials are in the Techno-Sphere Utility zone Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system flows
    • 20. Moleconomic Flows Take -> Manipulate -> Make -> Use -> Waste [ ←Materials flow-> ] [ ← Underlying molecular flow -> ] If the underlying molecular flows are “out of tune” with nature there is damage to the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfc’s, c=halogen compounds and CO 2 To fix the molecular flows that are impacting our planet we must first fix the materials flows in a bottom up approach Moleconomics is the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic, balance or minimally interfere with natural flows.
    • 21. The Earth System Biosphere Hydrosphere Geosphere Atmosphere Anthropo-sphere The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops. Small changes caused by man such as CO 2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global commons.
    • 22. Earth Systems Science Source graphic: NASA Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki). These systems are ideally homeostatic. Earth Systems Atmospheric composition, climate, land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal zones, freshwater salinity etc.
    • 23. The Carbon Cycle and Emissions After: David Schimel and Lisa Dilling, National Centre for Atmospheric Research 2003 Emissions from fossil fuels and cement production are a significant cause of global warming. We need to increase the sedimentary carbon sink
    • 24. Darwin - Evolution As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected . From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form
    • 25. Conclusions
      • Natural selection applies to us.
        • Charles Darwin
      • Natural selection is a too way street. We influence our environment
        • William E Rudderman Jarrod Dimond and others
      • There is a global homeostasis and our environment may influence us by “naturally rejection” if it changes too much under our influence.
        • John Harrison, James Lovelock
    • 26. A Future with Choices?
      • To avoid future disaster three choices:
        • Restraint, change the way we do things or both.
      • Can we “have our cake and eat it?”.
        • Only if we change the way we do things.
    • 27. Changing the Way we do Things Without Economic Downsides
      • The challenge is to find ways of reducing CO2 in the air without negatively impacting the economy.
        • Substitution to Non Fossil Fuel Sources of Energy
          • Geothermal, Wind, Solar etc.
          • Nuclear
        • Sequestration on a Massive Scale
          • Geo-sequestration (clean coal, hydrogen fuel etc.) - limited
          • Anthropogenic sequestration in the built environment - our preferred option
      I am not going to talk so much about Energy Substitution in this presentation
    • 28. Changing the Techno-Process Reduce Re-use Recycle => Materials => Take => manipulate => make => use => waste The Flow of Atoms and Molecules in the global commons Driven by fossil fuel energy with take and waste impacts. This is biomimicry! By changing the technology paradigms we can change the materials flows and thus the underlying molecular flows. Moleconomics
    • 29. Geosequestration
      • Is not safe due to leakage (China recently?)
      • Is not likely to be ready before 2015 for coal fired power stations in Australia
      • Authoritative published studies estimate the cost of geosequestration at between $30-$140/tCO 2 . (a wide range due to so many uncertainties)
      • Added to the cost of coal or hydrogen, these sources of energy with geosequestration may be more expensive that alternatives.
      A long term plan would included the required R & D now
    • 30. Affect of Leakage on Geosequestration Source: CANA (2004). Carbon Leakage and Geosequestration, Climate Action Network Australia. "The assumption of exclusive reliance on storage may be an extreme one, however the example illustrates that emphasis on energy efficiency and increased reliance on renewable energy must be priority areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. The higher the expected leakage rate and the larger the uncertainty, the less attractive geosequestration is compared to other mitigation alternatives such as shifting to renewable energy sources, and improved efficiency in production and consumption of energy." Downloadable Model at http://www.tececo.com/files/spreadsheets/GaiaEngineeringVGeoSequestrationV1_26Apr08.xls
    • 31. Size of Natural Carbon Sinks Modified from Figure 2 Ziock, H. J. and D. P. Harrison. "Zero Emission Coal Power, a New Concept." from http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/01/carbon_seq/2b2.pdf by the inclusion of a bar to represent sedimentary sinks
    • 32. Carbon Sink Permanence Carbonate sediment 40,000,000 Gt Plants 600 Gt Sequestration Permanence and time
    • 33. Synopsis
      • We must accept our long term role of maintaining “spaceship earth” as planetary engineers and find ways of maintaining the level of carbon dioxide, oxygen and other gases in the atmosphere at desirable levels.
      • We cannot possibly arrest the alarming increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide currently occurring through efficiency, emissions reduction (constraint) or substitution alone
      • Geo-sequestration is at best short term and at worst highly risky.
      • We have a good chance of preserving the future if we mimic nature and find profitable uses for carbon and other wastes.
    • 34. Synopsis (2)
      • Uses for carbon and other wastes must be economically driven and result in a real value that puts profit in the pocket of a large number who will as a consequence wish to engage otherwise they cannot be implemented on the massive scale required.
      • Anthropogenic sequestration as man made carbonate in the built environment is a new technology platform that has the promise of profitably sequestering massive amounts of carbon profitably.
      • The markets created for man made carbonate in buildings are insatiable, large enough and indefinitely continuing.
      • Anthropogenic sequestration by building with man made carbonate is doable and most likely presents the only option we have for saving the planet from runaway climate change until such time as safe and reliable forms of energy alternative to fossil fuels can be developed
      • Anthropogenic sequestration by building with man made carbonate must be part of any long term planetary maintenance strategy.
    • 35. Biomimicry - Geomimicry All natural processes are very economical. We must also be MUCH more economical
      • The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus
      • Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration.
      • It involves nature as model, measure and mentor.
      • Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models geological rather than biological processes.
      The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy. Geomimicry is a natural extension of biomimicry and applies to geological rather than living processes
    • 36. Learning to Use Carbon - Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers?
      • Large tonnages of carbon (7% of the crust) were put away during earth’s geological history as limestone, dolomite and magnesite, mostly by the activity of plants and animals.
        • Orders of magnitude more than as coal or petroleum!
      • Shellfish built shells from carbon and trees turn it into wood.
      • These same plants and animals wasted nothing
        • The waste from one is the food or home for another.
      • Because of the colossal size of the flows involved t he answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in an insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing market.
      • Such a market exists for building and construction materials.
    • 37. Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers?
      • The required paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do. It can only happen economically.
      • To put an economic value on carbon and wastes
      • We have no choice but to:
      • invent new technical paradigms such as offered by TecEco.
      • Evolve culturally to effectively use new these technical paradigms
      • By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as building materials we can economically reduce their concentration in the global commons.
    • 38. Sequestration of Carbon and Wastes as Building Materials
      • During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals.
      • Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals.
      In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and wastes. This is “geomimicry” CO 2 C CO 2 Waste CO 2 CO 2 Pervious pavement
    • 39. Geomimicry
      • There are 1.2-3 grams of magnesium and about .4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater.
      • There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration.
      • To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO 2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicry
      • Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% - 8% of the crust.
    • 40. Anthropogenic Sequestration Using Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle More about Gaia Engineering at http://www.tececo.com.au/simple.gaiaengineering_summary.php Photosynthesis by plants and algae Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals) Organic compounds made by autotrophs Organic compounds made by heterotrophs Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration burning and decay Limestone coal and oil burning Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco-Cements) Decay by fungi and bacteria CO 2 in the air and water
    • 41. Building and Construction Represents an Insatiable, Large and Indefinitely Continuing Market for Man Made Carbonate Sequestration
      • The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth.
        • It comprises buildings and infrastructure.
      • Construction materials comprise
        • 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.)
        • 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.)
      • Around 50 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis.
      • The single biggest materials flow (after water) is concrete at around 18 billion tonnes or > 2 tonnes per man, woman and child on the planet.
      • 40% of total energy in the industrialised world (researchandmarkets)
      Why not use magnesium carbonate aggregates and building components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from TecEco to bind them together?
    • 42. Only the Built Environment is Big Enough Source of graphics: Nic Svenningson UNEP SMB2007 The built environment is our footprint, the major proportion of the techno-sphere and our lasting legacy on the planet. It comprises buildings and infrastructure
    • 43. Economically Driven Technological Change New, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse damaging flows from the Techno Process. $ - ECONOMICS - $ Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right.
    • 44. Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change. # $ Demand Supply Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation. Equilibrium Shift ECONOMICS Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growth A measure of the degree of sustainability is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply. We must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainability
    • 45. Changing the Technology Paradigm
      • “ By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource 1 ”
        • Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy , Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990
      It is not so much a matter of “dematerialisation” or constraint as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO 2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms Or more simply – the technical paradigm determines what is or is not a resource!
    • 46. Cultural Change is Happening!
      • Al Gore (SOS)
      • CSIRO reports
      • STERN Report
      • Lots of Talkfest
      • IPCC Report
      • Political change
      • Branson Prize
      • Live Earth (07/07/07)
      The media have an important growing role
    • 47. Gaia Engineering Flowchart Built Environment MgCO 3 and CaCO 3 “Stone” Extraction Industrial CO 2 MgO TecEco Tec-Kiln Eco-Cements Building components & aggregates TecEco Cement Manufacture CaO Clays Portland Cement Manufacture Brine or Sea water Tec-Cements Building waste Other waste Fresh Water Extraction inputs and outputs depending on method chosen
    • 48. Gaia Engineering Process Diagram Extraction Process Fossil fuels Solar or solar derived energy Oil MgO Coal Inputs: Atmospheric or industrial CO 2 , brines, waste acid or bitterns, other wastes Outputs: Carbonate building materials, potable water, valuable commodity salts. Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds 1.29 gm/l Mg .412 gm/l Ca Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable techno-processes outside the tececology. TecEco MgCO 2 Cycle Carbonate building components Eco-Cement TecEco Kiln MgCO 3 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2
    • 49. The Technical Case Source: The Woods Hole Institute converted to billion metric tonnes or petograms CO 2 TecEco plan through Gaia Engineering to modify the carbon cycle by creating a new man made carbon sink in the built environment. The need for a new and very large sink can be appreciated by considering the balance sheet of global carbon in the crust after Ziock, H. J. and D. P. Harrison [5] depicted in another slide. The Carbon Cycle Atmospheric increase = Emissions from fossil fuels + Net emissions from changes in land use - Oceanic uptake - Missing carbon sink 11.72 (±0.2) = 23.08 (±0.4) + 8.016 (±0.8) - 8.79 (±0.7) - 10.62 (±1.1)
    • 50. Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem
      • Our new technologies will enable easy low cost production of carbonate building materials.
      • Our source of calcium or magnesium is from seawater, brines or bitterns and our source of CO 2 can be from the air.
      • If carbonates such as magnesite were our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with our Gaia Engineering, we have the problem of too much in the atmosphere as good as solved!
      Anthropogenic sequestration - building with carbonate and waste is the answer
    • 51. Why Magnesium Carbonates?
      • Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO 2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment:
      • Due to the lighter molar mass of magnesium more CO 2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show.
      • At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant element
      • Sea-water contains 1.29 g/l compared to calcium at .412 g/l
      • Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for the utilisation of other wastes.
      Seawater Reference Data g/l H 2 0 Cation radius (pm) Chloride (Cl -- ) 19 167 Sodium (Na + ) 10.5 116 Sulfate (S04 -- ) 2.7 ? Magnesium (Mg ++ ) 1.29 86 Calcium (Ca ++ ) 0.412 114 Potassium (K + ) 0.399 152
    • 52. How much Carbonate to Balance Emissions? MgO + H2O => Mg(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O => MgCO3.3H2O 40.31 + 18(l) => 58.31 + 44.01(g) + 2 X 18(l) => 138.368 molar masses. 44.01 parts by mass of CO2 ~= 138.368 parts by mass MgCO3.3H2O 1 ~= 138.368/44.01= 3.144 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 37.728 billion tonnes of nesquehonite MgO + H2O => Mg(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O => MgCO3 40.31 + 18(l) => 58.31 + 44.01(g) + 2 X 18(l) => 84.32 molar masses. CO2 ~= MgCO3 44.01 parts by mass of CO2 ~= 84.32 parts by mass MgCO3 1 ~= 84.32/44.01= 1.9159 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 22.99 billion tonnes magnesite The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 Thus 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite CaO + H2O => Ca(OH)2 + CO2 + 2H2O => CaCO3 56.08 + 18(l) => 74.08 + 44.01(g) + 2 X 18(l) => 100.09 molar masses. CO2 ~= CaCO3 44.01 parts by mass of CO2 ~= 100.09 parts by mass MgCO3 1 ~= 100.09/44.01= 2.274 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 27.29 billion tonnes calcite (limestone) The density of calcite is 2.71 gm/cm3 or 2.71 tonne/metre3 Thus 27.29/2.71 billion cubic metres ~= 10.07 cubic kilometres of limestone Full calculation: http://www.tececo.com/sustainability.carbon_cycles_sinks.php
    • 53. Technical implications
      • A range of hydraulic concretes can be specified in which a variable hydroxide component is more or less carbonated and in which the silicate components (e.g. CSH) play an important catalytic role.
      • Coarse and fine aggregate can be made in the same way.
      • The kinetics are just as important as the thermodynamics of the chemistry.
      • The pH Eh stability fields of concrete can be maintained so steel reinforcing can continue to be used (subject matter of a new patent).
      • Mixed calcium-magnesium carbonation does not result in shrinkage problems.
      • Such concretes are suitable for at least the Pareto proportion of uses.
    • 54. How Do we Make Carbonate?
      • The key is to understand the nature of polar or hydrogen bonding in water as it is this bonding that keeps ions such as calcium and magnesium as dissolved species.
      • We have our own highly secret ideas about how to sufficiently weaken hydrogen bonding to cause massive precipitation of carbonates and there are other contenders such as the Calera and Greensols process.
    • 55. Global Producion of Cement and Concrete
    • 56. The Economic Case
      • The profit margin for the production of cement and concrete is low.
        • Generally less than 5% more often less than 3%.
      • It follows that:
        • A carbon cost if fully implemented (i.e. a zero tax or cap) is likely to be much more than the current profit margin.
        • A carbon credit (offset) of the same amount or more (as in the case of Gaia Engineering ) would result in considerably more profit than is currently being made.
        • If fully implemented with both binder and aggregates made of man made carbonate the potential trade in credits or offsets is enormous.
        • There is likely to be a high level of government support if the technology is promoted by the industry.
    • 57. Gaia Engineering Flow chart Built Environment MgCO 3 and CaCO 3 “Stone” Extraction Industrial CO 2 MgO TecEco Tec-Kiln Eco-Cements Building components & aggregates TecEco Cement Manufacture CaO Clays Portland Cement Manufacture Brine or Sea water Tec-Cements Building waste Other waste Fresh Water Extraction inputs and outputs depending on method chosen
    • 58. Gaia Engineering Process Diagram Extraction Process Fossil fuels Solar or solar derived energy Oil MgO Coal Inputs: Atmospheric or industrial CO 2 , brines, waste acid or bitterns, other wastes Outputs: Carbonate building materials, potable water, valuable commodity salts. Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds 1.29 gm/l Mg .412 gm/l Ca Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable techno-processes outside the tececology. TecEco MgCO 2 Cycle Carbonate building components Eco-Cement TecEco Kiln MgCO 3 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2
    • 59. Anthropogenic Sequestration Using Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle More about Gaia Engineering at http://www.tececo.com.au/simple.gaiaengineering_summary.php Photosynthesis by plants and algae Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals) Organic compounds made by autotrophs Organic compounds made by heterotrophs Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration burning and decay Limestone coal and oil burning Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco-Cements) Decay by fungi and bacteria CO 2 in the air and water
    • 60. Implementation Difficulties
      • Long supply chain. Too big for TecEco to change?
      • No long term secure price for carbon to drive investment.
      • Building and construction has huge potential for emissions reduction yet is in the “too hard” basket for most governments because of perceived difficulties in implementation.
    • 61. Driving the Change to Green
    • 62. Gaia Engineering Summary
      • Gaia Engineering is:
        • Potentially profitable
        • Technically feasible
        • Would put the concrete industry back in control of the carbon agenda
        • Solve the industries profitability problems
        • Solve the global warming problem