The Future of Identity in the Cloud: Requirements, Risks & Opportunities Marco Casassa Mont  [email_address] HP Labs Syste...
Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requi...
Cloud Computing: Definition <ul><li>No Unique Definition or General Consensus about what Cloud Computing is … </li></ul><u...
Cloud Service Layers Service Users Source: HP Labs, Automated Infrastructure Lab (AIL), Bristol, UK - Peter Toft Cloud Pro...
Cloud Computing: Models Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud  Provider #1 Clo...
Cloud Computing: Key Aspects <ul><li>Internal, External and Hybrid Clouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud Providers and/or The...
Cloud Computing: Implications <ul><li>Enterprise:   </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm Shift from “Close & Controlled” IT Infrastr...
Cloud Computing: Initiatives <ul><li>Recent General Initiatives aiming at Shaping Cloud Computing: </li></ul><ul><li>Open ...
Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requi...
Identity and Access Management (IAM) - Enterprise IAM <ul><li>Network Access Control (NAC)  </li></ul><ul><li>Directory Se...
Identity in the Cloud: Enterprise Case Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud  ...
Identity in the Cloud: Enterprise Case <ul><li>Issues and Risks [1/2] </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Proliferation of Require...
Identity in the Cloud: Enterprise Case <ul><li>Issues and Risks [2/2] </li></ul><ul><li>Migration of Services between Clou...
Identity in the Cloud: Consumenr Case Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud  Provider #1 ...
Identity in the Cloud: User Case <ul><li>Issues and Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Proliferations of Identities & Crede...
Identity in the Cloud Requirements <ul><li>Simplified Management of Identities and Credentials </li></ul><ul><li>Need for ...
Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requi...
Identity in the Cloud:Identity Proxy Approach Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service ...
Identity Proxy/Mediator Approach <ul><li>Enterprise-focused </li></ul><ul><li>Centralised Management of Credentials and Us...
Identity in the Cloud: Federated Approach Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Clou...
Identity in the Cloud: Federated Approach <ul><li>Federated Identity Management: Identity & Service Providers </li></ul><u...
Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requi...
Future of Identity in the Cloud: Drivers <ul><li>It is  Not just a Matter of Technologies and Operational Solutions </li><...
Future of Identity in the Cloud: Opportunities <ul><li>New Ways to provide Services, Compose them and get the best deals, ...
<ul><li>Trusted Infrastructure and Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Analyti...
1. Trusted Infrastructure Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud  Provider #1 C...
Trusted Infrastructure Evolution Towards Services in The Cloud <ul><li>More and more applications and services will be del...
Trusted Infrastructure: Trusted Virtualized Platform Personal  Environment Win/Lx/OSX Corporate  Productivity OS Remote IT...
Paradigm Shift: Identities/Personae as “Virtualised Environment” in the Cloud Trusted Hypervisor End-User Device My Person...
Specifiable, Manageable and Attestable Virtualization Layer <ul><li>Leverage Trusted Computing technology for Increased As...
2. Identity Assurance <ul><li>Identity Assurance is concerned with “Providing Visibility into how Risks Associated with Id...
Identity Assurance Information Management Process, Operations and Controls  Registration Identity information Maintenance ...
Identity Assurance: Stakeholders in the Cloud Enterprise Service Provider Service Provider Service Provider Cloud  Provide...
Identity Assurance in the Cloud Enterprise Service Provider Service Provider Service Provider Cloud  Provider #1 Identity ...
HP Labs Model-based Assurance Approach The model design process  proceeds in four steps: 1. Categorize IT Controls/ Proces...
Identity Assurance Model Identity Assurance Conceptual  Model Representation  of Model  in Our Tool Evaluation of Model Ag...
3. Security and Identity Analytics   Providing Strategic Decision Support <ul><li>Focus on Organisation IT (Security) Deci...
Organisations’ IT Security Challenges 05/21/10 Understand the Economics  Construct Models Develop Policy (Trusted) IT infr...
Identity Analytics - Overview <ul><li>Problem:   How to derive and justify the </li></ul><ul><li>IAM strategy? </li></ul><...
Identity Analytics Applied to The Cloud Models Simulations Data Analysis Decision Support Tools <ul><li>Threat Environment...
Identity Analytics Applied to The Cloud Case #1 Current  State   0.83 0.89 0.94 0.99 0.84 0.90 0.95 1 Effort Level 3480 10...
Security & Identity Analytics Methodology 05/21/10 HP Confidential Scientific Approach based on  Modelling & Simulation In...
4. TSB EnCoRe Project    Consent and Revocation Management <ul><li>EnCoRe: Ensuring Consent and Revocation </li></ul><ul><...
Identity Data + Consent/Revocation Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud  Provider #1 Clo...
Consent and Revocation Lifecycle
EnCoRe:  Explicit Management of Consent and Revocation Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cl...
EnCoRe:  Explicit Management of Consent and Revocation
Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requi...
Conclusions <ul><li>The Cloud and Cloud Computing are Real, Happening Now! </li></ul><ul><li>Identity & Identity Managemen...
Thanks and Q&A Contact: Marco Casassa Mont,  HP Labs,  [email_address]
05/21/10 HP Confidential
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  • - Ad hoc identity proxy solutions Symplified - http://www.symplified.com/ Ping Identity (Internal federation + Internet SSO by mapping to external identity) – SAML assertions
  • OAUTH http://oauth.net/ Covisint http://www.covisint.com Conformity - http://conformity-inc.com/ TriCipher - http://www.tricipher.com/ Ping Identity - http://www.pingidentity.com/ Microsoft CardSpace/InfoCard - Geneva
  • We need to emphasize how the infrastructure environment is changes (the biz/personal story is great but getting old and is being copied by others). Whether we talk about Cloud, utility computing, distributed computing… we can be certain that infrastructures are changing to a more service oriented model but not a lot of effort is being invested in understanding how this affects the user client device. Enterprises now want to reduce IT cost per seat and hence will want to move away from the tradition thick client model to a more thin client with the computing in the backend systems (not owned by themselves). This is fine when network connectivity is good, however, due to the increase in mobility the user experience is likely to be massively affected. So we need ways in which some of the remote service can be securely deployed locally on the device when there is little or no networking and then be able to synchronize when connectivity returns. Hence, the thin only client model will also be inadequate in this environment. We need a new generation of device that can support a range of thick and thin clients that provide both enhanced user experience and at the same time meets the enterprise’s demands for reduced IT costs. IT Management entities want to drive towards zero support calls, and generally self service deployment of business machines. “Engineer to zero” We need the Trusted Virtualized Client
  • Earlier I said that we want to create a virtualization system that could be attested to, i.e. that we could make a strong statement as to the trustworthiness of it’s current state. So I want to spend a few moments expanding on this. Explain what a chain of trust is. We want to build systems that are immune from s/w attacks. So we build a chain of trust which is anchored in h/w which gives us a resilience to s/w attacks. It starts with the TPM (crypto device) that is bound to the mother board and we guarantee that this device will be in a known state when initially powered on. Associated with this is a Core Root of Trust for Measurement (CRTM), which is the BIOS boot block code; it can’t itself be measured but it is a piece of code which is considered trustworthy. It reliably measures integrity value of other code, and stays unchanged during the lifetime of the platform. CRTM is an extension of normal BIOS, which will be run first to measure other parts of the BIOS block before passing control. The BIOS then measures hardware, and the bootloader and passes control to the bootloader. The bootloader measures VMM kernel and pass control to the VMM and so on. What you end up with is a chain of trust with a measurement value that can be used for attestation. TPM stores measurements and can cryptographically report on those measurements to requesting parties (attestation). Essentially, the TPM signs the measurement (which is a cryptographic hash) so that the one asking for the measurement can know that it was measured by a real TPM. The requestor then checks this measurement against a known good value to determine whether or not this system can be trusted. This is an important feature of these TCG TPMs but one that has yet not been fully exploited. What we are doing within our project is to create an Integrity Measurement and Attestation framework. Specifically designed for measuring the VMM and its supporting security services so that it can attest itself to other platforms that request verification. At its lowest level it will utilize TCG TPM hardware technology and associated CPU / Chipset support such as the Intel (TXT) / AMD (SVM) for DRTM (Dynamic Root of Trust) mechanisms [Grawrock 2006]. Our planned approach diverges from existing integrity measurement systems in regard to its explicit support for the needs of virtualized systems such as chains of trust that can be safely dynamically modified [Cabuk et al. 2008a] and the support for tying the integrity of several VMs together into a single attestable and verifiable entity. TXT allows us, in combination with the TPM, to ensure that either a Measured Launch Environment or Controlled Launch Environments can be started. MLEs allow any code sequence to run, but generate a launch record which is difficult to forge by an alternative startup sequence. Controlled Launch allows us to refuse to start a particular code image unless the hardware has followed an already approved execution path. We have some functional code which demonstrates MLE, and the functionality to enforce CLE is being developed now.
  • That’s an overview of HP Labs. I’ve shared with you our shift to high-impact research: The 8 key areas that represent the biggest challenges and opportunities for our customers As well as our commitments to commercializing innovation, engaging with customers, advancing the state-of-the-art, and other goals that will help us bring this new blueprint for corporate research to life.
  • "The Future of Identity in The Cloud: Requirements, Risks and ...

    1. 1. The Future of Identity in the Cloud: Requirements, Risks & Opportunities Marco Casassa Mont [email_address] HP Labs Systems Security Lab Bristol, UK
    2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Current Approaches and Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the Future of Identity in the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    3. 3. Cloud Computing: Definition <ul><li>No Unique Definition or General Consensus about what Cloud Computing is … </li></ul><ul><li>Different Perspectives & Focuses (Platform, SW, Service Levels…) </li></ul><ul><li>Flavours: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing and IT Resources Accessible Online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamically Scalable Computing Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualization of Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to (potentially) Composable & Interchangeable Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstraction of IT Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> No need to understand its implementation: use Services & their APIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related “Buzzwords”: Iaas, PaaS, SaaS, EaaS, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some current players, at the Infrastructure & Service Level: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salesfoce.com, Google Apps, Amazon, Yahoo, Microsoft, IBM, HP, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Cloud Service Layers Service Users Source: HP Labs, Automated Infrastructure Lab (AIL), Bristol, UK - Peter Toft Cloud Providers Service Providers Cloud Infrastructure Services ( IaaS ) Cloud Platform Services ( PaaS ) Cloud End-User Services ( SaaS ) Physical Infrastructure
    5. 5. Cloud Computing: Models Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud Provider #1 Cloud Provider #2 Internal Cloud CRM Service … Service 3 Backup Service ILM Service Service Service Service Business Apps/Service Employee User … … … The Internet
    6. 6. Cloud Computing: Key Aspects <ul><li>Internal, External and Hybrid Clouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud Providers and/or The Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure Providers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service Providers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition of Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within a Cloud Provider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across Cloud Providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entities consuming Services in the Clouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business Applications, Services, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private Users </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Cloud Computing: Implications <ul><li>Enterprise: </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm Shift from “Close & Controlled” IT Infrastructures and Services to Externally Provided Services and IT Infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Private User: </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm Shift from Accessing Static Set of Services to Dynamic & Composable Services </li></ul><ul><li>General Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential Loss of Control (on Data, Infrastructure, Processes, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data & Confidential Information Stored in The Clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of Identities and Access (IAM) in the Cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance to Security Practice and Legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy Management (Control, Consent, Revocation, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Threat Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability and Longevity of Cloud & Service Providers </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Cloud Computing: Initiatives <ul><li>Recent General Initiatives aiming at Shaping Cloud Computing: </li></ul><ul><li>Open Cloud Manifesto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making the case for an Open Cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cloud Security Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting Best Security Practices for the Cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jericho Forum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud Cube Model: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations & (Security) Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    9. 9. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Current Approaches and Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the Future of Identity in the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    10. 10. Identity and Access Management (IAM) - Enterprise IAM <ul><li>Network Access Control (NAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Directory Services </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication, Authorization, Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Provisioning </li></ul><ul><li>Single-Sign-On, </li></ul><ul><li>Federation </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>IAM is part of </li></ul><ul><li>IT Security Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance & </li></ul><ul><li>Governance Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul> Based on Enterprise Contexts  Need to Think about IAM in the Cloud Paradigm
    11. 11. Identity in the Cloud: Enterprise Case Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud Provider #1 Cloud Provider #2 Internal Cloud CRM Service … Service 3 Backup Service ILM Service Service Service Service Business Apps/Service Employee … … … The Internet Identity & Credentials Identity & Credentials Identity & Credentials Identity & Credentials Identity & Credentials Identity & Credentials Identity & Credentials Authentication Authorization Audit Authentication Authorization Audit Authentication Authorization Audit Authentication Authorization Audit User Account Provisioning/ De-provisioning User Account Provisioning/ De-provisioning User Account Provisioning/ De-provisioning User Account Provisioning/ De-provisioning PII Data & Confidential Information PII Data & Confidential Information PII Data & Confidential Information PII Data & Confidential Information IAM Capabilities and Services Can be Outsourced in The Cloud …
    12. 12. Identity in the Cloud: Enterprise Case <ul><li>Issues and Risks [1/2] </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Proliferation of Required Identities & Credentials to Access Services </li></ul><ul><li> Misbehaviours when handling credentials (writing down, reusing, sharing, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity in correctly “enabling” Information Flows across boundaries </li></ul><ul><li> Security Threats </li></ul><ul><li>(Enterprise  Cloud & Service Providers, Service Provider  Service Provider, …_ </li></ul><ul><li>Propagation of Identity and PII Information across Multiple Clouds/Services </li></ul><ul><li> Privacy issues (e.g. compliance to multiple Legislations, Importance of Location, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li> Exposure of business sensitive information </li></ul><ul><li>(employees’ identities, roles, organisational structures, enterprise apps/services, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li> How to effectively Control this Data? </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation of IAM and Data Management Processes to Cloud and Service Providers </li></ul><ul><li> How to get Assurance that these Processes and Security Practice are Consistent with </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Policies? </li></ul><ul><li>- Recurrent problem for all Stakeholders: Enterprise, Cloud and Service Providers … </li></ul><ul><li> Consistency and Integrity of User Accounts & Information across various Clouds/Services </li></ul><ul><li> How to deal with overall Compliance and Governance issues? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Identity in the Cloud: Enterprise Case <ul><li>Issues and Risks [2/2] </li></ul><ul><li>Migration of Services between Cloud and Service Providers </li></ul><ul><li> Management of Data Lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>Threats and Attacks in the Clouds and Cloud Services </li></ul><ul><li> Cloud and Service Providers can be the “weakest links” wrt Security & Privacy </li></ul><ul><li> Reliance on good security practice of Third Parties </li></ul>
    14. 14. Identity in the Cloud: Consumenr Case Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud Provider #1 Cloud Provider #2 CRM Service Delivery Service Service 3 Backup Service ILM Service User … … … The Internet Identity & Credentials Identity & Credentials Identity & Credentials Authentication Authorization Audit Authentication Authorization Audit Authentication Authorization Audit User Account Provisioning/ De-provisioning User Account Provisioning/ De-provisioning User Account Provisioning/ De-provisioning PII Data & Confidential Information PII Data & Confidential Information PII Data & Confidential Information
    15. 15. Identity in the Cloud: User Case <ul><li>Issues and Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Proliferations of Identities & Credentials to Access Services </li></ul><ul><li> Misbehaviours when handling credentials (writing down, reusing, sharing ,etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Complexity in Configuring & Handling Interactions between various Services </li></ul><ul><li> Introducing vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Propagation of Identity and PII Information across Multiple Clouds/Sites </li></ul><ul><li> Privacy issues (e.g. compliance to multiple Legislations, Importance of Location, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li> How to handle Consent and Revocation? </li></ul><ul><li> How to effectively Control this data? </li></ul><ul><li>Trust Issue </li></ul><ul><li> How to get Assurance that Personal Data and Confidential Information is going </li></ul><ul><li>to be Handled as Expected, based on Users’ (privacy) Preferences and Expectations? </li></ul><ul><li> Migration and Deletion of Data </li></ul><ul><li>New Threats </li></ul><ul><li> Bogus Cloud and Service Providers </li></ul><ul><li> Identity Thefts </li></ul><ul><li> Configuration & Management Mistakes </li></ul>
    16. 16. Identity in the Cloud Requirements <ul><li>Simplified Management of Identities and Credentials </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Assurance and Transparency about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IAM (Outsourced) Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security & Privacy Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Lifecycle Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compliance to Regulation, Policies and Best Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to redefine what Compliance means in The Cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy Management: Control on Data Usage & Flows </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation Management </li></ul>
    17. 17. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Current Approaches and Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the Future of Identity in the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    18. 18. Identity in the Cloud:Identity Proxy Approach Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud Provider #1 Cloud Provider #2 Internal Cloud CRM Service … Service 3 Backup Service ILM Service Service Service Service Business Apps/Service Employee … … … The Internet Identity Proxy/Mediator
    19. 19. Identity Proxy/Mediator Approach <ul><li>Enterprise-focused </li></ul><ul><li>Centralised Management of Credentials and User Accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Interception by Identity Proxy and mapping to “External Identities/Accounts” </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Control on Identities and mappings </li></ul><ul><li>Centralisation & Local Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability Issues. What about the management of </li></ul><ul><li>Identities exposed between Composed Services </li></ul><ul><li>(Service1  Service2)? </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Control beyond first point of contact </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability and Global Compliance Issues </li></ul>
    20. 20. Identity in the Cloud: Federated Approach Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud Provider #1 Cloud Provider #2 Internal Cloud CRM Service … Service 3 Backup Service ILM Service Service Service Service Business Apps/Service Employee … … … The Internet User Identity Provider (IdP) Identity Provider (IdP) Identity Provider (IdP) Identity Provider (IdP) Registration Registration
    21. 21. Identity in the Cloud: Federated Approach <ul><li>Federated Identity Management: Identity & Service Providers </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud Provider could be the “Identity Provider” for the </li></ul><ul><li>Services/Service Providers in its Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Approach suitable for Enterprises and private Users </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cloud Provider-wide” Control and Management of Identities </li></ul><ul><li>Potential setting of Security and Privacy constraints at the </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Provider site </li></ul><ul><li>Circle of Trusts  Auditing, Compliance Checking, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Handled with Contracts and SLAs </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>IdPs become a bottleneck/central point of control  privacy issues </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability across multiple Cloud Providers. Federated IdPs? </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on IdPs for Assurance and Compliance (Matter of Trust …) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Current Approaches and Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the Future of Identity in the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    23. 23. Future of Identity in the Cloud: Drivers <ul><li>It is Not just a Matter of Technologies and Operational Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Need for effective Compliance to Laws and Legislation (SOX, HIPAA, EU data Directives, etc.), Business Agreements and Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Need for more Assurance : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprises : Assurance that IAM, Security, Privacy and Data Management processes are run as expected by Cloud Providers and Service Providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Providers : Assurance from other Service Providers and Cloud Providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End-Users : Assurance about Privacy, Control on Data, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for Transparency and Trust about IAM processes and Data Management in the Clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy Management </li></ul>
    24. 24. Future of Identity in the Cloud: Opportunities <ul><li>New Ways to provide Services, Compose them and get the best deals, both for Users and Organisations </li></ul><ul><li> Identity and Identity Management is going to Play a key Role </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Chance to re-think what Identity and Identity Management means in the Cloud and how to Handle it </li></ul><ul><li> vs. simply trying to adapt and use the old IAM model </li></ul><ul><li>New Technological, Personal and Social Challenges </li></ul><ul><li> Opportunity for Research and Development of new Solutions </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Trusted Infrastructure and Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Analytics </li></ul><ul><li>EnCoRe Project – Ensuring Consent and Revocation </li></ul>Future of Identity in the Cloud Overview of some HP Labs Research Areas HP Labs, Systems Security Lab (SSL), Bristol, UK http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/systems_security/
    26. 26. 1. Trusted Infrastructure Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud Provider #1 Cloud Provider #2 Internal Cloud CRM Service … Service 3 Backup Service ILM Service Service Service Service Business Apps/Service Employee User … … … The Internet Trusted Client Devices Trusted Client Infrastructure Trusted Client Infrastructure Trusted Client Infrastructure <ul><li>Ensuring that the Infrastructural </li></ul><ul><li>IT building blocks of the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>are secure, trustworthy </li></ul><ul><li>and compliant with </li></ul><ul><li>security best practice </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Trusted </li></ul><ul><li>Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Group (TCG) </li></ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul><ul><li>Impact and Role of </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization </li></ul>TCG: http:// www.trustedcomputinggroup.org
    27. 27. Trusted Infrastructure Evolution Towards Services in The Cloud <ul><li>More and more applications and services will be delivered on remote infrastructures we don’t own </li></ul><ul><li>However, we need to maintain the user experience whether or not there is good network connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>A new business need is emerging that will benefit from a mix of thin and thick client capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Hence we need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a new generation of client devices that provide safe and adaptive access to cloud services… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… and more than ever we need to be able to manage them at reduced cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new generation of servers that are trusted and whose security capabilities can be tested and proved </li></ul></ul>Untrusted Open Internet Secure Distributed Business Application Source: HP Labs, Systems Security Lab, Richard Brown Hypervisor OS Open Network - Cloud - Hosted HALO application Hypervisor OS Hosted VOIP application Hosted CCI infrastructure Hosted TVC Management Hypervisor OS Hypervisor OS TVA TVA TVA TVA TVA TVA TVA TVA TVA TVA TVA TVA
    28. 28. Trusted Infrastructure: Trusted Virtualized Platform Personal Environment Win/Lx/OSX Corporate Productivity OS Remote IT Mgmt Home Banking Corporate Production Environment OS E-Govt Intf. Corp. Soft Phone Trusted Hypervisor Secure Corporate (Government) Client Persona Personal Client Persona Trusted Corporate Client Appliance Trusted Personal Client Appliances online (banking, egovt) or local (ipod) Services managed from cloud HP Labs: Applying Trusted Computing to Virtualization Source: HP Labs, Systems Security Lab, Richard Brown
    29. 29. Paradigm Shift: Identities/Personae as “Virtualised Environment” in the Cloud Trusted Hypervisor End-User Device My Persona 1 + Virtualised Environment 1 My Persona 2 + Virtualised Environment 2 Bank Gaming Community Services … <ul><li>Using Virtualization to push Control from the Cloud/Service back to the Client Platform </li></ul><ul><li>User’s Persona is defined by the Service Interaction Context </li></ul><ul><li>User’s Persona & Identity are “tight” to the Virtualised Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Persona defined by User or by Service Provider </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Mutual attestation of Platforms and Integrity </li></ul>
    30. 30. Specifiable, Manageable and Attestable Virtualization Layer <ul><li>Leverage Trusted Computing technology for Increased Assurance </li></ul><ul><li> Enabling remote attestation of Invariant Security </li></ul><ul><li>Properties implemented in the Trusted Virtualization Layer </li></ul>Management Domain Trusted Infrastructure Interface (TII) Firmware Physical Platform Identity Software Integrity Virtualised TPM (vTPM) Source: HP Labs, Systems Security Lab, Richard Brown Trusted Virtual Platform Banking Application vTPM Trusted Virtual Platform Gaming Application vTPM TPM
    31. 31. 2. Identity Assurance <ul><li>Identity Assurance is concerned with “Providing Visibility into how Risks Associated with Identity Information are being Managed” </li></ul><ul><li>How Does a Third Party, in the Cloud (Cloud Provider, Service Provider, etc.) deal with Security and IAM Aspects, Compliance to Laws and Legislation? </li></ul><ul><li>How to provide Identity Assurance in the Cloud? </li></ul><ul><li>HP Labs (Systems Security Lab) are exploring Mechanisms and Approaches in this space </li></ul>Reference: http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/2008/HPL-2008-25.html
    32. 32. Identity Assurance Information Management Process, Operations and Controls Registration Identity information Maintenance Destruction Create Identity Verify Accept Accept Add Data Read Id Data Review Correct Audit/Usage Transparency Delete Archive Share Load from other Sites/IdPs/IDM systems Underlying IT System IDM Controls COBIT ISO27000 Physical
    33. 33. Identity Assurance: Stakeholders in the Cloud Enterprise Service Provider Service Provider Service Provider Cloud Provider #1 Internal Cloud Service Provider … Service Service Service Business Apps/Service Employee User Identity Provider (IdP) Cloud Provider #2 Service Provider Service Provider Service Provider Identity Provider (IdP) Circle of Trust
    34. 34. Identity Assurance in the Cloud Enterprise Service Provider Service Provider Service Provider Cloud Provider #1 Identity Provider (IdP) Cloud Provider #2 Service Provider Service Provider Service Provider Identity Provider (IdP) Circle of Trust Minimal Acceptable Assurance Information Compliance Checking IdP Assurance Information Match Assurance Report  Public  Private Service Providers Assurance Information Legend Identity Assurance Standards Assurance Information Enhance Trust
    35. 35. HP Labs Model-based Assurance Approach The model design process proceeds in four steps: 1. Categorize IT Controls/ Processes/Mechanisms needed for Assurance 2. Identify Measurable Aspects of these Controls - Performance Indicators - Correctness Tests 3. Build the Control Analysis Model 4. Use the model to monitor for changing conditions and to provide assurance reports Explicit and Automated Monitoring of IAM Processes and Controls based on Audits & Logs
    36. 36. Identity Assurance Model Identity Assurance Conceptual Model Representation of Model in Our Tool Evaluation of Model Against Audit Data and Logs  Assurance Reports
    37. 37. 3. Security and Identity Analytics Providing Strategic Decision Support <ul><li>Focus on Organisation IT (Security) Decision Makers (CIOs/CISOs) </li></ul><ul><li>The growing complexity of IT and the increasing Threat Environment will make related Security Investment Decisions Harder </li></ul><ul><li>The Decision to use The Cloud and its Services is Strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Where to Make Investments (e.g. either IdM or Network Security, how to make business & security aligned …)? Which Choices need to be made? Which Strategy? </li></ul><ul><li>The HP Labs “Security Analytics” Project is exploring how to apply Scientific Modelling and Simulation methodology for Strategic Decision Support </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Analytics Project is focusing on the IAM vertical </li></ul>
    38. 38. Organisations’ IT Security Challenges 05/21/10 Understand the Economics Construct Models Develop Policy (Trusted) IT infrastructure Risk, Assurance, Compliance Threats, Investments Decide & Deploy Technology HP Confidential validation regulation
    39. 39. Identity Analytics - Overview <ul><li>Problem: How to derive and justify the </li></ul><ul><li>IAM strategy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much should we spend on IAM? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to invest? Multiple choices: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisioning vs. Biometrics vs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy Mgmt … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the impact of new IT technological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>choices from security, privacy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usability and cost perspectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identity Analytics Approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System Modelling involving Processes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT Systems & Technologies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People, Behaviours, etc. along with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cause-effect relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Models & Simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to explore impact of choices and predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring the Economics angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(losses, costs, etc.) by means of Utility Functions </li></ul></ul>HPL Project Material: http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Marco_Casassa_Mont/Projects/IdentityAnalytics/IdentityAnalytics.htm
    40. 40. Identity Analytics Applied to The Cloud Models Simulations Data Analysis Decision Support Tools <ul><li>Threat Environment </li></ul><ul><li>IAM Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Security Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ Behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>Threat Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions & Facts on IAM Processes </li></ul><ul><li>- Cloud and Service Provides </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions & Facts on Security Processes </li></ul><ul><li>- Cloud and Service Providers </li></ul><ul><li>Investments </li></ul><ul><li>Choices </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation & Predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-offs </li></ul><ul><li>Economics Analysis </li></ul>Enterprise Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud Provider #1 Cloud Provider #2 Internal Cloud CRM Service … Service 3 Backup Service ILM Service Service Service Service Business Apps/Service Employee … … … The Internet
    41. 41. Identity Analytics Applied to The Cloud Case #1 Current State 0.83 0.89 0.94 0.99 0.84 0.90 0.95 1 Effort Level 3480 1032 1134 3378 4512 2281 2230 Access Accuracy Approval Accuracy Productivity Cost IDM Provisioning Costs #Internally Managed Provisioning Activities (Internal Apps) # Externally Managed Provisioning Activities (Services in the Cloud) Case #2 Case #3 Case #4 Accuracy Measures 1 Cost Measures 0.5 10000 20000 30000 40000 33855 25753 17949 10403 11200 14300 17400 20500 High-Level Metrics Tailored to Target CIOs/CISOs & Strategic decision makers Low-Level Measures Tailored to Target Domain Experts Example: Predictions of Outsourcing of IAM Services to the Cloud # Hanging Accounts # Denied Good Accounts # Misconfigured Accounts Overall Approval Time Overall Deployment Time Bypassed Approval Step
    42. 42. Security & Identity Analytics Methodology 05/21/10 HP Confidential Scientific Approach based on Modelling & Simulation Information System Empirical Data/Knowledge Conceptual Modelling Formal Modelling Information System PP&T validation Design exploration economic analysis
    43. 43. 4. TSB EnCoRe Project Consent and Revocation Management <ul><li>EnCoRe: Ensuring Consent and Revocation </li></ul><ul><li>UK TSB Project – http://www.encore-project.info/ </li></ul><ul><li>“ EnCoRe is a multi-disciplinary research project, spanning across a number of IT and social science specialisms, that is researching how to improve the rigour and ease with which individuals can grant and, more importantly, revoke their consent to the use, storage and sharing of their personal data by others” </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the Importance of Cloud Computing and its Impact on Identities and Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: Management of Personal Data (PII) and </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential Information along driven by </li></ul><ul><li>Consent & Revocation </li></ul>
    44. 44. Identity Data + Consent/Revocation Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud Provider #1 Cloud Provider #2 CRM Service Delivery Service Service 3 Backup Service ILM Service User … … … The Internet Identity Data & Credentials + Consent/Revocation Identity Data & Credentials + Consent/Revocation Identity Data & Credentials + Consent/Revocation
    45. 45. Consent and Revocation Lifecycle
    46. 46. EnCoRe: Explicit Management of Consent and Revocation Data Storage Service Office Apps On Demand CPUs Printing Service Cloud Provider #1 Cloud Provider #2 CRM Service … Service 3 Backup Service ILM Service User … … … The Internet EnCoRe Toolbox EnCoRe ToolBox EnCoRe ToolBox EnCoRe ToolBox EnCoRe ToolBox
    47. 47. EnCoRe: Explicit Management of Consent and Revocation
    48. 48. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Setting the Context: Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in the Cloud, Risks and Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Current Approaches and Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the Future of Identity in the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    49. 49. Conclusions <ul><li>The Cloud and Cloud Computing are Real, Happening Now! </li></ul><ul><li>Identity & Identity Management have a key role in the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be aware of Involved Issues and Risks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Lack of Control on Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Trust on Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Privacy Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Assurance and Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- New Threat Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Complexity in handling Identities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Complexity of making informed decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to re-think to the Identity Paradigm in the Cloud rather than just Adapting Current Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>New Opportunities for Research and Development of Innovative Solutions for various Stakeholders </li></ul>
    50. 50. Thanks and Q&A Contact: Marco Casassa Mont, HP Labs, [email_address]
    51. 51. 05/21/10 HP Confidential
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