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Skills Gaps in the World's IT Workforce:.doc Skills Gaps in the World's IT Workforce:.doc Document Transcript

  • Skills Gaps in the World’s IT Workforce: A CompTIA International Research Study A CompTIA White Paper Developed by The Center for Strategy Research, Inc. February 2008 1
  • Overview We are happy to share with you the results of our recent research on the IT industry, the Worldwide State of IT Skills Study. This ground-breaking research identifies trends and gaps in IT skills, explores issues surrounding recruiting and hiring, investigates the current and potential IT market growth and demand for IT professionals, and discovers which factors most influence, and are expected to influence, the IT industry. Based on the data gathered, we worked with our research partner, The Center for Strategy Research, Inc., to create a confidence index focused on the international IT job market. This index provides a clear, concise “snapshot” of, and benchmark for, IT Managers’ confidence in the growth of the IT workforce both in their own companies and worldwide. The IT industry has experienced many changes and much growth in the past decade with the fast pace of technological change and the ever-increasing globalization of business. We believe that there has been a lack of industry data on what's happening now, and that a true need exists for this type of information in the marketplace, particularly, on a global level. CompTIA wanted to fill that gap in order to gain a better understanding of our members, their needs, and how to better serve them, in addition to providing our members, and the industry in general, with this valuable information. We feel this research has many uses and audiences. Specifically, we hope this information will be valuable in helping employers address IT skills shortages; for employers to utilize as a benchmark for their own open positions, employees' skills, etc.; in guiding employers in recruiting and hiring capable employees now and for the future; in informing policy-makers, educators, and others involved in the industry of potential roles they could play; and lastly, for employees to understand what employers are looking for. 2
  • Who was Surveyed The results of this study, conducted in partnership with Center for Strategy Research, a market research firm, are based on 3,578 “IT Managers.” All are responsible for the hiring and/or managing of at least three IT employees, at companies with ten or more employees. The survey sample is comprised of a minimum of 250 IT Managers from each of the following countries: Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, South Africa, U.K., and U.S. Overall Top Respondent Job Titles (n=3578) Other Manager 13% Project/Program Manager 8% Project/Program/Team Leader 8% Director 7% Programmer/Coder/Software 6% Developer/Engineer Manager/Director of Business 5% Development Other Executive 5% CIO/CTO 5% Technical Support Specialist 4% Consultant 4% Systems Administrator 4% Owner/Principal/President/CEO 3% Field Technician/Engineer 3% Network Administrator 3% Project/Program Analyst 2% Customer Service Specialist/Engineer 2% 3
  • Respondents hold a wide range of job titles, from manager to owner/president. They represent all industries, with about one-quarter working in IT Services, and they come from various sizes of companies. Overall Industries of Respondents (n=3578) IT Services 25% Government/Public Administration 9% Other Services 9% Financial services 9% Education 8% Automotive and other manufacturing 8% Wholesale/Retail trade 7% Healthcare 5% Other IT 5% Other 4% Arts/Entertainment/Recreation 3% Mining/Construction 3% Transportation 3% n=3578 Number of Employees and Company Type Revenue/Budget 10 to 99 Employees 21% 100 to 199 Employees Not-for-Profit 35% 19% For Profit 81% 1,000+ (n=3578) Employees 44% (n=3578) For Profit Mean 2006 Revenue $145.1 million Not-for-Profit Mean 2006 Budget $76.6 million 4
  • Executive Summary • The top three most important IT skills are security (74% rating it 6 or 7 in importance on a 1-7 scale), general networking (66%) and operating systems (66%); these skills are expected to decline most in importance over the next five years. • When comparing reported proficiency in skills to importance of skills, the skill with the widest “gap” in proficiency is security/firewalls/data privacy. • By far, the skill expected to grow most in importance over the next five years is RF mobile, wireless technology (39% say it will be important one year from now vs. 55% say it will be important five years from now). • When asked what their organizations should be doing to enhance employees’ IT skills, the top two answers are sending employees for professional training externally (42%), and providing incentives, rewards (41%). Also important (third in order of importance) is sending employees for certification (36%). • IT managers currently report and anticipate future increase of their staffs (46% currently say increasing, 52% one year from now, and 64% five years from now), the IT workforce of their countries (57% currently say increasing, 59% one year from now, 62% five years from now) and the IT workforce worldwide (65% say currently increasing, 68% for both one year from now and five years from now). • The plurality of respondents (38%) report there are not enough qualified IT candidates in their countries. • Programmers/coders/developers (25%) are the positions most likely to be open, and Quality Assurance positions are the least likely to be open. • An index was created to enable comparisons in confidence about the growth of the IT workforce among different groups. While IT managers overall are “bullish” about the growth of IT workforces, India, China, Russia and Poland are more confident in that growth than other countries, those in the IT industry are more confident than those in other industries, and small companies are more confident than mid-size or large companies. • The fast pace of technological change (52%), budget constraints (51%), security and compliance (48%), and consumer needs (47%) are currently the top factors driving change in the IT industry. • An aging workforce is the least important factor now (21%), but is anticipated to grow most in importance five years from now (45%). 5
  • Security Skills are the Most Important IT Skills - with the Largest “Gap” between Importance and Proficiency Currently, IT managers report that the most important IT skill is security/firewalls/data privacy. Security skills are followed by general networking, network infrastructure; and operating systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.). In comparison, skills less important to IT managers are RF mobile/wireless technology, Web- based technologies and “specific programming languages.” In the middle, in terms of importance, are hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.), non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, maintenance, administration, etc.), “soft” skills (customer service, sales, project management, communication, etc.), and application-level (architecture, design, development, programming, integration, etc.). Thinking of your organization ’ s IT employees, please rate the importance of each of the following skills, on a 1- 7 scale. (Percent saying 6 or 7) How proficient are your IT employees in the following areas, on a 1- 7 scale? (Percent saying 6 or 7). Gaps are calculated by subtracting “ proficiency ” from “importance. ” % % Proficient Overall: IT Skills in Respondent's Organization Important Gap (n=3578) (n=3578) Security/firewalls/data privacy 74% 57% 17 General networking, network infrastructure 66% 59% 7 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) 66% 65% 1 Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.) 57% 60% -3 Non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, maintenance, 57% 49% 8 administration, etc.) “Soft” skills (customer service, sales, project management, communication, 56% 45% 11 etc.) Application-level (architecture, design, development, programming, 54% 47% 7 integration, etc.) Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.) 40% 40% 0 Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, SaaS, RIAs, Ajax, etc.) 40% 34% 6 RF mobile/wireless technology 27% 26% 1 “Gaps” in skills were assessed by subtracting the percentage of respondents saying employees are proficient in a skill from the percentage saying that skill is important. Security, which is viewed as the most important skill, has the greatest gap between importance and proficiency, indicating that the supply of these skills is not meeting demand. 6
  • Security skills show the largest gap between importance and proficiency across most countries in the study. It is also the skill with the largest gap between importance and proficiency across all company sizes, and across all key industry groupings. Overall, other skills with significant gaps between importance and proficiency are soft skills (customer service, sales, project management, communication, etc.) and non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, maintenance, administration, etc.). The skills currently without gaps include, hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.), specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.), operating systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) and RF mobile/wireless technology. 7
  • Skills Gaps by Country In all countries surveyed, security skills have either the largest or second largest gap between importance and proficiency. North America and Western Europe Thinking of your organization ’ s IT employees, please rate the importance of each of the following skills, on a 1- 7 scale. (Percent saying 6 or 7) How proficient are your IT employees in the following areas, on a 1- 7 scale? (Percent saying 6 or 7). Gaps are calculated by subtracting “proficiency ” from “ importance. ” Nether- U.K. France Italy U.S. Canada Germany lands Largest Gaps in Skills by Country (n=251 (n=251 (n=250 (n=253) (n=253) (n=259) (n=251 ) ) ) ) Security/firewalls/data privacy 9 16 16 12 13 18 17 General networking, network infrastructure 4 2 5 1 0 7 3 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) -6 -3 1 -6 -2 4 0 Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.) -3 -4 5 -20 -3 -5 -9 Non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, 3 7 7 2 1 10 4 maintenance, administration, etc.) “Soft” skills (customer service, sales, project 13 13 9 10 -1 4 17 management, communication, etc.) Application-level (architecture, design, development, 9 6 7 1 -1 1 19 programming, integration, etc.) Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.) -6 0 1 -6 -2 -1 -3 Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, SaaS, RIAs, 6 7 5 4 1 3 6 Ajax, etc.) RF mobile/wireless technology -6 3 -1 1 -5 4 1 Eastern Europe, Asia, Australia and South Africa Polan Japa S. Russia India China Australi d n Africa Largest Gaps in Skills by Country (n=263 (n=25 (n=26 a (n=26 (n- 25 (n=26 ) 5) 3) (n=253) 0) 6) 0) Security/firewalls/data privacy 11 20 19 24 23 20 21 General networking, network infrastructure 1 19 7 5 12 13 15 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) -1 -4 8 4 5 9 15 Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.) -5 8 -3 -4 2 11 13 Non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, 9 11 4 7 10 14 22 maintenance, administration, etc.) “Soft” skills (customer service, sales, project management, 9 7 10 16 15 19 23 communication, etc.) Application-level (architecture, design, development, 5 4 8 8 6 9 17 programming, integration, etc.) Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.) -6 -2 -1 2 2 10 15 Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, SaaS, RIAs, Ajax, etc.) 0 5 7 12 4 10 15 RF mobile/wireless technology -1 -1 4 5 -1 4 10 8
  • After security skills, more countries are experiencing larger gaps in “soft skills” than any other skill. South Africa reports the greatest number of skills gaps, with large gaps (of 10 points or more) between importance and proficiency on all skills listed. Australia reports the second most number of large gaps. Skills Gaps by Company Size The largest gap in IT skills across all company sizes is in security/ firewalls/data privacy. For small and large companies, “soft” skills (customer service, sales, project management, communication, etc.) is also an area with significant gaps between importance and proficiency. Small companies are those with 10 to 99 employees, mid-size have 100 to 999 employees, and large companies have 1000 or more employees. Thinking of your organization ’ s IT employees, please rate the importance of each of the following skills, on a 1- 7 scale. (Percent saying 6 or 7) How proficient are your IT employees in the following areas, on a 1- 7 scale? (Percent saying 6 or 7). Gaps are calculated by subtracting “ proficiency ” from “importance. ” Large Small Mid- Size Largest Gaps in Skills by Company Size (n=1566 (n=750) (n=1262) ) Security/firewalls/data privacy 21 17 16 General networking, network infrastructure 5 6 8 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) 0 0 0 Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.) -4 -5 -2 Non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, maintenance, 4 9 9 administration, etc.) “Soft” skills (customer service, sales, project management, communication, 12 7 15 etc.) Application-level (architecture, design, development, programming, 6 5 9 integration, etc.) Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.) 0 0 1 Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, SaaS, RIAs, Ajax, etc.) 6 4 8 RF mobile/wireless technology 1 0 2 Skill areas with the smallest gaps (the smallest difference between importance and proficiency) are hardware skills, operating systems, specific programming languages, and RF mobile wireless technology. Most companies, regardless of size, appear to have employees with sufficient proficiency in these areas. 9
  • Skills Gaps by Industry When segmenting by industry, more skills gaps become apparent than when segmenting by company size. Security skills are again the skills with the largest gap between importance and proficiency for each industry profiled. Each of these industries also shows 10 point or more gaps in the area of soft skills. In the education sector, there are also 10 point or more skills gaps in the areas of general networking, operating systems, and non-specific server technology. In financial services, high gaps are seen in non-specific server technology and Web-based technologies. In government, skills gaps are high in the areas of general networking, non-specific server technology, and Web- based technologies. Large gaps in healthcare include general networking, non-specific server technology, and application-level skills. Thinking of your organization ’ s IT employees, please rate the importance of each of the following skills, on a 1- 7 scale. (Percent saying 6 or 7) How proficient are your IT employees in the following areas, on a 1- 7 scale? (Percent saying 6 or 7). Gaps are calculated by subtracting “ proficiency ” from “importance. ” Auto/ Financial Gov't/Pub Health Education IT Largest Gaps in Skills by Key Industries Mnfctrng Svcs Admin care (n=267) (n=1062) (n=284) (n=318) (n=322) (n=171) Security/firewalls/data privacy 18 20 16 19 19 15 General networking, network infrastructure 7 13 6 12 15 3 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, 0 10 0 8 7 0 Vista, etc.) Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, -4 0 1 1 6 -7 PCs, etc.) Non-specific server technology (including DB, 5 11 10 15 14 4 storage, maintenance, administration, etc.) “Soft” skills (customer service, sales, project 13 10 10 12 10 13 management, communication, etc.) Application-level (architecture, design, 7 2 9 9 15 7 development, programming, integration, etc.) Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, -3 -2 3 4 2 0 Java, etc.) Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, 3 7 13 11 9 6 SaaS, RIAs, Ajax, etc.) RF mobile/wireless technology -1 4 1 3 1 0 Again, hardware skills, specific programming languages and wireless technology are skill areas that currently have the least need for additional training across industries. 10
  • Wireless Skills are Expected to Grow Most in Importance Over the Next Five Years Only three skills are expected to grow in importance over the next five years, while all other skills are expected to decline in importance. By far, the skill expected to grow most in importance over the next five years is RF mobile, wireless technology. It is expected to be as important as security skills and Web-based technologies in five years. Wireless is currently the skill rated as least important by IT Managers. Which of the following skills will be most important to your organization in its IT employees one year from now (2008) and five years from now (2012)? (Percent saying yes) Rank in Important in Important in Trend in Overall: IT Skills in Respondent's Organization Current One Year Five Years Importance (n=3578) (n=3578) Importance Security/firewalls/data privacy 1 68% 54% -14 General networking, network infrastructure 2 63% 48% -15 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) 2 62% 45% -17 Soft skills (customer service, sales, project 4 60% 51% -9 management, communication, etc.) Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, 3 59% 40% -19 etc.) Application-level (architecture, design, development, 5 57% 52% -5 programming, integration, etc.) Non-specific server technology (including DB, 3 56% 49% -7 storage, maintenance, administration, etc.) Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, SaaS, 6 47% 53% 6 RIAs, Ajax, etc.) Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, 6 44% 46% 2 etc.) RF mobile/wireless technology 7 39% 55% 16 In addition to wireless, other skills expected to grow in importance are Web-based technologies and specific programming languages. All three of these skills are currently least important to IT managers. Skills expected to decline in importance over the next five years are security, networking, operating systems, soft skills, hardware skills, application-level skills, and server technology. However, security and networking are still expected to remain important. The skill expected to decline most in importance is in the area of hardware. 11
  • Trend in Importance of Skills by Country Countries most likely to say that wireless security skills will be important five years from now are Russia (64%), Australia (64%) and South Africa (68%). Japan is least likely to say wireless will be important in 5 years (34%). In all countries but South Africa and France, wireless skills are expected to increase most in importance over the next five years. Trend in Importance of Skills by Company Size For small, mid-Size and large companies, the skills expected to grow most, by far, over the next five years, are wireless skills. The only other skill expected to grow in importance by all three company sizes are Web-based technology skills. Small and mid-size companies expect that “specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.)” will grow somewhat in importance over the next five years, while large companies see these skills as declining somewhat in importance. Trend in Importance of Skills by Industry In all industries profiled: IT, financial services, healthcare, education, government/public administration, auto/manufacturing, wireless technology is expected to grow most in importance over the next five years. Health care and education organizations are even more likely than other industries to say that wireless technology will grow in importance. In the IT industry, no skill other than wireless is expected to grow in importance over the next five years. All other industries (financial services, health care, education, government/public administration, auto/manufacturing) believe that Web-based technologies and specific programming languages will also grow in importance over the next five years. Education, government/public administration and auto/manufacturing predict a minor increase in importance of application-level skills over the next five years. 12
  • IT Managers Recommend External Training and Internal Incentives and Rewards to Enhance Employees’ IT Skills In light of current skills proficiencies, and in anticipating which skills will increase in importance in the next five years, IT Managers say that their companies should enhance IT skills in a number of ways. The top recommendations are to send employees for professional training externally, and to provide incentives, rewards/recognition internally. Also recommended by more than a third of IT Managers are sending employees for certification, offering developmental programs (including mentoring, career planning, etc.), and offering professional training internally. Which of the following should your organization do more of to enhance your employees' IT skills? (Percent saying yes) Send employees for professional training externally 42 Provide incentives, rewards/recognition, etc. 41 Send employees for certification Offer developmental programs (including mentoring, career planning, etc.) 36 Offer professional training internally 36 Provide evaluations, feedback, assessments 35 Provide exposure to non-IT aspects of the business (the business, customers, etc.) 27 Provide for an “experimental component” - have employees do things on their own 26 Hire additional staff Encourage employees to work with vendors 24 Offer language and cultural training 19 Encourage employees to work with associations 19 19 n=3578 19 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Recommendations for Enhancing IT Skills by Country Countries most likely to say their organizations should be sending employees more often for external training are China (60%), India (53%), Poland (59%), and Canada (49%). Countries least likely to say this are The Netherlands (24%) and Japan (27%). 13
  • Close to Half of IT Managers Report Having Open Positions Currently How many IT employees do you have on your personal staff in the country in which you work? How many of those IT positions are open? Overall Has One or More No Open Open Positions Positions 48% 52% n=1756 Close to half of IT Managers report having at least one open position currently. The median number of IT positions, both filled and unfilled, at their companies is twenty. The median number of open IT positions in their companies is five, with a median of four positions being actively recruited. The median number of IT positions respondents report on their staffs is ten. The median number of open IT positions on IT Managers staffs is three, with two being actively recruited. Median # of IT positions (filled and unfilled) at organization in Respondent’s country: 20 Median # of open IT positions: 5 Median # of IT positions being actively recruited: 4 Median # of IT positions (filled and unfilled) on Respondent’s staff within country: 10 Median # of unfilled IT positions on staff within country: 3 Median # of IT positions on staff being actively recruited: 2 14
  • Among those IT Managers with open positions, 45% are confident, on average, that those positions will be filled in the next three months. The average number of weeks it takes to fill IT positions is seven. The positions most likely to be open include programmers and network and database administrators. Positions least likely to be open are in quality assurance, and field engineers. Confident in Filling Avg. # of Position in Weeks Overall Open IT Next 3 Position is (n=1333) Positions Months Typically (6 or 7 Open rating) Programmer/Coder/Developer 25% 48% 6.0 Programmer-Analyst 21% 42% 6.6 Network Administrator 20% 47% 5.7 Database Administrator (DBA) 19% 43% 6.4 Technical Support Specialist/Help Desk Technician 17% 52% 6.2 Systems Analyst 16% 44% 6.9 Project/Program Manager 16% 43% 7.3 Project/Program/Leader 14% 40% 7.3 Network Engineer 12% 50% 5.7 Field Technician 11% 54% 5.9 Network Technician 10% 47% 7.1 Quality Assurance (QA) Analyst 10% 49% 5.8 Field Engineer 10% 43% 5.2 Quality Assurance (QA) Manager 7% 33% 6.4 All Positions Combined N/A 45% 7.0 15
  • High-quality technical skills Someone who can work in a group environment A quick learner Previous job experience Soft skills IT Managers Are Looking For Collegial, Quick Learners (customer service, project management, etc.) In general, when filling open positions, IT Managers report that the criteria they use to hire a Education level IT employee include high-quality technical skills, someone who can work in a group new (college degree, etc.) environment, and quick learners. Certifications A personal relationship - knowing the How important are each of the following criteria in your decision to hire a new IT employee, on a 1- 7 person scale? (Percent saying 6 or 7) High-quality technical skills Someone who can work in a group environment A quick learner Previous job experience Soft skills (customer service, project management, etc.) Education level (college degree, etc.) Certifications A personal relationship - knowing the person 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Hiring Criteria by Country The U.S. (86%) and Canada (83%) are the countries most likely to say that high-quality technical skills are important when selecting new employees, followed closely by China and India (both 80%). The U.S. (81%), China (83%), and Germany (82%) are the countries most likely to say a candidate who can work in a group environment is important when selecting new employees. India (85%) and China (83%) are most likely to say finding a quick learner is important when selecting new employees, followed closely by The U.S. (79%), Canada, and Germany (both 78%). 16
  • Hiring Criteria by Company Size Large companies are more likely than small companies to use the following as criteria in selecting new IT employees: previous job experience (56% vs. 50%), certifications (28% vs. 21%), and education level (36% vs. 28%). Small companies are more likely than large companies to say a personal relationship with the candidate is an important criterion (30% vs. 23%). Hiring Criteria by Industry Financial services companies are more likely than companies in other industries (61% vs. 54%) to use previous job experience as a criterion for hiring new IT employees. IT companies are more likely (54%), and government/public administration organizations are less likely (39%) to say “soft skills” are an important hiring criterion. Education organizations are more likely than other industries to say education levels are important when hiring new employees (43% vs. 34%). Employers Believe Candidates Seek Skills Development and Growth Opportunities While IT managers are looking for employees who can “work in a group environment,” they don’t appear to think employees are looking for a “collegial, team-based environment.” The top factors employers think employees are looking for are opportunities for skills development and for growth in the company/promotion opportunities. In your experience, how important are the following factors to potential IT employees when they are deciding where to work, on a 1- 7 scale? (Percent saying 6 or 7) Opportunity for skills development Opportunity for growth in the company/promotion opportunities Stability of company and/or job High level of compensation, including benefits A challenging environment Most up-to-date technology, including hardware and/or software A collegial, team-based environment 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 17
  • Candidate Needs by Country The countries most likely to say the opportunity for skills development is important to IT job candidates are South Africa (88%) and Poland (82%). Least likely to say this are Japan (53%), and Germany (63%). Poland is the country most likely to say that a collegial, team-based environment is important (69%). Countries least likely to say this are Japan (34%), South Africa (38%), and the U.K. (39%). Candidate Needs by Company Size Employers at large and mid-Size companies are more likely than those at small companies to say that candidates are looking for opportunities for skills development (75% vs. 74% vs. 68%). Employers at large companies are more likely than those at mid-size and small companies to say employees are looking for opportunities for growth (75% vs. 71% vs. 68%). Candidate Needs by Industry Companies in the IT industry are more likely than those in other industries (69% vs. 65%) to say that IT job candidates are looking for a high level of compensation. Those in the education industry are less likely to say this (55%). They are also less likely than other industries to say candidates are looking for opportunities for growth (65% vs. 72%), and more likely than other industries to say candidates are looking for a collegial, team-based environment (58% vs. 52%). 18
  • Improved Salaries/Benefits is the Top Recommendation to Enhance Recruitment, Followed by More Funding/Promotion of Skills Development Overall, improving salaries and/or benefits is the top recommendation from IT Managers on how their organizations could enhance recruitment efforts. This is followed by the recommendation of more funding/promotion of skills development. Which of the following should your organization do to enhance its current efforts to recruit capable IT employees? (Percent saying yes) Overall (n=3578) Improve salaries and/or benefits 59% More funding/promotion of skills development 44% Be more flexible about working hours, locations, conditions 42% Ensure company has a good reputation 40% Partner with education institutes to identify promising candidates 33% Partner with education institutes to improve IT education 32% Emphasize employees' job security 31% Streamline/improve internal recruiting process 31% Have individuals pass a pre-test or screening before interviewing 30% Recommendations to Enhance Recruitment by Company Size Large companies are more likely than small companies to recommend the following: improve salaries and/or benefits (62% vs. 54%), more funding/promotion of skills development (47% vs. 40%), be more flexible about working hours, locations, conditions (46% vs. 39%), partner with education institutes to identify promising candidates (36% vs. 29%), partner with education institutes to improve IT education (35% vs. 27%), streamline/improve internal recruiting process (35% vs. 28%), and recruit in more areas, geographically speaking (22% vs. 17%). Recommendations to Enhance Recruitment by Industry IT Managers working in the IT industry are more likely than those in other industries to recommend: ensure company has a good reputation (47% vs. 40%), more marketing/advertising of job openings (31% vs. 26%), work more closely with recruiters (30% vs. 25%), recruit in more areas, geographically speaking (24% vs. 20%). 19
  • IT Managers are “Bullish” on the Growth of the IT Workforce: Some Segments May Have a Short Supply of Qualified Candidates Respondents were asked whether their staffs, the IT workforce in their countries, and worldwide, are/will be increasing, staying the same, or decreasing, currently, one year and five years from now. On all questions, the most frequently mentioned answer is “increasing.” Would you say that the number of employees on your IT staff (in the country in which you work) is currently: increasing, staying the same or decreasing? One year from now? Five years from now? Is the workforce of the IT industry in your country right now increasing, staying the same, or decreasing compared with last year? One year from now? Five years from now? Is the workforce of the IT industry worldwide right now increasing, staying the same, or decreasing compared with last year? One year from now? Five years from now? (Percent saying increasing) Overall (n=3578) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Currently One Year from Now Five Years from Now Employees on Respondent's IT Staff IT Workforce in Respondent's Country IT Workforce Worldwide 20
  • IT Managers currently report and anticipate future increase of their staffs (46% currently say increasing, 52% one year from now, and 64% five years from now), the IT workforce of their countries (57% currently say increasing, 59% one year from now, 62% five years from now) and the IT workforce worldwide (65% say currently increasing, 68% for both one year from now and five years from now). IT Managers see the greatest growth occurring on their own staffs, with an increase of 18 percentage points from currently to five years from now. This is likely the most accurate assessment of growth, since respondents are most familiar with their own staffs. While the charts in this White Paper focus on those saying “increasing”, note that in response to each question, the percent of respondents selecting the answer “decreasing” is low (in no case higher than 12% overall). This, and the primarily upward trend in expected growth of the IT workforce, indicates that IT Managers are “bullish” on growth of the IT workforce. A Plurality of IT Managers Report “Not Enough” Qualified Candidates Overall, 38% of IT Managers say there are “not enough” qualified candidates in their countries. Less than one-third (28%) say there are “just enough”, while less than one-quarter (23%) say there are more than enough qualified candidates. How many qualified IT candidates are there in the country in which you work? Overall Just enough Not enough 28% 38% More than enough 23% Don’t know 10% Growth of the IT Workforce and Availability of Candidates by Country India is more likely than other countries to say their staffs are currently increasing (83%), will increase in one year (85%), and will increase five years from now (87%). China is more likely to say this as well. Italy and France are least likely to say that their staffs are increasing now and in the future. Russia, China and India are most likely to say the IT workforce in their countries and worldwide are increasing currently and over time. France is least likely to say the national and the worldwide IT workforces are increasing now and over time. 21
  • When asked about the availability of qualified candidates, the countries most likely to say there are “not enough” are Russia (54%), Poland (53%), Japan (51%), and South Africa (49%). The countries most likely to say “more than enough” are the U.S. (31%), Italy (44%) and India (44%). While staff increases in India are expected, IT Managers in India report having more than enough candidates. On the other hand, Russia is facing an increasing IT workforce and not enough candidates. Growth of the IT Workforce and Availability of Candidates by Company Size Small companies are more likely than mid-size and Large large companies, and mid-size companies are more likely than large, companies to say that their staff will increase one year from now (58% vs. 53% vs. 49%). Both small and mid-size companies are more likely than large companies to say their IT staff will be increasing in 5 years (71% and 67% vs. 58%). Mid-Size companies are less likely than small and large companies to say there are “more than enough” candidates in their country, indicating these companies may be seeing more of a shortage of candidates during their anticipated growth. Growth of the IT Workforce and Availability of Candidates by Industry IT Managers working in the IT industry are more likely than those in all other industries to say their IT staff is/will be increasing currently (61% vs. 46%), in one year (68% vs. 52%), and in five years (71% vs. 64%). Those in IT Services are more likely than those in all industries to say the IT workforce in their country is/will be increasing currently (66% vs. 57% overall), in one year (66% vs. 59% overall), and in five years (65% vs. 62% overall). Those in IT Services are more likely to say that the IT workforce worldwide is increasing now (73% vs. 65%), and will increase in one year (74% vs. 68%). While IT Managers in the IT industry anticipate growth of their own staffs and the IT workforce in general, they are also more likely than those in other industries to say there are “not enough” qualified candidates in their country (44% vs. 38%). 22
  • CompTIA’s Worldwide IT Job Market Confidence Index IT Managers are overall “bullish” about the growth of IT workforces both now and in the future. By combining the answers to the questions focusing on whether IT workforces are increasing, staying the same or decreasing,1 an index was created by which we can compare the confidence in IT workforce growth across different groups. The index demonstrates that certain countries, company sizes and industries are more likely than others to say the IT workforce is increasing. The index for all respondents combined is set at 100, and groups are compared to “overall” to test whether differences are significant, as noted below in blue and red text. By Country Index Overall=100 India 107.3 China 105.2 Russia 104.5 Poland 101.3 South Africa 100.0 Japan 98.9 U.S. 98.7 Canada 98.6 Australia 98.3 Italy 98.3 U.K. 98.0 Germany 97.8 The Netherlands 97.7 France 94.7 1 Specific questions included are: • Would you say that the number of employees on your IT staff (in the country in which you work) is currently: increasing, staying the same or decreasing? One year from now? Five years from now? • Is the workforce of the IT industry in your country right now increasing, staying the same, or decreasing compared with last year? One year from now? Five years from now? • Is the workforce of the IT industry worldwide right now increasing, staying the same, or decreasing compared with last year? One year from now? Five years from now? 23
  • Index by Country India (107.3), China (105.2), Russia (104.2), and Poland (101.3) have indices significantly higher than overall. The countries with indices significantly lower than overall include France (94.7), The Netherlands (97.7), Germany (97.8), U.K. (98.0), Italy (98.3), Australia (98.3), Canada (98.6), and the U.S (98.7). Index by Company Size Small companies have a higher index (101.0) than overall, as well as medium (100.5) and large companies (99.1). Large companies have a lower index than overall. Index by Industry Those in the IT industry (102.0), “Other” (101.3) and wholesale/retail (100.6) have significantly higher indices than all industries combined. Respondents in Government/Public Administration have a lower index than all industries combined (98.0). Profile of IT Managers with Higher Index Scores In trying to understand why some IT managers are more confident than others about the growth of the IT industry, respondents were split into three groups: High, medium and low index scores. We then compared the answers of these groups to explain differences among them: • In terms of demographics, IT managers with higher index scores are more likely to: work at for-profits, work in the IT industry, work for smaller companies in terms of revenue and number of employees. • Those with lower index scores are more likely to work in financial services and government/public administration. • In terms of perceptions, those with lower index scores are more likely to say budget constraints are currently a factor driving the IT industry. Note: They are just as likely as medium and high confidence respondents to say budget constraints will be a factor five years from now. • Those with higher index scores are more likely to say their employees are proficient in several areas, including application-level skills, soft skills, server technology, and programming languages. They are also more likely to have open positions on their staffs, and a greater number of openings. • However, those with high index scores are most likely to say there are not enough qualified candidates in their countries. In other words, the employees are proficient, but they may have trouble finding as many as they need. 24
  • Factors Driving Change in the IT Industry The fast pace of technological change and budget constraints, followed by security and compliance, and consumer needs are currently the top factors driving change in the IT industry according to IT managers. An aging workforce is the least important factor now among those listed, but is expected to grow most in importance as a factor driving change in the IT industry over the next five years. Also expected to grow in importance are increasing globalization, and the related, global shift of IT jobs between countries across the world. Which of the following factors are currently driving the most change in the IT industry? Which will be driving the most change one year from now? Five years from now? (Percent saying yes) “ Tr end ” calculated by subtracting percent saying “ Currently ” important from percent saying important “ Five Years from Now. ” One Year Five Years Factors: Overall Currently Trend from Now from Now The fast pace of technological change 52% 51% 43% -9 Budget constraints/costs 51% 40% 30% -21 Security and compliance 48% 43% 33% -15 Consumer needs/demand for goods/services 47% 42% 33% -14 Outsourcing 37% 39% 32% -5 The convergence of various technologies 34% 42% 37% 3 Increasing globalization 33% 39% 41% 8 The global shift of IT jobs between countries and across the world 32% 36% 41% 9 An increasingly mobile workforce 31% 38% 35% 4 Open Source Software 30% 35% 34% 4 Government policies/leadership of country 27% 32% 31% 4 An aging workforce 21% 22% 45% 24 None of the above 5% 4% 6% 1 25
  • Factors Driving Change by Country The U.S., Russia, and South Africa are more likely than other countries to say the fast pace of change will be a driver over time (U.S. 57% currently, 61% in one year, 51% in five years; Russia 57% currently, 59% in one year, 53% in five years; SA 72% currently, 63% in one year, 56% in five years). France is least likely to say the fast pace of change is a driver over time (33% currently, 41% in one year, 32% in five years). The U.S. (61%), South Africa (64%), and Italy (60%) are more likely to identify budget constraints as a driver currently, but as likely as other countries in the future. Least likely to say budget constraints are a factor currently is China (38%), but China is just as likely as other countries to say it will be a factor in the future. Factors Driving Change by Company Size Large companies are more likely than mid-size and small companies to say the following factors are currently driving change in the IT industry: The fast pace of technological change (55% vs. 50% vs. 49%), budget constraints/costs (54% vs. 50% vs. 47%), outsourcing (41% vs. 34% vs. 36%), increasing globalization (37% vs. 31% vs. 29%), and the global shift of IT jobs between countries and across the world (35% vs. 29% vs. 31%). Large companies are more likely to say the fast past of technological change and outsourcing will be important factors five years from now. Factors Driving Change By Industry IT Managers working in the IT industry are more likely to say that the following factors are currently driving change in the IT industry: outsourcing (46% vs. 37%) and increasing globalization (36% vs. 30%). They are less likely to say budget constraints/costs are a factor (48% vs. 51%). Five years from now, they are more likely to say the following factors will be important: increasing generalization (45% vs. 41%), the global shift of IT jobs (44% vs. 41%), Open Source Software (41% vs. 34%), and consumer needs (38% vs. 33%). IT Managers in the health care industry are more likely than those in other industries to say budget constraints/costs are a factor (63% vs. 51%), and less likely to say convergence of various technologies (26% vs. 34%) and globalization are factors (23% vs. 32%). IT Managers in the education industry are more likely to say that the convergence of various technologies will be an important factor five years from now (42% vs. 37%). 26
  • “Established” and “Emerging” Countries In analyzing the data from the online study, we found that two groups of countries, shown below, tended to answer in the same way in almost every case. Answers differed significantly between these two groups of countries 91% of the time. "Established" Countries "Emerging" (n=2277) Countries (n=1301) U.S. U.K. South Africa The Netherlands Russia Japan Poland Italy India Germany China France Canada Australia Emerging Countries Report More Skills Gaps Gaps in skills were assessed by subtracting the percentage of respondents saying employees are proficient in this skill from the percentage saying that skill is important. Security, which is viewed as the most important skill, has the greatest gap between importance and proficiency, indicating that the supply of these skills is not meeting demand. Established Countries have just two skills with gaps between importance and proficiency of 8 or more percentage points (security and “soft skills”), while Emerging Countries have six skills with gaps of 8 percentage points or more (security, general networking, soft skills, server technology, application-level, and web-based technologies). This indicates that Emerging Countries may be having problems meeting the IT workforce demands they are facing. 27
  • The most important skill for Established Countries, security, is the skill with the largest “gap” between importance (73%) and proficiency (57%), a gap of 16 percentage points. The other largest gap for Established Countries is in “soft skills,” with 52% saying this is an important skill, 41% saying employees are proficient, for a gap of 11 percentage points. For Emerging Countries, security is the most important skill, with 76% saying it is important. Only 59% say their employees are proficient in this skill, with a gap of 19 percentage points. The second largest gap for Emerging Countries is in the area of soft skills, with 63% saying these skills are important, and 51% saying employees are proficient in this area, a gap of 13 percentage points. Thinking of your organization ’ s IT employees, please rate the importance of each of the following skills, on a 1- 7 scale. (Percent saying 6 or 7) How proficient are your IT employees in the following areas, on a 1- 7 scale? (Percent saying 6 or 7) % Important % Proficient Established: IT Skills in R espondent's O rganiz ation G ap (n=2277) (n=2277) Security/firewalls/data privacy 73% 57% 16 General networking, network infrastructure 64% 59% 5 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) 63% 63% 0 Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.) 57% 61% -4 Non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, maintenance, 55% 49% 6 administration, etc.) “Soft” skills (customer service, sales, project management, communication, etc.) 52% 41% 11 Application-level (architecture, design, development, programming, integration, 51% 45% 6 etc.) Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.) 38% 39% -1 Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, SaaS, RIAs, Ajax, etc.) 37% 32% 5 RF mobile/wireless technology 26% 27% -1 % Important % Proficient Emerging: IT Skills in R espondent's O rganization G ap (n=1301) (n=1301) Security/firewalls/data privacy 76% 57% 19 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) 71% 67% 4 General networking, network infrastructure 69% 60% 9 “Soft” skills (customer service, sales, project management, communication, etc.) 63% 51% 13 Non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, maintenance, 60% 50% 10 administration, etc.) Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.) 58% 60% -2 Application-level (architecture, design, development, programming, integration, 58% 50% 8 etc.) Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, SaaS, RIAs, Ajax, etc.) 45% 37% 8 Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.) 43% 41% 2 RF mobile/wireless technology 28% 25% 4 28
  • Emerging Countries Place Greater Importance on Most Skills Over Five Years Emerging Countries are more likely to say every skill listed will be more important one year from now than Established countries, and more likely to say every skill but networking and soft skills will be important in five years. For Established Countries, the skills expected to decline most in importance are security, networking, operating systems, hardware skills. Security, though declining in importance is still expected to be the most important skill in five years, “tied” in importance with wireless skills. For Emerging Countries, the skills expected to decline most in importance are networking, operating systems and hardware skills, followed by security and soft skills. Security is still, however, expected to be the second most important in five years, following wireless skills, and “tied” in importance with web-based technologies. Which of the following skills will be most important to your organization in its IT employees one year from now (2008) and five years from now (2012)? (Percent saying yes) Rank in Important in Important in Trend in Established: IT Skills in Respondent's O rganiz ation Current O ne Year Five Years Importance Importance (n=2277) (n=2277) Security/firewalls/data privacy 1 66% 52% -14 General networking, network infrastructure 2 59% 47% -13 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) 3 57% 43% -15 “Soft” skills (customer service, sales, project management, communication, etc.) 6 57% 50% -6 Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.) 4 54% 38% -16 Application-level (architecture, design, development, programming, integration, 7 52% 50% -2 etc.) Non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, maintenance, 5 50% 44% -6 administration, etc.) Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, SaaS, RIAs, Ajax, etc.) 9 43% 51% 8 Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.) 8 40% 42% 2 RF mobile/wireless technology 10 37% 52% 15 29
  • Rank in Important in Important in Trend in Emerging: IT Skills in Respondent's Organiz ation Current O ne Year Five Years Importance Importance (n=1301) (n=1301) Security/firewalls/data privacy 1 72% 58% -14 General networking, network infrastructure 3 70% 49% -21 Operating Systems (Linux, Windows, XP, Vista, etc.) 2 69% 48% -21 “Soft” skills (customer service, sales, project management, communication, etc.) 4 67% 53% -14 Hardware skills/knowledge (including printers, PCs, etc.) 6 66% 45% -21 Application-level (architecture, design, development, programming, integration, 6 65% 56% -9 etc.) Non-specific server technology (including DB, storage, maintenance, 5 65% 57% -8 administration, etc.) Web-based technologies (Web2.0, SOA, SaaS, RIAs, Ajax, etc.) 7 55% 58% 3 Specific programming languages (non-MSFT, Java, etc.) 8 52% 53% 1 RF mobile/wireless technology 9 43% 62% 19 30
  • Emerging Countries Are More Likely to Say IT Workforces Are Increasing Established Countries see a continued upward trend in growth of their staffs, IT workforces in their country and worldwide, though they start from a lower level of optimism than Emerging Countries. Emerging Countries, on the other hand, start at a higher level of optimism, but see a lack of growth over the next five years, which may mean they are predicting that the supply of IT workers will be unable to meet demand. Would you say that the number of employees on your IT staff (in the country in which you work) is currently: increasing, staying the same or decreasing? One year from now? Five years from now? Is the workforce of the IT industry in your country right now increasing, staying the same, or decreasing compared with last year? One year from now? Five years from now? Is the workforce of the IT industry worldwide right now increasing, staying the same, or decreasing compared with last year? One year from now? Five years from now? (Percent saying increasing) Established Countries Emerging Countries (n=2277) (n=1301) 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 Currently One Year from Now Five Years from Now 0 Currently One Year from Now Five Years from Now Employees on Respondent's IT Staff Employees on Respondent's IT Staff IT Workforce in Respondent's Country IT Workforce in Respondent's Country IT Workforce Worldwide IT Workforce Worldwide 31
  • Emerging Countries Are More Likely to Recommend Enhanced Ways to Recruit IT Employees When asked what actions their organizations should take to enhance recruitment, the top response is to improve salaries and benefits. Emerging Countries are much more likely (72%) to recommend improving salaries and benefits than Established Countries (51%). They are also more likely to recommend every other action on the list, further underscoring the pressure they may be feeling to meet recruitment demands. Emerging Countries selected an average of 5.3 responses per respondent, while Established Countries selected an average of 3.9 responses, which may indicate a stronger desire for change on the part of Emerging Countries. Established Countries are more likely than Emerging Countries to say nothing needs to be done right now to enhance recruitment (7% vs. 3%). Which of the following should your organization do to enhance its current efforts to recruit capable IT employees? (Percent saying yes) Established Emerging (n=2277) (n=1301) Improve salaries and/or benefits 51% 72% More funding/promotion of skills development 38% 54% Be more flexible about working hours, locations, conditions 40% 46% Ensure company has a good reputation 34% 52% Partner with education institutes to identify promising candidates 29% 40% Partner with education institutes to improve IT education 28% 39% Emphasize employees' job security 29% 36% Streamline/improve internal recruiting process 28% 36% Have individuals pass a pre-test or screening before interviewing 24% 41% More marketing/advertising of job openings 24% 28% Work more closely with recruiters 20% 34% Recruit in more areas, geographically speaking 17% 25% Require certification 12% 18% Work more closely with trade orgs 11% 10% Nothing more needs to be done right now 7% 3% 32
  • Methodology The Worldwide State of IT Skills Study was conducted via the Internet. In November 2007, a third-party B2B panel provider sent an email to selected panelists inviting them to participate in the online survey. By December 6, 2007, a total of 3,578 respondents had completed the survey. In order to increase accuracy and response rate, the survey was translated into native languages in the following non-English speaking countries: China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Poland, Russia, and The Netherlands. For all other countries, the survey was conducted in English. The study was conducted by The Center for Strategy Research, Inc. (CSR), a Boston-based, independent, market research firm. Prior to the study, CSR conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with IT Managers, and then, using its proprietary coding process, CSR created the answer sets to the quantitative, online survey by coding verbatim responses. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Complete reports are available to CompTIA corporate members via logging into CompTIA’s Members Only Area at http://members.comptia.org. The information contained throughout these studies is proprietary to CompTIA. No portion of these studies may be reproduced in any form without the expressed written permission of CompTIA. However, small segments of no more than one paragraph in length may be quoted if proper citation is made. For more information, please contact research@comptia.org. 33