SaaSy API (Openness in the Cloud) or Approaches to Exploiting the Potential of Cloud Computing and APIs Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath, UK UKOLN is supported by: This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence (but note caveat) Acceptable Use Policy Recording of this talk, taking photos, discussing the content using email, instant messaging, blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised. Resources bookmarked using ' mw2009-kelly-workshop ' tag Email: [email_address] Twitter: http://twitter.com/briankelly/ Blog: http://ukwebfocus.wordpress.com/ http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/cultural-heritage/events/mw-2009/workshop/
“ What are the potential benefits which Open APIs and Software as a Service (SaaS) seek to provide? What about the associated risks in moving from an environment in which software is installed and managed either locally or by a hosting agency with formal contractual agreements to a environment in which there may be no formal agreements, the services may be hosted in different countries and governed by different legal frameworks? And at a time of global economic uncertainties, is it sensible to be seeking to make use of Open APIs and SaaS? …”
Workshop will “ explore strategies for exploiting the benefits of and managing the risks associated with these services ”.
allowing users to obtain a wide range of functional capabilities
on a ‘pay-as-you-go’ basis
that previously required tremendous hardware/software investments
and professional skills to acquire.”
Via Irving Wladawsky-Berger
Amazon Web Services:
CPU: 1.0Ghz x86 @ $0.11 /hour
Blob Storage @ $0.12 /GB month
External Data Transfer @ $0.10 /GB
Used, for example, by Slideshare.net
What About SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, etc?
“ The concept incorporates infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS) as well as Web 2.0 and other recent (ca. 2007–2009) technology trends which have the common theme of reliance on the Internet for satisfying the computing needs of the users.”
Introduction Wikipedia “ Everything as a service ( EaaS , XaaS , *aaS ) is a concept of being able to call up re-usable, fine-grained software components across a network” Wikipedia “ I think there is a world market for maybe five computers ” Thomas Watson mis-quote Wikipedia
SaaS: Model of software deployment where provider licenses an application to customers for use as a service on demand. SaaS software vendors may host application on their own web servers or download the application to consumer’s device.
PaaS: Delivery of a computing platform and solution stack as a service. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.
IaaS: Delivery of computer infrastructure (typically a platform virtualization environment) as a service … an evolution of Web hosting.
Peter Laird’s ‘ Cloud Map’
Introduction Wikipedia Programmeable Web
What is missing from this introduction to the Cloud, SaaS, Open APIs?
Why The Interest?
Small group exercise
What benefits can use of ‘the cloud’ provide?
Why should museums publish open APIs for their services?
Why should museums consume open APIs provided by others?
Include both tangible examples & possibilities
Case studies illustrating benefits of the Cloud and open APIs (from Sebastian Chan, Powerhouse Museum).
The Challenges Challenges: Web 2.0 (and Clouds, APIs, …?) Resources Expertise Time Money Understanding Legal Issues IT Services Colleagues Management Accessibility Sustainability Reliability Cultural issues Technical Issues Interoperability Privacy, DPA, FOI, .. Council Barriers
What About The Barriers?
Small group exercise
What problems might be envisaged in making use of ‘ cloud services ’?
What are the dangers in museums publishing open APIs for their services?
What are the dangers in museums consuming open APIs provided by others?
What approaches can be taken to addressing such problems and minimising the dangers?
What Do We Mean By ‘Risk’?
“ Risk is a concept that denotes the precise probability of specific eventualities”
When should we take risks?
If the probability is low
If the dangers are insignificant
If the context if appropriate
But what if human life is at risk:
In the army
Driving a car
Travelling on the train
We can’t ignore the context , the potential benefits and the costs
Core vs Chore
What type of services can you provide via the cloud?
Chore services : Services you have to provide even though they aren’t part of your organisation’s key mission (e.g. email, payroll, …). Keep the core services that you care about in-house.
Core services : Services key to organisation’s mission. Global organisations (Google, Amazon, etc.) are better placed to provide such services, especially if you have limited technical expertise, resources, … Keep the chore services in-house, allowing you to manage internal IT services.
Barriers From David Harrison, (Cardiff Uni.) and developed by Paul Walk What’s the most appropriate context for museum services?
What happens if SaaS services:
Change their terms and conditions (e.g start charging)?
Things to remember:
Services may be unreliable e.g. Twitter
Market pressure is leading to changes to T&C – & paid-for services may become free (e.g. Friends Reunited)
Banks may go bankrupt too – but we still use them
Need for risk assessment and risk management
What happens if SaaS services host your data and:
You can’t get the data back out?
You only get the unstructured or poor quality data back out?
You can’t get the comments, annotations, tags out?
There’s a need to:
Ensure data export capabilities or
Upload data from an alternative managed sources
Understand limitations of data export / import and make plans around limitations
What strategies do we need for exploiting the benefits of Cloud services and open APIs whilst minimising the risks?
Interested in exploiting the Cloud and Open APIs in your organisation?
Worried about corporate inertia, power struggles, etc?
There’s a need for a deployment strategy:
Addressing business needs
Encouraging the enthusiasts
Gain experience of the browser tools – and see what you’re missing!
Staff training & development
Risk and opportunity management strategy
JISC infoNet Risk Management infoKit:
“ In education, as in any other environment, you can’t decide not to take risks: that simply isn’t an option in today’s world. All of us take risks and it’s a question of which risks we take ”
Examples of people who are likely to be adverse stakeholders:
People who fear loss of their jobs
People who will require re-training
People who may be moved to a different department / team
People .. required to commit resources to the project
People who fear loss of control over a function or resources
People who will have to do their job in a different way
People who will have to carry out new or additional functions
People who will have to use a new technology
IWMW 2006 & Risk Management
IWMW 2006 has taken a risk management approach to its evaluation of Web 2.0 technologies:
Agreements : e.g. in the case of the Chatbot.
Use of well-established services : Google & del.icio.us are well-established and have financial security.
Notification : warnings that services could be lost.
Engagement : with the user community: users actively engage in the evaluation of the services.
Provision of alternative services: multiple OMPL tools.
Use in non-mission critical areas: not for bookings!
Long term experiences of services: usage stats
Availability of alternative sources of data : e.g. standard Web server log files.
Data export and aggregation: RSS feeds, aggregated in Suprglu, OPML viewers, etc.
JISC U&I programme is encouraging establishment of “Critical Friends”
See <http://critical-friends.org/> Paul Walk (UKOLN) was described as a ‘critical friend’ of JISC See <http://dev8d.jiscinvolve.org/2009/ 02/10/five-minute-interview-paul-walk/> But is such open debate encouraged in other sectors? See <https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin? A2=ind0903&L=MCG&T=0&F=&S=&P=19929>
Towards a Framework
“ Time To Stop Doing and Start Thinking: A Framework For Exploiting Web 2.0 Services ”, Museums & the Web 2009 conference
Use of approach in two scenarios: use of Twitter & Facebook
Note personal biases! Intended Purpose Benefits (various stakeholders Risks (various stakeholders Missed Opps. (various stakeholders Costs (various stakeholders Community support Rapid feedback Justify ROI Org. brand Community- building Low? Twitter for individuals Organisational Fb Page Marketing events,… Large audiences Ownership, privacy, lock-in Marketing opportunity Low?
Paul Walk / Brian Kelly blog posts)
UKOLN cultural heritage guest blog post
Use The Framework Yourself
Feel free to you apply framework to:
Services you’re planning
Large scale initiatives (e.g. Creative Spaces)
What is the purpose? Who are the users? What are the benefits? To whom? What are the risks? To whom? What are the risks of doing nothing? What are the costs – to developers, to users,… Remember the biases! Is the service really intended to sustain the service provider? Remember the need for the critical friend and the need for sharing? Intended Purpose Benefits (various stakeholders Risks (various stakeholders Missed Opps. (various stakeholders Costs (various stakeholders