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  • 1. The Two Worlds of FRBR And the Best of Both Worlds October 9, 2008 Dr. Vinod Chachra, President & CEO VTLS Inc. Blacksburg, VA, USA
  • 2. VTLS HQ in Blacksburg, VA, USA
  • 3. About VTLS Inc.
    • First spin-off corporation from Virginia Tech (VT) - Virginia’s largest University – home of System X - 3 rd fastest Supercomputer in the world when built from 1100 PCs purchased off the web. Total cost under $5M.
    • Vinod Chachra served as VP for Information Tech at VT.
    • VTLS has offices in 7 countries; does business in 40.
    • VTLS has three major product lines
      • Virtua – Alexandria Egypt; many National Libraries
      • VITAL – Fedora based Institutional Repository – developed in partnership with the Australian ARROW project.
      • VTRAX – RFID based tracking & security systems for libraries
  • 4. VTLS is a Worldwide Company Partner or Office* Locations
    • Australia*
    • Brazil*
    • Brunei
    • Egypt
    • France
    • Greece
    • India*
    • Kuwait
    • Malaysia*
    • Philippines
    • Russia
    • Slovakia
    • Spain – European HQ*
    • Switzerland*
    • Tunisia
    • Taiwan
    • Thailand
    • UAE
    • USA*
  • 5. Select Customers: National Libraries
    • Europe: National Library of Switzerland
    • Europe: National Library of Wales
    • Europe: National Library of Ireland
    • Europe: Royal Library of Belgium
    • Europe: National Library of Slovakia
    • Europe: National Union catalog of Poland
    • Africa: Library of Alexandria (Egypt)
    • Africa: Notional Library of Morocco
    • Asia: National Library of India
    • Asia: National Library of Indonesia
    • Asia: National Library of Malaysia
    • Union Catalogs (regional) of Catalan and Switzerland
  • 6. Work Work Expression Manifestation Item WW FRBR Link Types: Group 1 WE E W E M M E M I I M
  • 7. Responsibility Relationships Person / Corporate Body FRBR Link Types: Group 2 Item Manifestation Expression Work R e a l i zed b y P r o d u c ed b y Cr e a t ed b y Owned b y
  • 8. A little History – Back in June/July 2003.
  • 9. VTLS shared 11 educational Power Points
    • All 11 Power Points produced in 2003 were provided freely on the VTLS web site as an educational tool
    • Several Library schools used these power points to teach students on the details of FRBR with concrete examples
    • The examples covered the following topics
      • A FRBR demonstration (FRBR1)
      • FRBR Cataloging (FRBR2)
      • FRBR OPAC (FRBR3)
      • FRBR Work to Work Links (FRBR4)
      • FRBR Multi Volume Sets (FRBR5)
      • FRBR series (FRBR6)
      • FRBR Collected and Selected Publications (FRBR7)
      • FRBR Music Analytics (FRBR8)
      • FRBR Journal Indexing (FRBR9)
      • FRBR Super Works (FRBR10)
      • FRBR Circulation Requests (FRBR11)
  • 10. VTLS purchased LC Music Database
    • As a demonstration project, VTLS purchased the LC music database and FRBRized it to show the power and utility of FRBR. VTLS provided this free to the public for a period of time.
  • 11. Present status of VTLS FRBR
    • In the last five years VTLS has sold only about 20 contracts for FRBR.
    • The view in the library community seems to be that FRBR is still an experimental idea (wrong!) with an unknown future (wrong again!).
    • Nevertheless, this is preventing rapid deployment of systems.
    • Recent Important Additions
    • VTLS recently developed FRBR SaaS (Software as a Service)
    • VTLS extended FRBR concept to create an Archival System
  • 12. Two World Views of FRBR
    • There are two world views on FRBR
      • First View : The catalog should contain the “flat”records (as they are now) and these records should be FRBRized on the fly for display purposes.
      • Second View : The catalog should contain separate record of works, expressions, manifestations and items that are linked together by appropriate linking fields to form a “hierarchy” of linked records.
  • 13. Strengths of First View
      • First View : The catalog should contain the “flat”records (as they are now) and these records should be FRBRized on the fly for display purposes.
    • It is simple to implement – does not require any changes to present cataloging practices and therefore it is easier to sell.
    • Requires no change in ILS data base structures as the record is only collocated on display.
    • As FRBR display management algorithms improve, no change in data is required to improve the display
  • 14. Weaknesses of First View
    • The hierarchical results are built on the fly. Display algorithms have to be perfect as there is no possibility of intellectual intervention by humans to improve the displayed result sets. No advantages are gained in cataloging
    • No possibility of making requests (Holds, ILLs)
      • At the work level (eg: user is willing to accept any expression of the work in any language) OR
      • At expression level (eg: user is will accept any edition of the work in the language of choice). At present Holds and ILLs are placed at the manifestation level.
    • Multiple calculations – each time a FRBR record is displayed it has to be re-assembled from flat records.
    • Reverse tree displays are not easily possible
  • 15. Strengths of Second View
      • Second View : The catalog should contain separate record of works, expressions, manifestations and items that are linked together by appropriate linking fields to form a “hierarchy” of linked records.
    • The record system matches the FRBR model
    • Substantial productivity improvements in cataloging
    • Fewer errors -- as data related to works and expressions are not repeated at lower levels
    • Since the data at each level can be manually changed if needed, improvements are possible by human intervention (eg: handling spelling and language variations)
    • Holds/ILLs can be placed at three levels instead of just one.
    • Reverse trees can be easily displayed.
    • Many other creative things are possible (The example of Archival Systems being used at National Library of Wales).
  • 16. Weaknesses of Second View
    • Requires change in record structure to support linked records
    • Harder for initial implementation (see new ideas on this)
    • Requires catalogers to be retrained
      • Task can be reduced by better software
        • See VTLS cataloging work-forms for each level
        • See VTLS validation routines for each level
    • Requires “inertia” of existing implementations to be overcome
  • 17. Views expressed by LOC and others
    • A recent report published by the Library of Congress called “On the record” states: LC and the library community need to find ways of “releasing the value” of their rich historic investment in semantic data onto the Web.
    • Tomothy Dickey (OCLC) in the article “FRBRization of a Library Catalog” states: “VTLS, on the other hand, has since 2004 offered a complete product that has the potential of modifying existing MARC records – via local linking tags in 001 and 004 fields – to create FRBR relationships… The VTLS solution of adding local linking tags seems most appropriate…The Virtua module from VTLS offers a very tempting solution, but may require a change of vendors” . Not really … see VTLS FRBR SAAS.
  • 18. The Best of Both Worlds (Short Term)
    • FRBR SAAS (Software as a Service)
    • Allows library to keep their catalogs as they are
    • Allows users to see FRBR record from any traditional record
    • Allows clean and complete navigation between the traditional and FRBR record
    • Simple, no hassle solution
  • 19. Recommended Implementation Options
    • Best Solution -- Implement a full FRBR solution
      • See what UCL has done (next presentation)
      • See other FRBR examples
    • Second Best Solution – Use FRBR SAAS
      • Simple implementation
      • Quick results
      • Over time move to first solution
    • Bad Solution – Ignore the whole issue
  • 20. FRBR Cataloging Implementation
  • 21. VTLS FRBR Features
    • Single database can have FRBR and non-FRBR records
    • Display of FRBR records are in tree structure
    • System is “aware” of record type and changes displays as needed
    • Local level fields have values of W, E, and M to indicate type of FRBR record
    • 001 and 004 used as linking tags
  • 22. FRBR Cataloging
    • Creating an Original Record
      • Use FRBR work forms
      • VTLS provides three default work forms
          • Frbrwork.wfm
          • Frbrexpr.wfm
          • Frbrmanifest.wfm
      • Users can create their own work forms
      • In traditional cataloging the focus is on cataloging the manifestation as material on hand is the manifestation
          • VTLS is studying the cataloging practices to see if this remains true for FRBR
  • 23. Creating an Original Record
    • In the present implementation, the reverse order works better
    • It is best to create a “work” record first, then right click to create expression; save; right click to create a manifestation
    • Add item records to manifestations
    • Example follows
  • 24. Creating an Original Record Select appropriate work form
  • 25. Creating an Original Record Fill in appropriate data. Add or delete any tags.
  • 26. Creating an Original Record Once record is completed, save it to the database.
  • 27. Creating an Original Record The result is a FRBR Work record
  • 28.
    • Creation from existing MARC record is simple
    • Two methods
        • Create FRBR records using “one button”
        • FRBRizing icon
        • Always create FRBR records using Load Option
    Creating from an Existing Record
  • 29.
    • “ One Button” Method
      • Find record and display “View Record” window
      • Click on FRBRize icon
      • Results are Work, Expression, & Manifestation records
    Creating from an Existing Record
  • 30. Find a record Creating from an Existing Record
  • 31. Display the View Bibliographic Record window Click on the “ FRBRize” icon Tool tip for icon Creating from an Existing Record
  • 32. Creating from an Existing Record The Manifestation record
  • 33. Creating from an Existing Record The Expression record
  • 34. The Work record Creating from an Existing Record
  • 35.
    • Bring record into editor
    • Change profile to “split record”
    • Save record
    • Virtua automatically creates three records – W, E and M records from the one original record
    • The next example (Rowling) shows the process
    Load Options Method
  • 36. Load Options Method Search for Rowling
  • 37. Select Rowling from scan list Load Options Method
  • 38. Load Options Method Full record display for Rowling
  • 39. Marc record display for Rowling Click edit button to edit record Load Options Method
  • 40. Load Options Method Record in the Marc Editor
  • 41. Load Options Method Check Load Options
  • 42. Load Options Method Set Load Options for FRBR Splitting
  • 43. Load Options Method Save record to database
  • 44. Load Options Method Virtua will automatically convert all records into FRBR The Manifestation record is shown with tree expanded
  • 45. Load Options Method The Expression record
  • 46. Load Options Method The Work record
  • 47.
    • When creating FRBR records from traditional bibliographic records, you need duplicate control and merge functions for Works and Expressions
    Duplicate Control
  • 48. Duplicate Control Search for Rowling, J. K., the author of the Harry Potter books
  • 49. Duplicate Control There are English and French language copies of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. When both copies are “ FRBRized”, there should be one Work and two Expressions.
  • 50. Duplicate Control The English language record
  • 51. Duplicate Control After FRBRization, we have a Work, Expression and a Manifestation
  • 52. Duplicate Control The French language record
  • 53. The FRBRization of the French record resulted in adding an expression (for the French) to the already existing Work record. Duplicate Control
  • 54.
    • Bring up Work record (or Expression record)
    • Right Click
    • Select “Create Expression Record” (or select “Create Manifestation Record”)
    • Example follows
    Adding Expressions or Manifestations
  • 55. Adding Expressions or Manifestations Display Work record. Right click and select Create Expression Record.
  • 56. Adding Expressions or Manifestations Bib id of Work record is automatically placed in 004 of an Expression work form
  • 57. Adding Expressions or Manifestations A different language requires a new Expression record
  • 58. Adding Expressions or Manifestations A new Expression record
  • 59. Adding Expressions or Manifestations To add a new Manifestation, display the Expression. Right click and select Create Manifestation Record.
  • 60. Adding Expressions or Manifestations Bib Id of Work record is automatically placed in 004 of an Expression work form
  • 61. Adding Expressions or Manifestations After adding/ deleting tags to make the Manifestation record, save the record to the database
  • 62. Adding Expressions or Manifestations The result is a new Manifestation record
  • 63.
    • Procedure for MARC “content designation” validation of Work, Expression, and Manifestation records is same as validating non-FRBR records
    • Three new validation files for FRBR with new rules”
    • Rules can be modified by users by editing text file
    • Examples follow
    Rules Based Validation
  • 64. Rules Based Validation Validate a Work record
  • 65. Rules Based Validation Notice Rule File used
  • 66. Rules Based Validation Validate an Expression record
  • 67. Rules Based Validation Subfield l (L) is not a valid subfield for tag 245 in an Expression record
  • 68. Rules Based Validation Validate a Manifestation record
  • 69. Rules Based Validation Tag 245 is required in a Manifestation record Subfields $a and $c are not valid subfields for tag 240 in a Manifestation record
  • 70.
    • “… when the modification of a work involves a significant degree of independent … effort, the result is … a new work .” FRBR, final report
    Work to Work Links
  • 71. A FRBR SaaS Implementation http:// poseidon . vtls .com:8000/ cgi -bin/ gw _xyz/chameleon
  • 72. FRBR SaaS Example [1 of 10 Search]
  • 73. FRBR SaaS Example [2 of 10 Display]
  • 74. FRBR SaaS Example [3 of 10 Select]
  • 75. FRBR SaaS Catalog [4 of 10 Tree]
  • 76. FRBR SaaS [5 of 10 Expand Tree]
  • 77. FRBR SaaS Example [6 of 10 Navigate]
  • 78. A FRBR Reverse Tree
  • 79. FRBR Reverse Tree Example
  • 80. Reverse Tree (M to E to W)
  • 81. Advanced Navigation
  • 82. From tree to tree
  • 83. From tree to tree to tree
  • 84. … to tree to tree (Monkey Business)
  • 85. A FRBR Archival System
  • 86. Archives Management - Background
    • Archival management functionality in Virtua was a result of functional enhancement to Virtua for the National Library of Wales (NLW).
    • It was designed to allow NLW to preserve the content and arrangement of their existing archival collection materials and to maintain these collections in Virtua.
    • The functionality was first implemented in release 48 of Virtua and carried over to Release 49. In includes changes to Virtua server, client and iPortal.
  • 87. Archives Management - Background
    • Archival cataloguing differs from bibliographic cataloguing because archives, unlike most printed material, cannot be described in isolation.
    • An archive is, therefore, only fully understood only when there is knowledge of both its content, and also, its context. Content is generally understood through description, but context can only be reflected through arrangement.
    • Archival arrangement therefore involves the ordering of material to reflect its context.
    • Archival arrangement is reflected in the cataloguing through the use of a multilevel description system.
  • 88. Archives Management - Background
    • Rules for multilevel description are laid down in
    • “ ISAD(G) General International Standard Archival Description”. It has 7 core levels:
      • Fonds
      • Sub-fonds
      • Sub-sub-fond
      • Series
      • Sub-series
      • Files
      • Items
      • Not all seven levels exist at all times.
  • 89. Archives Management - Background
  • 90. Archives Management - Background
    • Although the general rules describe 7 levels at present, VTLS was interested in providing a more general solution.
    • The system takes into account the possibility that more levels could be described in the future, so the implementation had to be flexible to handle this possibility.
    • The features were also designed in such a flexible manner so that other customers, who may wish to use the functionality, but who did not wish to conform to the seven level architecture could do so.
  • 91. Cataloging Archival Material
    • Core foundation of cataloguing archival material is the ability to link bibliographic records together in the system:
  • 92. Cataloging Archival Material
    • Core foundation of cataloguing archival material is the ability to link bibliographic records together in the system:
  • 93. Cataloging Archival Material
    • Core foundation of cataloguing archival material is the ability to link bibliographic records together in the system:
  • 94. Cataloging Archival Material
    • A new 999 “Ancestry” tag defines the context of this record in relation to the records above it:
  • 95. Cataloging Archival Material
    • The parent id of each record is stored in the 004 tag
    • Three fields are stored: ParentID, sibling position, # levels
  • 96. Cataloging Archival Material
    • 004 tag stores the parent id, the position of the record in relation to its siblings, and the number of levels between it and its parent record (Ex: vtlsxxxx 2 2) :
  • 97. Cataloging Archival Material – Functions
    • Change Order:
  • 98. Cataloging Archival Material – Functions
    • Add/Remove Levels:
  • 99. Cataloging Archival Material – Functions
    • Print Record Tree:
  • 100. Searching Archival Material - iPortal
    • Accessing the record tree:
  • 101. Searching Archival Material - iPortal
    • The system highlights the title in the tree that the user launched the record tree from for easy context:
  • 102. Searching Archival Material - iPortal
    • New ability to expand and/or collapse the tree completely:
  • 103. Searching Archival Material - iPortal
    • Expanded tree highlights:
    • 1. Gaps are removed for easier display
    • 2. Tree can be kept in a scrollable area to keep it in context with full card info below
  • 104. Searching Archival Material - iPortal
    • Accessing the record tree from a title lower in the tree:
  • 105. Searching Archival Material Database Database that includes archival records -- version 49.1.6 -- port 9985 Access by Bibid Parent Bib Child Bib 4180743 4171275 4180747 4171266 4180747 4171267 4180743 4171276 4180754 4171283 4180747 4171268 4180747 4171269 4180754 4171282 4180740 4171258 4180747 4171271 4180747 4171270
  • 106.
    • For Librarians
      • Collocation
          • Better organization to catalog
      • Easier cataloging
      • Reduction in cataloging load
          • Work only cataloged once for all expressions under it
          • Expression only cataloged once for all manifestations under it
          • Item cataloging (already simple) remains the same
    Summary -- FRBR Benefits
  • 107. Summary -- FRBR Benefits
    • Easier to find information
      • Single search retrieves all related materials even if cataloged in different languages or different subject headings
    • Greater Benefits For Users
      • Collocation
      • Easier to find information
        • Single search retrieves all related materials
      • Easier to see the different expressions of a single work
        • Gives a better global picture
  • 108.
    • Library Task List
      • Read FRBR documentation
      • Study FRBR implementations to see benefits for library
      • If there is interest, start a FRBR program
      • Have VTLS run “Virtua FRBR Analysis Program” to determine what percentage of database records are good FRBR candidates
        • General results: 5-15 % range
      • Use ThingISBN or X-ISBN id appropriate
    Summary -- FRBR Preparation
  • 109. The future is even brighter
    • Think about a discovery tools for FRBR
    • Think about an automatic FRBR equivalent display for
      • Copy cataloging
      • Discovery
      • Search expansion
      • Collection management
    • Think about a FRBR union catalog
    • Think about a FRBR global union catalog
  • 110. A Thought
    • Poor technology
    • fosters competition.
    • Great technology promotes partnerships
  • 111. Questions …
  • 112.