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  • What should you expect from this approach Key to adaptability and agility Investments required in strategy not technology – how to use current technology to achieve goals. Investment in re-orienting the thinking of IT staff How do we provide services the same way FedEx enables overnight versus 2 day. FedEx has built flexible architecture to enable business level services
  • Key Messages: Model enables enterprises to share best practices across the extended enterprise, from Oracle financials to
  • Transcript

    • 1. Embracing the Changing Nature of Enterprise Architecture David S. Linthicum [email_address]
    • 2.  
    • 3. Current Issues
      • Competing frameworks/approaches
        • Zachman Framework
        • Gartner/Meta Group
        • Open Group’s TOGAF (SOA Reference Architecture)
        • Vendors (IBM, Oracle, BEA, etc.)
        • Roll-your-own
      • Hype-driven confusion (e.g., “SOA 2.0”)
      • Lack of leadership
      • Processes moving outside of the firewall
      • Departments operating independent of oversight
      • More enterprise applications are Web-delivered
      • Technology as a business advantage and cost saving mechanism
    • 4. Understanding the Forces at Work SOA SaaS Web 2.0 Emerging Standards Hype Enterprise Architecture Cost Reduction
    • 5. EA and SOA…Let’s Face Facts
      • There seems to be two worlds out there, the world of enterprise architecture and the world of SOA.
        • “ The funny thing is that those in each world thinks that they can do the other world's jobs.”
        • “ The end result...there is not a lot of synergy there yet.”
    • 6. More good news…
      • Some traditional enterprise architects have not done a stellar job in understanding the opportunities within SOA, generally speaking , and the SOA guys have not figured out how SOA meshes with existing enterprise architecture standards, notions, and practices, again generally speaking .
    • 7. Understanding the Pain Points
      • “ A recent survey by the Business Performance Management Institute found that:
      • Only 11 percent of executives say they're able to keep up with business demand to change technology-enabled processes.
      • 40 percent of which, according to the survey, are currently in need of IT attention.
      • Worse, 36 percent report that their company's IT departments are having either "significant difficulties" (27 percent) or "can't keep up at all" (9 percent).”
        • CIO Magazine
    • 8. So, the EA “Mega Trends”
      • SOA, SOA, SOA!
      • SaaS
      • “ Web 2.0”
      • “ Enterprise 2.0”
        • Mashups
        • Inside-out
        • Outside-in
      • Incorporating existing Enterprise Architecture concepts and practices…how?
    • 9. State of Things
      • The survey was of 196 Information Technology (IT) decision makers.
      • "Indicators point to the fact that IT professionals overwhelmingly support the SOA concept with 56 percent reporting they believe their company would benefit from a SOA . Among those who have experienced a SOA implementation, 73 percent would recommend other companies follow suit and adopt a SOA approach. “
    • 10. But, there is Reality
      • Hype is huge, and management by magazine is the way of the world these days.
        • “ I got to git me one of them SOAs”
        • “ A SOA will fix that.”
        • “ SOA 2.0”
      • Bad practices:
        • Selecting technology before understanding your requirements and needs.
        • Not linking back to accepted EA best practices.
        • Not creating a business case.
        • Using the wrong people.
        • Lacking funding and empowerment.
    • 11. So, Why SOA?
      • Improved Adaptability and Agility
        • Respond to business needs in near real-time
      • Functional Reusability
        • Eliminate the need for large scale rip and replace
      • Independent Change Management
        • Focus on configuration rather than programming
      • Interoperability instead of point-to-point integration
        • Loosely-coupled framework, services in network
      • Orchestrate rather than integrate
        • Configuration rather than development to deliver business needs
    • 12. SOA Meta Model Data Abstraction Data Data Data Services/Messaging Legacy Legacy Services Process/Orchestration Monitoring/Event Management Governance Rep Security Internet-Based Services New Services
    • 13. The Value Proposition of a SOA
      • We implement SOA for two major reasons.
        • First is the ability to save development dollars through reuse of services.
        • Second is the ability to change the IT infrastructure faster to adapt to changing needs of the business, or agility .
        • Enhance, not replace, existing EA.
    • 14. Reuse…Yes Again
      • Under the concept of service reuse, we have a few things we need to determine to better define the value. These include:
        • The number of services that are reusable. Complexity of the services. The degree of reuse from system to system.
          • The number of reusable services is the actual number of new services created, or, existing services abstracted, that are potentially reusable from system to system.
          • The complexity of the services is the number of functions or object points that make up the service.
          • Finally, the degree of reuse from system to system is the number of times you actually reuse the services. We look at this number as a percentage.
    • 15. So, What do you Do?
      • In order to determine their value we must first determine the Number of Services that are available for Reuse (NSR), the Degree of Reuse (DR) from system to system, as well as the Complexity (C) of each service.
      • The formula to determine value looks much like this:
      • Value = (NSR*DR) * C
    • 16. SOA=Agility
      • Agility is a strategic advantage that is difficult to measure in hard dollars, but not impossible. We first need to determine a few things about the business, including:
      • The degree of change over time is really the number of times over a particular period that the business reinvents itself to adapt to a market.
      • The ability to adapt to change is a number that states the company’s ability to react to the need for change over time.
      • Finally, the relative value of change is the amount of money made as a direct result of changing the business.
    • 17. How Do you Build A SOA? Understand your business objectives and define success. Define your problem domain. Understand all application semantics. Understand all services. Understand all processes. Define new services. Define new processes. Select your technology set. Deploy SOA technology. Test and evaluate SOA solution.
    • 18. Understand your business objectives and define success. ROI Define ROI Create Business Case Business Case
    • 19. Define your problem domain System Descriptions System Complexity Analysis SOA POC POC Results Domain Descriptions Vendors
    • 20. Understand all application semantics in your domain. SOA Metadata Meta data analysis Data abstraction layer definition Data Abstraction Layer Data services definition Data Services Legacy Metadata External Metadata (B2B)
    • 21. Understand all services in your domain. Candidate Services Service analysis Metadata and services analysis Services And Information Performance analysis Services And Performance Legacy Services External Services (B2B) SOA Metadata
    • 22. Understand all processes in your domain. Candidate Processes Process analysis. Define metadata, services, and processes Processes, Services, And Information Process integration analysis. Process Integration Diagrams Candidate Services External Processes (B2B) SOA Metadata
    • 23. Define new services. Candidate Processes Service definition. Service design. Processes, Services, And Information Service implementation. Process Integration Diagrams SOA Metadata Candidate Services Service Definition Service Design Service Implementation
    • 24. Define new processes. Candidate Processes Process definition. Process design. Processes, Services, And Information Process implementation. Process Integration Diagrams Metadata Candidate Services Process Definition Process Design Process Implementation
    • 25. Select your technology set. Technology Requirements Define requirements. Technology analysis. Technology solution Vendors Define candidate technology. Technology selection. Technology validation.
    • 26. “SOA is Good EA…”
      • Pay me now, or pay me later. Make sure you do it right the first time…get the help you need.
      • Don’t be afraid to experiment, and admit you’re wrong…backup and try again.
      • Keep your vendors working with you.
      • Empower those working, so they can work to get things done. Avoid politics, if possible.
      • Learn all you can, but don’t get caught up in the hype.
      • Put standards in their proper place.
      • Small battles win the war…Keep that in mind.
      • Give yourself plenty of time, never skimp on any of the steps.
    • 27. Beyond SOA…SaaS, Web 2.0, Mashups, Oh My!
      • We are moving toward a day when many of our enterprise applications may be delivered as services , and thus provide a more economical way to approach information technology management with businesses going forward.
      • This is also the great equalizer since businesses , large and small, will have access to the same number and quality of services, much like they do with Web sites today.
      • Shared services will create many opportunities , including better agility and the ability to operate a business with fewer IT resources.
      • In essence, we're moving to Web 2.0 where service delivery over the Internet will be added to information deliver as the key strategic value of the Web to businesses, as well as extending the Web as a true platform.
    • 28. Fast Growing Web Services Market
      • “ IDC estimates that $2.3 billion was spent worldwide on total Web services software in 2004, more than double the amount from the previous year. IDC expects spending to continue to increase dramatically over the next 5 years, reaching approximately $14.9 billion by 2009.”
        • IDC
      • “ According to Evans Data Corp's latest Web Services Development Survey, this year the percentage of functioning Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs) has almost doubled.”
        • Evans Data Corp.
      • “ Mash-ups portend big changes for software companies, Web sites, and everyone online. No longer just a collection of pages, the Web is morphing into a sort of global operating system …”
        • Business Week
      • “ Why reinvent the wheel by having your staff spend time building service components, when you can quickly subscribe to a component, that's been tested and uptime certified, and pay for it on as-used basis?”
        • Joe McKendrick,
    • 29. Moving to “Outside In”
      • Today, more services exist outside the enterprise for use within the enterprise.
        • Examples:
          • eBay
          • NetSuite
          • Many others
      • Leveraging outside services provides enterprises with:
        • More agility with their ability to add, change, and delete services as needed
        • Reuse of services they did not need to create or maintain
        • Better value chain integration incorporating both customers and suppliers
        • Exposing business services outside of the enterprise “Inside out”
    • 30.  
    • 31. However, it will Take Some Work
      • In order to make this a reality, we must learn to how to bridge the gaps between our enterprise systems and SOAs, and Web service providers that exist across the Internet.
      • Special consideration must be given to connectivity, interoperability, security, and shared processes .
      • Problems are easily solvable with the right technology and approaches, but I would say that most out there looking at this new opportunity don’t have a clue as to how to make the new and old work and play well together.
      • EA needs to lead the charge.
    • 32. Understand Outside Interfaces New Accounts Commission Calculation Data Cleaning Best Practices as Shared Processes Sales Order Update SOA Finance/ Operations Sales On Demand Applications and Service Markets
    • 33. Understanding the Problem
      • Service providers must integrate with existing enterprise systems to become more valuable.
      • However, existing internal integration needs to exist to ensure:
        • Production and consumption of structured information
        • Semantic mediation
        • Security mediation
        • Service enablement
        • Firewall management
        • Transactional integrity
        • Holistic management of complete integration chain
    • 34. Getting Ready
      • So, how do you prepare yourself? I have a few suggestions:
        • First, accept the notion that it's okay to leverage services that are hosted on the Internet as part of your SOA. Normal security management needs to apply, of course.
        • Second, create a strategy for the consumption and management of outside-in services , including how you'll deal with semantic management, security, transactions, etc.
        • Finally, create a proof of concept now. This does a few things including getting you through the initial learning process and providing proof points as to the feasibility of leveraging outside-in services.
    • 35. Remember, there are a few technical issues that you must address…
      • Semantic and metadata management , or, the management of the different information representations amount the external services and internal systems.
      • Transformation and routing , or, accounting for those data differences during run time.
      • Governance across all systems , meaning, not giving up the notion of security and control when extending your SOA to the global SOA.
      • Discovery and service management , meaning, how to find and leverage services inside or outside of your enterprise, and how to keep track of those services through their maturation.
      • Information consumption, processing, and delivery , or, how to effectively move information to and from all interested systems.
      • Connectivity and adapter management , or, how to externalize and internalize information and services from very old and proprietary systems.
      • Process orchestration and service, and process abstraction , or, the ability to abstract the services and information flows into bound processes, thus creating a solution
    • 36. Understanding the Change
      • It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to figure out that the creation of an SOA on top of these applications, including process/orchestration layers, directory services layers, identity management, monitoring, semantic management, etc., would add a tremendous amount of value, considering the use of those applications and abstraction into real business solutions .
      • Indeed, you’ll find that many SOA's for many businesses actually exist outside of their firewalls , making their on-demand applications work well together.
      • This trend is only accelerating as “Web 2.0” becomes more valuable for enterprises.
    • 37. Final Thoughts
      • EA is an evolving discipline. New notions and business events will drive EA activities going forward.
      • EA=SOA and SOA=EA. We have a tendency to forget that. The “A” in SOA is architecture.
      • Learn how to see beyond the SOA hype, and make sure to understand your own business issues.
      • Accept the emerging Web as a resource that is to be leveraged for the good of the company. There will be much change here.
      • The enterprise architect should drive change for the good of the company. However, never “manage by magazine.”
      • It is the most exciting time for enterprise architects. Opportunities are plentiful, but so are pitfalls.
      • The lines are blurring between enterprise applications and the emerging Web. There is a fundamental shift in how we deploy and manage enterprise applications and services going forward.
    • 38. Thanks!
      • Blogs:
        • “Linthicum Channel”
        • InfoWorld “Real World SOA”
        • Intelligent Enterprise “SaaS Advisor”
      • Weekly Podcast
        • InfoWorld SOA Report
      • Columns
        • Web Services Journal
        • Business Integration Journal