"Cloud Computing in the Public Sector" (.ppt)Presentation Transcript
Cloud Computing in the Public Sector Carolyn Purcell January 26, 2010
What is Cloud Computing?
“ In the years ahead, more and more of the information-processing tasks that we rely on, at home and at work, will be handled by big data centers located out on the Internet. The nature and economics of computing will change as dramatically as the nature and economics of mechanical power changed with the rise of electric utilities in the early years of the last century. The consequences for society—for the way we live, work, learn, communicate, entertain ourselves, and even think—promise to be equally profound. If the electric dynamo was the machine that fashioned twentieth century society—that made us who we are—the information dynamo is the machine that will fashion the new society of the twenty-first century.” Nicholas Carr “ The Big Switch—Rewiring the World from Edison to Google”
Future of Computing Mainframe Client Server Minicomputer Web Disruptor : Virtualization Cloud 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Next Inflection Point IT resources and services that are abstracted from the underlying infrastructure and provided “on-demand” and “at scale” in a multi-tenant environment WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING? Today, clouds are associated with an off-premise, hosted model
Public vs Private Cloud "Private" clouds offer many of the same benefits as "public" clouds but are managed within the organization. These types of clouds are not burdened by network bandwidth and availability issues or potential security exposures that may be associated with public clouds. Private clouds can offer the provider and user greater control, security and resilience. Often depicted as being available to users from a third party provider, "public" clouds are typically made available via the Internet and may be free or inexpensive to use. There are many examples of these types of clouds, providing services across open, public networks today. One example is Amazon Web Services. Less risk – security, resiliency, infrastructure and support processes will not differ significantly from current environment. Better cost effectiveness and agility Move to SLA based service delivery Lower elasticity compared to external clouds Greater risks in terms of security, resiliency, transparency and performance predictability (at least in the near term). Key benefit: tremendous elasticity Private Clouds Public Clouds
Samples of cloud services http://blogs.southworks.net/mwoloski/2008/08/19/cloud-computing-taxonomy-map/ , August 19, 2008
Cloud Definition from NIST Visual Model of NIST’s Working Definition of Cloud Computing http://www.csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/index.html Public Private Hybrid Community Deployment Models Service Models Software as a Service (SaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS) Infrastucture as a Service (IaaS) Essential Characteristics On-Demand Self Service Broad Network Access Resource Pooling Rapid Elasticity Measured Service
Service Model Architectures (from NIST) Cloud Infrastructure IaaS PaaS SaaS Infrastructure as a Service ( IaaS ) Architectures Platform as a Service ( PaaS ) Architectures Software as a Service ( SaaS ) Architectures Cloud Infrastructure SaaS Cloud Infrastructure PaaS SaaS Cloud Infrastructure IaaS PaaS Cloud Infrastructure PaaS Cloud Infrastructure IaaS
Compute, storage, and other established services on-demand
Virtual Private Datacenter
Compatible with existing applications
Amazon EC2 - Elastic Compute Cloud
Mosso, GoGrid (HSPs)
Wide range of capabilities exposed to the developer through new APIs
Also known as PaaS – Solutions Generally Targeted
Google App Engine
Amazon S3 - Simple Storage Service
App Frameworks (e.g . Hadoop)
Akamai Content Delivery
End user Complete Applications (usually delivered via browser)
Also known as SaaS, sometimes extended with APIs (as in PaaS)
Evolution of the Cloud Computing Market From Stand-Alone to The Inter-Cloud Stand-Alone Data Centers Phase 1 Internal Cloud Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Public Cloud Private Cloud Public Cloud Virtual Private Cloud Open Cloud PRESENT 2015-2017 Federation / Workload Portability / Interoperability / Security Inter-Cloud Public Cloud #1 Public Cloud #2 Inter-Cloud
AWS Rackspace Google Apps
Example of the rise in cloud services Relative Bandwidth Consumed Source: Amazon Web Services Blog, January 2008 (http://aws.typepad.com/aws/2008/05/lots-of-bits.html)
Why should you care?
Where is IT’s Greatest Impact on Government? Federal CIO Survey Question: Where will investments in technology have the greatest impact on the performance of government? Source: AFFIRM, December 2008 Cross-Agency Information Sharing and Collaboration Information Security and Privacy Critical Infrastructure Sustainability and Continuity Government Management Transparent, Citizen-Centric Government
How Secure Is Government IT? Federal CIO Survey Question: Has the IT infrastructure that supports your agency’s mission become more secure or less secure? Source: AFFIRM, December 2008 More Secure Unchanged Less Secure
Policy & Technology are Drivers of Change PUBLIC POLICY NETWORK Energy Education Entertainment Healthcare Transportation Urban Development
What are the pros and cons?
Benefits of Cloud Computing Source: IBSG, 2009 Source: IBSG 2009 The poor energy efficiency of most existing data centers, due to substandard design or inefficient asset utilization, is now understood to be environmentally and economically unsustainable. Cloud service providers, through leveraging economies of scale and their capacity to managing computing assets more efficiently, can consume far less energy and other resources than traditional data center operators. Sustainability Arguably, the ability to run data centers and to develop and manage software applications is not necessarily a core competency of most organizations. Cloud computing may make it much easier to reduce or shed these functions, allowing organizations to concentrate their efforts on issues central to their business such as (in government) the development of policy and design and delivery of public services. Focusing on Core Competencies By reducing or doing away with constant server updates and other computing issues, and eliminating expenditures of time and money on application development, organizations may be able to concentrate at least some of their IT staff on higher-value tasks. Redeployment of IT Staff Particularly for smaller organizations, cloud computing can allow access to hardware, software, and IT staff of a caliber far beyond that which they can attract and/or afford for themselves. Access to Top-End IT Capabilities Organizations using cloud computing need not scramble to secure additional hardware and software when user loads increase, but can instead add and subtract capacity as the network load dictates. Scalability Cloud computing offers more flexibility (often called “elasticity”) in matching IT resources to business functions than past computing methods. It can also increase mobility of staff by allowing them to access business information and applications from a wider range of locations and/or devices. Flexibility Without the need to purchase hardware, software licenses, or implementation services, an organization can implement cloud computing rapidly. Ease of Implementation Organizations can reduce or eliminate IT capital expenditures and reduce ongoing operating expenditures by paying only for the services they use and, potentially, by reducing the size of their IT staffs. Cost Savings COMMENT BENEFIT
Challenges Source: Cisco IBSG 2009
Reliability http:// www.marketspaceadvisory.com /cloud/ : “Envisioning the Cloud: the Next Computing Paradigm,” J Rayport & A.Heyward, 2009 Rackspace 11-03-09 Microsoft Sidekick 10-11-09 Sales Force 12-28-09, 1-5-09
The Government IT Journey to Cloud Computing
The Government CIO View: Why Cloud and Why Now? 1. Make IT more scalable, flexible 2. Deploy services faster 3. Lower the cost of IT (convert capital costs to operating costs) FORCES DRIVING AGENCIES TO CLOUD COMPUTING:
Where to start: Low-Hanging Fruit for Government Cloud Projects
Collaboration & information sharing
Next phase of infrastructure virtualization
Hosting of non-critical applications & non-sensitive data
Development, QA and Test
Projects with large-scale compute and storage demands
Key to Agency Adoption of Cloud: Trust Before the Economics of Cloud Computing Can be Considered, Agencies Require a Trusted Service Infrastructure Security Control Service-Level Management Compliance
Getting Started … Simple 5-Track Roadmap
Optimize the current IT environment with the goal of providing an internal set of cloud services and enabling the incorporation of external services. This will be the services roadmap .
Identify cloud services opportunities based on business needs, value proposition, and the ability to adopt/support those services. This will be the services portfolio .
Communicate with the BUs about cloud services and the roadmap and process for incorporating them into the architecture, whether the services are internal or external. This will be the communication plan .
Experiment with and pilot various services, both internal and external, to identify where the real issues will arise. This will be the lab .
Designate a cross-functional team to monitor continually which new services, providers, and standards are in this space and determine if they affect the roadmap. This will be the sensing and strategy-evolution function .
Q & A
Cloud Services We believe that Cloud Services are in their infancy and will offer significantly greater flexibility, reliability and cost effectiveness in the future, although many hurdles will need to be overcome.