Chapter 10: Systems Development
Objectives <ul><li>Describe the systems development life cycle, who participates in it and why it is important </li></ul><...
Objectives <ul><li>Describe how an existing system can be evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss what is involved in planning...
Chapter Content <ul><li>An Overview of Systems Development </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and Techniques for Systems Development ...
Chapter Content <ul><li>Systems Design </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Maintenance and ...
An Overview of Systems Development <ul><li>Systems development process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes a wide range of proj...
An Overview of Systems Development <ul><li>Systems investigation and analysis  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks at the existing...
An Overview of Systems Development
Participants in Systems Development <ul><li>System stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals who will benefit from sy...
Participants in Systems Development <ul><li>Systems development specialists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project leader </li></ul...
Participants in Systems Development
Why Start A Systems  Development Project? <ul><li>Several reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with existing systems </...
Why Start A Systems  Development Project? <ul><li>Creative analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigating new approaches to ...
Systems Development Planning <ul><li>System development planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation of organized or individ...
End-User Systems Development <ul><li>End-user systems development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of computer systems by...
End-User Systems Development
Tools and Techniques for  Systems Development <ul><li>Systems development tools   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can greatly simpli...
Computer-Aided Software Engineering <ul><li>Software engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employs computer-aided software eng...
Computer-Aided Software Engineering
Flowcharts <ul><li>Chart the path from a starting point to the final destination </li></ul><ul><li>Can display various amo...
Flowcharts
Flowcharts
Decision Tables <ul><li>Can be used as an alternative to or in conjunction with flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>In general, a...
Decision Tables
Project Management Tools <ul><li>Purpose is to plan, monitor, and control necessary development activities </li></ul><ul><...
Project Management Tools
Project Management Tools
Prototyping <ul><li>The creation of a preliminary model or version of a major subsystem </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative approa...
Prototyping
Outsourcing <ul><li>Use of outside company to take over portions of its workload </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges and disadvan...
Object-Oriented Systems Development <ul><li>An   extension of object-oriented programming </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used du...
Object-Oriented Systems Development
Systems Investigation <ul><li>Overall purpose  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine whether objectives of existing system satis...
Feasibility Analysis <ul><li>Technical feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with whether or not hardware/software c...
Feasibility Analysis <ul><li>Operational feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of whether or not the project can be pu...
Feasibility Analysis
Systems Analysis <ul><li>Attempts to understand how the existing system helps solve the problem identified in systems inve...
General Analysis Considerations <ul><li>Formalized analysis procedure involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting appropriat...
Collecting Data <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To seek additional information about problems identified during syst...
Collecting Data
Collecting Data
Requirements Analysis <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine user, stakeholder, and organizational needs </li>...
Requirements Analysis
Systems Design <ul><li>Overall purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To select and plan a system that meets the requirements neede...
Generating Systems Design Alternatives <ul><li>First step of design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate alternatives for all...
Generating Systems Design Alternatives
Evaluating and Selecting a Systems Design <ul><li>Evaluate design alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Select the best solution ...
The Contract <ul><li>Most vendors provide standard contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to protect the vendor, not the...
Systems Implementation  <ul><li>Includes  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software a...
Acquiring Hardware <ul><li>Most people and organizations acquire hardware and computers by  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasi...
Selecting and Acquiring Software: Make, Buy, or Rent <ul><li>Program development life cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program ...
Selecting and Acquiring Software: Make, Buy, or Rent <ul><li>Software as a service (SaaS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software r...
Acquiring Database and Telecommunications Systems <ul><li>A database is one of the most important parts of system developm...
Acquiring Database and Telecommunications Systems
User Preparation <ul><li>Readying users and stakeholders for the new or modified system </li></ul><ul><li>Can include </li...
User Preparation
Computer Systems Personnel: Hiring and Training <ul><li>Depending on the size of your new system, personnel may have to be...
Site Preparation <ul><li>Location of the new system needs to be prepared </li></ul><ul><li>For a small system </li></ul><u...
Data Preparation <ul><li>Converting manual files into computer files </li></ul><ul><li>Data conversion  </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Installation <ul><li>Placing computer equipment on the site and making it operational </li></ul><ul><li>For a small system...
Testing <ul><li>Unit testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing test data that will force the computer to execute every stat...
Testing <ul><li>Integration testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that new programs can interact with other major applicat...
Testing
Startup <ul><li>Direct conversion  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopping the old system and starting the new one on a given date ...
Startup
User Acceptance and Documentation <ul><li>User acceptance document </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement signed by user that a p...
User Acceptance and Documentation <ul><li>Systems documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the technical aspects of t...
Systems Maintenance and Review <ul><li>Final steps of systems development </li></ul><ul><li>Involves checking, changing, a...
Reasons for Maintenance <ul><li>New requests from stakeholders, users, and managers </li></ul><ul><li>Bugs or errors in th...
Financial Implications of Maintenance <ul><li>For older programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of maintenance can be up to fi...
Financial Implications of Maintenance
Systems Review <ul><li>Final phase of the systems development life cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing systems to make s...
Summary <ul><li>Phases of the SDLC  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation, analysis, design, implementation, maintenance, re...
Summary <ul><li>Systems analysis  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The examination of existing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems...
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  1. 1. Chapter 10: Systems Development
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the systems development life cycle, who participates in it and why it is important </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss systems development tools </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how systems development projects are investigated </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Describe how an existing system can be evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss what is involved in planning a new system </li></ul><ul><li>List the steps to implement a new or modified system </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the importance of updating and monitoring a system </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Content <ul><li>An Overview of Systems Development </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and Techniques for Systems Development </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Analysis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter Content <ul><li>Systems Design </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Maintenance and Review </li></ul>
  6. 6. An Overview of Systems Development <ul><li>Systems development process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes a wide range of projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing a small program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installing a huge system including hardware, software, communications equipment, and personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically called a systems development life cycle (SDLC) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. An Overview of Systems Development <ul><li>Systems investigation and analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks at the existing system and determines if it can and should be improved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems design and implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting and planning the best solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifying an existing system or developing a new one, placing the best solution into effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating the results of the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes sure that the new or modified system is operating as intended </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. An Overview of Systems Development
  9. 9. Participants in Systems Development <ul><li>System stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals who will benefit from systems development project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals who will be interacting with the system on a regular basis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People most capable of initiating and maintaining change </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Participants in Systems Development <ul><li>Systems development specialists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual in charge of the systems development effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specializes in analyzing and designing systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software engineer or computer programmer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for modifying or creating programs to satisfy user requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer systems management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the chief information officer (CIO) and other technicians </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Participants in Systems Development
  12. 12. Why Start A Systems Development Project? <ul><li>Several reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with existing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mergers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure from government agencies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Why Start A Systems Development Project? <ul><li>Creative analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigating new approaches to existing problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being skeptical and doubtful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning whether or not the current computer system is still effective and efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems development process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with gathering information on users’ needs </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Systems Development Planning <ul><li>System development planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation of organized or individual goals into systems development initiatives </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. End-User Systems Development <ul><li>End-user systems development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of computer systems by individuals outside of the formal planning and departmental structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range from small to significant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software routine to merge data with form letters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer contact databases </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. End-User Systems Development
  17. 17. Tools and Techniques for Systems Development <ul><li>Systems development tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can greatly simplify the systems development process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-aided software engineering tools (CASE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flowcharts, decision tables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project management software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing and object-oriented systems development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Computer-Aided Software Engineering <ul><li>Software engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employs computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CASE tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate many systems development tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow more than one person to work on the same system at the same time via a multiuser interface </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Computer-Aided Software Engineering
  20. 20. Flowcharts <ul><li>Chart the path from a starting point to the final destination </li></ul><ul><li>Can display various amounts of detail </li></ul><ul><li>When developing a system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General flowchart describes the overall purpose and structure of the system </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Flowcharts
  22. 22. Flowcharts
  23. 23. Decision Tables <ul><li>Can be used as an alternative to or in conjunction with flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>In general, a decision table displays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The various conditions that could exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The different actions that the computer should take </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Decision Tables
  25. 25. Project Management Tools <ul><li>Purpose is to plan, monitor, and control necessary development activities </li></ul><ul><li>Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates three time estimates for an activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The shortest possible time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most likely time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The longest possible time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gantt charting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A grid that lists activities and deadlines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project crashing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing project completion time </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Project Management Tools
  27. 27. Project Management Tools
  28. 28. Prototyping <ul><li>The creation of a preliminary model or version of a major subsystem </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative approach to systems development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each phase of the SDLC is repeated several times (iterated) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Prototyping
  30. 30. Outsourcing <ul><li>Use of outside company to take over portions of its workload </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges and disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal experience and loyalty can suffer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People can lose jobs and be very emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once outside company leaves, internal employees lack experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to compete when using the same companies </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Object-Oriented Systems Development <ul><li>An extension of object-oriented programming </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used during all phases of systems development </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have saved time and money using the object-oriented approach to systems development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objects can be diagrammed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actor and use case </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Object-Oriented Systems Development
  33. 33. Systems Investigation <ul><li>Overall purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine whether objectives of existing system satisfy the goals of the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attempts to answer the following questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, personnel, or procedures will improve the existing system or are required for a new system? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the potential costs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the associated risks? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Feasibility Analysis <ul><li>Technical feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with whether or not hardware/software can be acquired or developed to solve the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines if the project makes financial sense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines whether laws or regulations may prevent or limit a systems development project </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Feasibility Analysis <ul><li>Operational feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of whether or not the project can be put into action or operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schedule feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines if the project can be completed in a reasonable amount of time </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Feasibility Analysis
  37. 37. Systems Analysis <ul><li>Attempts to understand how the existing system helps solve the problem identified in systems investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Overall emphasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To gather data on the existing system and the requirements for the new system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To consider alternative solutions to the problem and the feasibility of the solutions </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. General Analysis Considerations <ul><li>Formalized analysis procedure involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting appropriate data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining new system requirements and project priorities </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Collecting Data <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To seek additional information about problems identified during systems investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Data Collection Methods </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Collecting Data
  41. 41. Collecting Data
  42. 42. Requirements Analysis <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine user, stakeholder, and organizational needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools and techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking Directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Success Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint Application Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid Application Development </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Requirements Analysis
  44. 44. Systems Design <ul><li>Overall purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To select and plan a system that meets the requirements needed to deliver the problem solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new or modified system </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Generating Systems Design Alternatives <ul><li>First step of design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate alternatives for all components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Request for information (RFI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asks a computer systems vendor to provide information about its products or services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Request for quotes (RFQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asks a computer systems company to give prices for its products or services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Request for proposal (RFP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generated during systems development </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Generating Systems Design Alternatives
  47. 47. Evaluating and Selecting a Systems Design <ul><li>Evaluate design alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Select the best solution for supporting your needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery dates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer speed </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. The Contract <ul><li>Most vendors provide standard contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to protect the vendor, not the organization buying the equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations are creating their own contracts, clearly stating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment and software specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Systems Implementation <ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software acquisition or development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiring and training of personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site and data preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation, testing, startup, and user acceptance </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Acquiring Hardware <ul><li>Most people and organizations acquire hardware and computers by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing, leasing, or renting computer resources from a computer systems vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Pay as you go computing” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization pays only for the computer power it uses </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Selecting and Acquiring Software: Make, Buy, or Rent <ul><li>Program development life cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Description of what the software must accomplish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Step-by-step sequence of computer instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S yntax errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Errors in the use of the programming language syntax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Errors in the programming logic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Selecting and Acquiring Software: Make, Buy, or Rent <ul><li>Software as a service (SaaS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software resides on vendor’s server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application service provider (ASP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops, maintains, stores software and makes it available over the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Acquiring Database and Telecommunications Systems <ul><li>A database is one of the most important parts of system development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many projects involve a database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require both hardware and software acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications is one of the fastest growing business applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May require both hardware and software acquisition </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Acquiring Database and Telecommunications Systems
  55. 55. User Preparation <ul><li>Readying users and stakeholders for the new or modified system </li></ul><ul><li>Can include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. User Preparation
  57. 57. Computer Systems Personnel: Hiring and Training <ul><li>Depending on the size of your new system, personnel may have to be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hired </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems may need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data entry operators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The success of any computer system depends on the way it is used by the personnel within the organization </li></ul>
  58. 58. Site Preparation <ul><li>Location of the new system needs to be prepared </li></ul><ul><li>For a small system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May mean rearranging the furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May require special wiring and air conditioning </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Data Preparation <ul><li>Converting manual files into computer files </li></ul><ul><li>Data conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be required to transform the existing computerized files into the proper format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permanent data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be placed on a permanent storage device </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Installation <ul><li>Placing computer equipment on the site and making it operational </li></ul><ul><li>For a small systems development project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May require making room on top of a desk for a new PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plugging it into a wall outlet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the manufacturer’s instructions to turn it on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger projects are usually completed by the manufacturer </li></ul>
  61. 61. Testing <ul><li>Unit testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing test data that will force the computer to execute every statement in the program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the testing of all programs together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that entire system can handle a large amount of data under normal operating conditions </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Testing <ul><li>Integration testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that new programs can interact with other major applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptance testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that new or modified system is operating as intended </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Testing
  64. 64. Startup <ul><li>Direct conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopping the old system and starting the new one on a given date </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase-in approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New system is slowly phased in, while old one is slowly phased out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilot startup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running a pilot or small version of the new system along with the old </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Startup
  66. 66. User Acceptance and Documentation <ul><li>User acceptance document </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement signed by user that a phase of the complete system is approved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all materials that describe the new or modified system </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. User Acceptance and Documentation <ul><li>Systems documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the technical aspects of the new or modified system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes how the system can be used by noncomputer personnel </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Systems Maintenance and Review <ul><li>Final steps of systems development </li></ul><ul><li>Involves checking, changing, and enhancing the system to make it serve the organization better </li></ul>
  69. 69. Reasons for Maintenance <ul><li>New requests from stakeholders, users, and managers </li></ul><ul><li>Bugs or errors in the program </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and hardware problems </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate mergers and acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental regulations that require changes in programs </li></ul>
  70. 70. Financial Implications of Maintenance <ul><li>For older programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of maintenance can be up to five times greater than cost of development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average programmer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can spend from 50% - over 75% of his/her time maintaining programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important to keep track of why systems are maintained as well as the cost of maintenance </li></ul>
  71. 71. Financial Implications of Maintenance
  72. 72. Systems Review <ul><li>Final phase of the systems development life cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing systems to make sure that they are operating as intended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of review procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Event-driven review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-driven review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make changes even when small problems or opportunities arise </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Summary <ul><li>Phases of the SDLC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation, analysis, design, implementation, maintenance, review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common system development tools and techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CASE tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowcharts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision tables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First step in the development of a new or modified computer system </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Summary <ul><li>Systems analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The examination of existing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepares detailed design needs for new system or modifications to the existing one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes hardware acquisition, software acquisition or development, and user preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves checking, changing, and enhancing the system </li></ul></ul>
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