Promoting a culture of
preprinting in biology
Jessica Polka
Director, ASAPbio
CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 1
ASAPbio is a researcher-driven project to promote
the productive use of preprints in the life sciences.
CC-BY @jessicapolk...
A preprint is a manuscript posted online before
completion of journal-organized peer review
CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 3
Benefits of preprints
CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 4
• Compatible with journals
• Helps scientists demonstrate recent pro...
CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 5
arXiv: 100,000 manuscripts per year
Preprint servers have existed for 25 years
In Biology
CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 6
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CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio
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Physics vs. biology
• Competition
• Difficulty of reproduction
• Historic precedent
• Culture
CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbi...
The cycle of cultural change
Cultural
Capital
Behavioral
intention
• Attitudes
• Values
• Beliefs
Adapted from Knott, Muer...
The cycle of cultural change
Cultural
Capital
Behavioral
intention
• Attitudes
• Values
• Beliefs
Adapted from Knott, Muer...
The cycle of cultural change
Cultural
Capital
Behavioral
intention
• Attitudes
• Values
• Beliefs
Behavioral
path
Behavior...
The cycle of cultural change
Cultural
Capital
Behavioral
intention
• Attitudes
• Values
• Beliefs
Behavioral
path
Behavior...
Thank you
CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 14
ASAPbio Advisory board
Ron Vale (UCSF)
James Fraser (UCSF)
Daniel Colόn-Ramos (...
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Promoting a Culture of Preprinting in Biology - Jessica Polka - OpenCon 2016

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Culture Change Panel, OpenCon 2016

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Promoting a Culture of Preprinting in Biology - Jessica Polka - OpenCon 2016

  1. 1. Promoting a culture of preprinting in biology Jessica Polka Director, ASAPbio CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 1
  2. 2. ASAPbio is a researcher-driven project to promote the productive use of preprints in the life sciences. CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 2 • Convening meetings • Advocating for policies on preprints • Distributing information • Supporting community discussions ASAPbio.org #ASAPbio
  3. 3. A preprint is a manuscript posted online before completion of journal-organized peer review CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 3
  4. 4. Benefits of preprints CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 4 • Compatible with journals • Helps scientists demonstrate recent productivity • Enables earlier & broader feedback • Accelerates communication of scientific results • Low barrier to sharing: negative results, etc • Potential for innovation: open, versioned publications that implicitly interoperate with other services (ie journals)
  5. 5. CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 5 arXiv: 100,000 manuscripts per year Preprint servers have existed for 25 years In Biology
  6. 6. CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 6 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Jan-03 Jul-03 Jan-04 Jul-04 Jan-05 Jul-05 Jan-06 Jul-06 Jan-07 Jul-07 Jan-08 Jul-08 Jan-09 Jul-09 Jan-10 Jul-10 Jan-11 Jul-11 Jan-12 Jul-12 Jan-13 Jul-13 Jan-14 Jul-14 Jan-15 Jul-15 Jan-16 Jul-16 figshare (filtered by PrePubMed) Preprints.org (articles/reviews in bio/life/med) Nature Precedings (manuscripts, from search results) The Winnower F1000 Research PeerJ Preprints (bio/med/life) bioRxiv (from bioRxiv) arXiv (q-bio w/cross-lists, from arxiv.org stats) Version 1 | asapbio.org Preprints are taking off in biology
  7. 7. CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 7 0 1000 Jan-03 Jul-03 Jan-04 Jul-04 Jan-05 Jul-05 Jan-06 Jul-06 Jan-07 Jul-07 Jan-08 Jul-08 Jan-09 Jul-09 Jan-10 Jul-10 Jan-11 Jul-11 Jan-12 Jul-12 Jan-13 Jul-13 Jan-14 Jul-14 Jan-15 Jul-15 Jan-16 Jul-16 PubMed 2015 average: ~66,700 articles/month https://www.nlm.nih .gov/bsd/bsd_key.ht ml Rate of preprinting: ~1%
  8. 8. CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 8 0 1000 Jan-03 Jul-03 Jan-04 Jul-04 Jan-05 Jul-05 Jan-06 Jul-06 Jan-07 Jul-07 Jan-08 Jul-08 Jan-09 Jul-09 Jan-10 Jul-10 Jan-11 Jul-11 Jan-12 Jul-12 Jan-13 Jul-13 Jan-14 Jul-14 Jan-15 Jul-15 Jan-16 Jul-16 Larivière et al 2013 (arXiv) PubMed 2015 average: ~66,700 articles/month https://www.nlm.nih .gov/bsd/bsd_key.ht ml Rate of preprinting: ~1%
  9. 9. Physics vs. biology • Competition • Difficulty of reproduction • Historic precedent • Culture CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 9 * https://www.nsf.gov/funding/funding-rates.jsp?org=MPS ** https://nexus.od.nih.gov/all/2015/06/29/what-are-the-chances-of- getting-funded/ NSF 2016 Astronomy 22%* NSF 2016 Physics 33%* NIH 2014 RPG 18.1% ** Funding rates Math vs. HEP vs. Cond-mat ArXiv has operated since 1991 Paul Ginsparg, founder of arXiv on scooping: “It  can’t  happen,  since  arXiv postings are accepted as date-stamped priority claims. Eventually I came to understand that biologists do  not  use  “scoop”  in  the  standard  journalistic   sense…  Instead  “scooping”  in  the  context  of   biology research appears to mean using information or ideas without proper attribution.” http://asapbio.org/preprint-info/preprint-faq
  10. 10. The cycle of cultural change Cultural Capital Behavioral intention • Attitudes • Values • Beliefs Adapted from Knott, Muers, Aldridge, 2008. Achieving Culture Change: A Policy Framework. UK Cabinet Office Strategy Unit. Behavioral path Behavioral norm Behavior Behavioral drivers CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 10
  11. 11. The cycle of cultural change Cultural Capital Behavioral intention • Attitudes • Values • Beliefs Adapted from Knott, Muers, Aldridge, 2008. Achieving Culture Change: A Policy Framework. UK Cabinet Office Strategy Unit. Behavioral path Behavioral norm Behavior Behavioral drivers CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 11 “Preprints  are   dangerous” “I’m  going  to   get  scooped” “Journals   won’t  accept   preprints” Objection from advisors etc “No  one  will   see  it” Low awareness of preprints “No  one  I  know   preprints”
  12. 12. The cycle of cultural change Cultural Capital Behavioral intention • Attitudes • Values • Beliefs Behavioral path Behavioral norm Behavior Behavioral drivers • Enable • Information/awareness • Capacity/Infrastructure • Encourage • Incentives • Requirements • Recognition • Engage • Co-production • Fora • Networks • Exemplify • Consistency • Leading by example CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 12 Adapted from Knott, Muers, Aldridge, 2008. Achieving Culture Change: A Policy Framework. UK Cabinet Office Strategy Unit.
  13. 13. The cycle of cultural change Cultural Capital Behavioral intention • Attitudes • Values • Beliefs Behavioral path Behavioral norm Behavior Behavioral drivers • Enable • Information/awareness • Capacity/Infrastructure • Encourage • Incentives • Requirements • Recognition • Engage • Co-production • Fora • Networks • Exemplify • Consistency • Leading by example Increasing visibility Asapbio.org: FAQ, tracking policies Promoting preprint infrastructure & standardsFunder/ institutional policy #ASAPbio, transparency, Ambassadors Senior scientists CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 13 Similarity to conference talks/posters Preprint journal clubs in curricula Adapted from Knott, Muers, Aldridge, 2008. Achieving Culture Change: A Policy Framework. UK Cabinet Office Strategy Unit.
  14. 14. Thank you CC-BY @jessicapolka. #ASAPbio 14 ASAPbio Advisory board Ron Vale (UCSF) James Fraser (UCSF) Daniel Colόn-Ramos (Yale) Harold Varmus (Cornell) Harlan Krumholz (Yale) Cynthia Wolberger (JHU) Tony Hyman (MPI) ASAPbio Funding Simons Sloan Arnold Moore

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