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The branches of philosophy pdf
The branches of philosophy pdf
The branches of philosophy pdf
The branches of philosophy pdf
The branches of philosophy pdf
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The branches of philosophy pdf

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The hierarchical nature of the five branches of philosophy, method of defining personal philosophy, choosing values

The hierarchical nature of the five branches of philosophy, method of defining personal philosophy, choosing values

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  • this is nice chart
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  • Where is the theory of man in this chart? Does it answer the question Who am I? Is it a branch of philosophy? Is the theory of man prior to epistemology? Why or why not? Do you need to know who you are before you can say how you know in a way that is similar to knowing who you are before you can say how you should act?
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  • 1. PHILOSOPHY The Study of the fundamental nauture of existence, of man, and of man’s relationship to existence. The Theoretical Foundation of Philosophy Metaphysics The Theory of Reality The Study of Existence as Such Alternative #1 Alternative #2 Where Am I? In an incomprehensibly chaotic universe. In a universe which is ruled by natural laws. It is stable, firm, absolute and knowable. It is a realm of inexplicable miracles – unpredictable and unknowable. The things I see around me are real and The things I see around me are only an illusion exist independent of any observer. created in my own mind. Things are what they are and can not be Things can be changed by a mere act of my wished to be otherwise. consciousness. Things are the object of my consciousness. Things are the subject of my consciousness. Epistemology The Study of the Theory of Knowledge Alternative #1 How do I Know Alternative #2 What I Know? Man acquires knowledge by a sudden Man acquires knowledge by a process of revelation from a supernatural power. reason. Reason is a faculty fed by innate ideas that Reason is a faculty that identifies and were implanted in man’s mind before he was integrates the material provided by man’s born. senses. Man’s knowledge consists of automatic instincts Man’s knowledge is gained and held in and is held as vague emotional responses to conceptual form. mysterious events. Reason is competent to perceive reality. Man possesses a cognitive faculty that is Man can know reality with certainty at the superior to reason. current level of his knowledge. Man can know nothing with certainty and must live in perpetual doubt of his consciousness. Page 2 From Philosophy, Who Needs it Page 1 of 2 Ayn Rand
  • 2. Page 1 The Technology of Philosophy Applies only to Man – to his character, actions, values, and relationship to all existence. Ethics (Morality) The Theory of Moral Values Defines a code of values to guide man’s choices and actions that determine the course of his life. Alternative #1 What should I Do? Alternative #2 What is good or evil for man – and why? Commit to avoiding suffering. Commit to a quest for joy. Hold self-fulfillment as the goal of man’s life. Hold self-renunciation as the goal of man’s life. Man should pursue his own values. Man should place the interests of others above his own. Man should seek his own happiness. Man should serve and sacrifice for others. The moral is the understood and the chosen. The moral is the imposed and the obeyed. Politics and Economics The Theory of Legal Rights and Government which defines the principles of a proper social system Alternative #1 Alternative #2 How should I treat other men? Protect the rights of the individual. Subjugate the individual to the state. Create a free government that protects its Create a totalitarian government that enslaves citizens from aggressors and from injustice. some men for the use of other men. Establish the system of Capitalism. Establish the system of Collectivism. Aesthetics The Theory of the Nature of Art Alternative #1 How do I refuel men’s Alternative #2 spirit and consciousness? Produce inspiring works of art. Produce boring naturalistic works of art. Depict men becoming the best they can Depict men accepting whatever fate determines possibly be. to be their lot in life. Show the greatness possible to men. Show the smallness of men. Celebrate the thrill of discovery. Bemoan the mystery of the unknowable. Page 2 of 2
  • 3. Definition of Personal Philosophy (Method 1) A consious, rational, disciplined process of thought and scrupulously logical deliberation. Result #1 Result #2 A non-contradictory integration of Emotions that can be identified and that your observations, experiences, make sense based on your values. knowledge and convictions. Definition of Personal Philosophy (Method 2) Let your subconscious accumulate a junk heap of unwarranted conclusions, false generalizations, undefined contradictions, undigested slogans, unidentified wishes, doubts and fears, thrown together by chance. Result #1 Result #2 A stupifying mash integrated by your Everything that you think and feel will subconscious into a kind of mongrel be a dark mystery to you. philosophy. Page 3 From Philosophy, Who Needs it Ayn Rand
  • 4. Choose Your Values What is crucial to my life? Virtues: Rationality Controlling Values: Includes Values such as: Independence Reason Work Life Honesty Purpose Love Life Social Life Integrity Self Esteem Home Life Spirituality Justice Productiveness Pride The Ultimate Value Page Of Man’s Life 5 Fundamental Principles: Take Goal Directed Action Rationally validated Know what you love most and Clearly understood what to do with your finite life. Voluntarily accepted What excites and interests me and ignites my soul? Use Objective Reality Discover ideas about: Use your Judgment to: to: What to pursue in life. Decide how to apportion Help determine the level of The means required to your time and energy. rationality and metaphysical achieve your values. Organize your time, effort appropriateness of your How to rank your and lifestyle around the choices. values. hierarchy of your values. Achieve Survival and Happiness From Ayn Rand’s Normative Ethics On This Earth Tara Smith, Phd. Page 4
  • 5. Page 4 The Ruling Values (1) Reason, (2) Purpose, (3) Self-Esteem) 6 - Productiveness Diagram From Nathaniel Branden”s 2 - Independence “Six Pillars of Self Esteem” 1 - Rationality 3 - Honesty 5 - Justice 4 - Integrity Philosophy of Objectivism 7 – Pride From Ayn Rand’s The Seven Objective Virtues Required To gain and keep One’s Values 1) Rationality: The primary virtue: the recognition of objective reality, commitment to its perception, 5) Justice: The recognition of the fact that you cannot and the acceptance of reason as a man’s only fake the character of men. A man of justice earns what judge of values and guide to knowledge and he receives and neither gives nor takes the undeserved. action. He does not work except in exchange for something of value. He does not give his love, friendship, or esteem 2) Independence: The acceptance of one’s except in trade for the pleasure he receives from the intellectual responsibility for one’s own existence. virtues of individuals he respects. Love, friendship and It requires that a man form his own judgments and esteem, as moral tributes, are caused and must be that he support himself by the work of his own earned. mind. 3) Honesty: The selfish refusal to seek values by 6) Productiveness: The virtue of creating material faking reality. It recognizes that the unreal can values is the art of translating one’s thoughts and goals have no value. One should tell the truth that is into reality; a constant process of acquiring knowledge relevant to his relationship to the person with and shaping matter to fit one’s purpose, of translating an whom he is dealing. idea into physical form. 7) Pride: The recognition of the fact that you are your 4) Integrity: The refusal to permit a breach own highest value – that of any achievements open to between thought and action. It acknowledges the you, the one that makes all others possible is the fact that man is an indivisible, integrated entity of creation of your own character- that you are a being of mind and body. self-made soul. Page 5

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