Map Ancient Egyptian civilizationsstarted around 3,500 BCE andlasted for more than threethousand years and life revolvedaround the Nile river. The rivergave fertile soil for food, and was agood source for fresh water. Mostof the styles of art and religion thatwere in ancient time remain inmodern day Egypt.
Background Ancient Egypt was a thriving civilization becauseof its location. The cities were made right by the NileRiver on the fertile crescent. When the river flooded,the soil around absorbed all of the minerals and madeit good for growing crops. They were most recognizedfor the basically indestructible pyramids to keep thedead pharaohs in, and the hieroglyphics. The peopleof Ancient Egyptian cities built their houses out ofbricks made of mud.
Social Structure Most of the people that lived in Ancient Egypt were commoners that worked as farmers, scribes, field hands, or craft men. Farming in ancient Egypt progressed in a huge way with lots of workers and enormous farms. There was a small group of nobles, like the pharaoh. The slaves were at the bottom of this social structure pyramid underneath peasant farmers. The line kept going up with craftsmen merchants and other trade workers. Priests and scribes were above the trades because of their high education. Nobles and military leaders came next, underneath the countries leader, the pharaoh. Families taught the children how to behave, traditions beliefs and customs of their culture , and the laws of civilization.
Social StructurePyramid Most Important This is a diagram Pharaohsthat shows how thesocial structure was in ancient Egypt Nobles and Military Leaders Priests/Scribes Craftspeople Peasant Farmers Least Slaves Important
HousingHousing in Egypt differed depending on your socialstructure. Slaves would live in the house of their owners,but commoners would live in simple houses with theirfamilies. These were made of adobe (sun dried mudbricks) because of the shortage of wood in Egypt. Mosthouses were two or three story town houses with abusiness on the bottom and two living floors on the top.Nobles’ homes were huge with private rooms for the manand woman of the house, and for the children. The wereusually reception halls as well. These mansions weremade with adobe and decorated beautifully with wallhangings.
Food The type of food that ancient Egyptians ate wasplentiful and healthy, even for ordinary people. Mostcommon types of food were lots of vegetables, fruit,fish, and bread. Meat was expensive, but commonerssometimes ate pork. Raising animals just for the sakeof meat is and was very expensive, therefore it waseaten scarcely and at special occasions. Ordinarypeople and nobles would drink beer made from barley.Meat, wine, and fowl were things added to the menufor the rich. The food was cooked over open fires aswell as in pots made of clay.
Family Life Ancient Egyptian family life was highly valued, and children were loved and thought of as blessings. Women traditionally raised the children, but in wealthy families, there were slaves and servants to do that. Young boys learned to work from their fathers and little girls learned how to cook, clean, and other house work by their mothers at home. When the mothers and fathers got older, the children were expected to take care of them. After parents death, the daughters would acquire the jewellery and furniture, while the son would get the land.
Marriage Marriage in ancient Egypt was usually arrangedfor the girls around the age of twelve. The boys weregenerally a couple or few years older. Wealthy families’daughters were married a bit older. Almost all of thesemarriages were arranged by the parents, thoughsometimes the spouses chose each other. Kingssometimes had several wives while the common manonly had one. An agreement was signed by the pairbefore the wedding. Divorce was not common, but itdid happen and could be issued by either side.
Childhood Ancient Egyptians thought of children as blessingsand they were treated well and loved. The averagefamilies’ children would be raised by both parents butpredominantly the mother. Children would play withdolls, wooden horses and figures, and balls of clay. Asthey got older, they learned how to work from theirparent of the same gender. Children that lived in ancientEgypt grew up fast in a very grown-up world. Boys wereeducated by their fathers, and even some families werewealthy enough to afford to send their son to school.Children entered the world onto birth bricks on whichthe mother would be kneeling on.
Education Most of the children in ancient Egypt could not goto school. Children in rich families could afford to doit and were therefore better set up for living a richerlife. These children were most likely to go to scribalschool in hopes to become a famous scribe or pharaoh.If the family couldn’t send the children to scribalschool, they would become an apprentice to a worker.An apprentice would work with a willing worker tolearn how to do the job well and correctly.
Religion In ancient Egypt, the people believed strongly in the Gods and that impacted daily life in a huge way. The people believed this except for in the reign of the pharaoh Akenaton. Some of the 2000 Gods and Goddesses were worshiped through the whole country, while others were just worshiped in a few towns and cities. Some of the Goddesses and Gods were portrayed as half human, half animal. An example of one half animal God is Horus, the God of the sun, who had a hawk head. The religion believed in after life and people would spend lots of wealth and time to prepare for afterlife. They would put things that they needed for the second life in their tombs with them. They believed that everything that happened in a day, like the Nile river flooding, was influenced by the Gods and Goddesses.
Ra: Egyptian God ofthe Sun Ra was the ancient Egyptian God that ruled the sun. He was created when he rose from the Nun ocean and came onto the first land mound. The sun’s rays shone on Ra and the light ascended showed the way to heaven. The creation myth states that it was Ra who created the world. His symbols are always a scarab beetle and a sun disk, and sometimes, he is portrayed with a falcon head and a man body. The sun disk is over his head, and he may sometimes be wearing a double crown.
Clothing Almost all of the Ancient Egyptian clothes were made out a fabric created from flax. This fabric was linen. These clothes weren’t just wrapped around them, they were actually fit them well and were sewn. They were like long white t-shirts that went down to the ankles of women, and the knees of men. As for foot wear, they mostly went barefoot, but sometimes they wore sandals made of leather or straw. Dressing up fancy included makeup and jewellery. Kohl powder was used to rim eyes, darken eyelashes, and paint eyebrows. The rich and the poor wore jewellery such as earrings, rings, and necklaces made of beads or gold.
Art and Music The ancient Egyptians were one of the first cultures tohave design elements in art. Their wall paintings createdfor the pharaoh had to follow strict code of rules. Theseimages weren’t created in what the artist saw, but what heknew, and the images didn’t have a lot of depth achievedwith shading. People and objects were always drawn inprofile. Distance wasn’t shown with size, but the fartheraway an object would be, the higher it was, yet it was thesame size as closer ones. Music was played withinstruments like flutes, harps, lutes, percussioninstruments, lyres, double clarinets, and cymbals. Peopleoften danced along to music.
Conclusion In conclusion, ancient Egypt was a developedcivilization with their ways of daily life. The locationwas perfect because the Nile river provided what theyneed for fertile soil to grow food, and constant sourceof water. Religion was highly important in theinfluence of daily life. The Gods were thought to makeeverything happen because of something. Thiscivilization was very advanced and they developedmany technologies like papyrus, the great pyramids,and making clothing that was made out of linen. Thisancient civilization was thriving.
InformationBibliographyBooks See the World by World Book. Published in 2000 by World Book Inc., Chicago. Ancient Peoples by Claire Forbes. Published in199 by Two-Can Publishing Ltd., USA Ancient Worlds by Toutant, Arnold and Doyle, Susan. Published in 2000 by Oxford University Press, Canada.Websites Ancient Egypt by the British Museum @ http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/menu.html Food: Bread, Beer, and all Good Things by André Dollinger; 2000 @ http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/food.htm#rem4 Egypt: Daily Life by St. Petersburg Times; 1999 @ http://www2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.2.html Childhood by André Dollinger; 2000 @ http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/people/childhood.htm Ancient Egyptian Education by Bartlett Elementary School @ http://library.thinkquest.org/J002046F/education.htm Ancient Egyptian Religion by St. Petersburg Times:1999 @ http://www2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.3.html Sun God Ra by Linda Alchin; 2009 @ http://www.king-tut.org.uk/egyptian-gods/sun-god-ra.htm Ancient Egyptian Clothing by Jessie, Sarah, and Courtney @ http://www.islandnet.com/~kpotter/egypt/cloth.htm Egyptian Clothing by Dr. Karen Carr; 2011 @ http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/clothing/’ Culture of Egypt by Wikipedia @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Egypt#Visual_art
Photo Credits Title slide - Hieroglyphs by Daniel Racovitan @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/bebulaki/1457703975/ Title slide- purple pattern by “javaturtle” @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/javaturtle/135239502/ Slide 2 - map by Norman B Leventhal Map center at the BPL @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/normanbleventhalmapcenter/ Slide 3 - city by Adam Wood @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/adam_wood/1570358703/ Slide 4 - pharaoh by Richard Uzermans @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/ironmanixs/515926670/ Slide 6- ancient house by Ian W Scott @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/ian-w-scott/4099442192/ Slide 7 - hummus and pita bread by “Watch Mojo” @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/watchmojo/5424908257/ Slide 8 - family statues by Mary Harrsch @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/mharrsch/4119873309/ Slide 9 - married couple statue by Jim Forest @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimforest/127063031/ Slide 10 - birth brick @ http://www.eartharchitecture.org/index.php?/categories/23-Egypt Slide 11 - scribe statue by Wally Gobetz @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/2434734289/ Slide 12 - scribe bird God by “jefka” @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/jefka/3815056107/ Slide 13 - Ra god by “Gravitywave” @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/gravitywave/388362374/ Slide 14 - Women’s dress by Soshana @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/shoshie/5156338028/ Slide15 - Egyptian art by “karioinfo4u” @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/manna4u/4460302020/ Slide 16 - pyramids by Omar A. @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/oansari/2235706594/