Time FrameThe development of Ancient Greece began around 800 b.c and lasted until about 140 b.c. So the full development of Ancient Greece took 660 years to complete. There were several different periods during this time frame though. There was the archaic period in which the first large buildings and temples were build and created, the classic period where the arts such as painting and politics began, and the Hellenistic period that was the time for war in Ancient Greece and Rome
Background Ancient Greece is a beautiful place known for it’s magnificent buildingsand statues, Greek myths, Greek gods and goddesses, art, and some foods.Greek’s weather is also bautiful being most hot in the summer and dry in thewinter. The tribes of Ancient Greece began to distribute themselves around1000 b.c and Ancient Greece’s empire had most power in 146 b.c. The twomost important cities of Ancient Greece was Athens and Sparta as they werethe most wealthiest and strongest. Ancient Greece contained several states,and each had their own government and laws, although all shared the samelanguage, and religion. In fact several Ancient Greece words are used inEnglish today. For example the word aquarium comes from the Greek word“aqua” meaning water. Also, the very popular sporting event, the Olympicsbegan in Ancient Greece in 776 b.c. The Greek Myths and Gods are also verywell known. Today some schools teach their students about Ancient Greekreligion and what they believed in when they didn’t understand a concept.The Ancient Greeks were also fascinating at art, using the supplies they couldafford, they could create great masterpieces that are put up in display in somemuseums.
SOCIAL STRUCTURE Ancient Greece social structure was divided into two types of people: slavesand free people. Slaves were used for labour, or personal assistants and had nolegal rights. Usually slaves were from other countries brought by slave traders.Slaves lived with their owners, they were almost never paid. As the civilizationdeveloped men were divided into two categories; Metics and Citizens. A citizen wasborn in the country and had Athenian parents, they were allowed to take part inthe Government. A metic was born out of the country, but travelled to Greece.They could never achieve status as a citizen, they weren’t allowed to own homes orland in Greece, they were also not allowed to marry a citizen. Women took thesame status as their husbands. The Greek social structure took on a pyramid ofimportance. Rich philosophers and heroes were at the top, then citizens, poorcitizens, women and children, then finally slaves. The upper class citizens alwayshad slaves and were exempt from trading. This elite class, as it was sometimescalled was very small, numbering only about 300 families. The middle class waslarge, made up of mostly professional men like tradesman, artists, managers andmanufacturers. The lower class was mainly made up of liberated slaves.
HOUSING Homes were designed to keep people cool and out of the heat. Menand women usually stayed in different parts of the house. The women’sroom was usually upstairs. The majority of houses were made of stone orclay and were two storeys. Most of the roofs were covered with tiles orreeds. The floors were tiled, so the ground stayed cool. The houses havestrong walls and based around a courtyard. Women did their weaving inthe courtyard, which usually had an altar for the goddess Hestia, and awell for collecting water. Most houses had a storeroom for food like oliveoil, wine and grain. Males had their own room called an Andron, whichthey used for entertaining. Olive oil and grain were stored in large jarscalled amphorae. Crafts like jewellery were usually created in a workroomin the house. Water for baths was collected from a local fountain and thenheated over the fire. Slaves rooms were small and cramped with littlefurniture. Gynaikons were special rooms for women where theysometimes spun or wove, and entertained female guests.
HOW THE WEALTHY LIVED The rich people in Ancient Greece had a more exotic, interesting dietthan those who couldn’t afford much. They ate roasted hare, peacock, oriris bulbs in vinegar. Wealthy people also had slaves to cook for them, andfor dinner parties they ordered specially trained chefs. Poor people werein bed when the sun rose, and set because lighting was expensive, but thewealthy lit their homes with oil lamps. Even rich houses were simplyfurnished, the wealthy lived in large homes with many rooms. In richhouses, women were supposed to run and organize home. Wealthywomen were dressed by their maids, they could also afford finermaterials, and more expensive jewellery. The wore silk and cotton, theirhand maidens carried parasols over them to protect them form the sun ifthey went out. Wealthy girls could not leave their homes. Wealthy peoplealways had slaves. In some states wealthy men, even if they wereunelected had some power and rule over land. Rich ladies were kept in theback of the house to protect them from unknown men. Rich children hadtutors and nursemaids.
Food Ancient Greek food was quite simple to make and serve, although agood variety to keep a healthy body. The variety of food included freshvegetables, bread, milk, grapes, and more. The rich could afford betterquality food though. The food the rich would eat was cheese, fish, squid,apples, olives, and more delicacies. Hunting brought in a lot of fresh gameand meat. Wine was contained inside goat skins that had been sewn upand were transported by donkey or mule. The Greek God Dionysus wasthe god of wine and many civilians drank wine to honour the God. To getmeat as a farmer in Ancient Greece you would have to kill your livestock. Ifyou lived in a town, you would be able to purchase meat from a butchersshop. Because the fish and seafood industry in Greece was plentiful, oceanfood was a key part of their diet. Olive trees on the land were notuncommon and olive oil was included in almost every meal. Greeks notonly ate their food, they also played games with it. The Greek men used toplay a wine game, where the men had to splatter wine on the wallconfirming ones true love.
Family Life Family was significant in ancient Greece because it allowed them theopportunity to have an education, a roof over their head, enough to eat,training for a job, and gave you a better chance to find a husband or wife. Thefather of the family was the head of the household. He was the person whocontrolled the slaves and had the option of kicking anyone out of the house,even forcing them to marry someone! The women in the family was expectedfor being loyal to her husband and taking care of the home. If a women didthis she was valued for it. Although, the most important role a women playedwas to give birth to continue your family line. As a boy in Ancient Greece, youwere sent to school to become strong and brave and encouraged by yourfamily to die rather thenface defeat. As a girl from a rich family, you had noright to go to school or leave the house, and instead were taught calculations,dances, songs and more special women skills. Poor families and rich familieswere very different in certain parts of Greece. For example, if you worked on afarm, and belonged to a poor family you may marry someone you fall in lovewith, but as a rich noble girl, you did not have this opportunity, and insteadwere arranged to be married by someone else.
MARRIAGE Poor people had the ability to marry anyone they fell in love with, while therich and noble girls were forced to marry someone against their own will. Thewedding usually lasted three days. It was traditional for the bride to make anoffering to the Goddess of women, Artemis before every wedding. The parents ofthe bride gave a gift of money or goods to the family of the groom. With thewedding finished, the bride travels to her new home with the groom. Friendscame to the house of the groom a day later with gifts to give to the new couple.Girls married between the ages of fourteen and eighteen, while men married intheir twenties or thirties. Fifteen was the most common age for girls to marry.Divorces were allowed in Ancient Greece, the husband paid back the remainingdowry to the family of the wife. Many Greek marriages took place in the month ofJanuary due to the fact that it was a sacred month to the Goddess Hera, meaning“The Wedding Month”. The day before the wedding a feast was held at the houseof the bride’s parents. Also that night, the bride would sacrifice toys and objectsfrom her childhood to symbolize that she was a young girl no more.
CHILDBIRTHAs a women the main expectation of you was that you would give birth to many children. In Athens, children were always born in the houses of their mother. It was not uncommon for both babies and mothers to die from birth. In fact, the percentages were high. Occasionally a mid wife would deliver the baby in wealthy families. In Ancient Greece, women would notify the neighbours that a child had been born by hanging one of two things on the front door. An olive branch for a male baby, and a woolen strip for a female baby. Before the baby was accepted into the family, the women had to show her husband, and it was the husbands choice of whether the baby could stay or not.
CHILDHOOD Ugly or deformed babies were sometime abandoned by theirfamilies on a mountain. Children spent most of the time with their motherwhile they were young. This means they mainly stayed in the womenspart of the house. Girls rarely left the house and received all of theirteaching and learning at home. Boys on the other hand were allowed toattend school when they reached the age of 7. Kids played with toys likerattles, dolls, and toy animals. As it is today wealthier families couldaffords more and better toys for their children. Children from poorfamilies began to work for the family at a young age. At the age of twelveor thirteen, girls were viewed as adults and were legal marrying age. Theytook their toys from when they were younger and left them in a temple ofArtemis. This action symbolized they were young ladies and it was time tolet go of being a child. Soon after marriage, girls were expected to producea child. If they were unable to do this, it would be considered a curse. Ateighteen, it was necessary that boys joined the army for two years.
GREEK VS. CANADIAN CHILDHOOD Greek childhood is very similar to Canadian. Young childrenplayed with toys, but wealthier families could afford better. This fact isthe same in both cultures and many others around the world. Childrenare not left on mountains if they are deformed, nowadays as they did inAncient Greece. Now, parents can offer up their children for adoption,but it is illegal to abandon them. Young children play with similar toysnow as they did in Ancient Greece, dolls, and animals are notuncommon. Now, in Canada it is mandatory that all children, boys andgirls attend school. This was not the case in Ancient Greece, this is oneof the many things that have changed. Girls are not considered adultsuntil around the ages of 18-19. Twelve or thirteen year olds are still inelementary school now, and would not marry for another few years.Girls were expected to marry between the ages of 14-18, and now, inCanada it is illegal to marry before the age of 16. In Canada, girls arenot expected to leave all their childhood toys like they were in AncientGreece. Many married women now, still have some of their childhoodkeepsakes. Now being a teenage mother is frowned upon. Boys are notrequired to join the army now, like they did in Greece. Sports are alsoslightly different for each civilization. In Canada sports are safe andinlcude things such as basketball and soccer that both boys and girlscan play. In Ancient Greek sports were dangerous and includedwrestling and javelin throwing and were for the boys only.
EDUCATION Family gave you the ability to have an education, so if you had no family youwouldn’t get an education. If you were a boy at school, you were taught how to readand write. You would also be taught mathematics using a special tool called an abacus.Boys would also learn how to memorize and present poems, how to sing, and how todo gymnastics, which actually included running, jumping, wrestling, and throwingjavelins. During these activities a boy may be beaten due to not trying hard enough, ora lack of spirit. The races were run on sand in rooms called the gymnasium, whichmeant exercise room. Here the boys were taught to never be afraid, and to die ratherthen face defeat. A schoolboys goal was to become well-balanced, strong, and smart. Asa rich girl, going to school was disallowed, and instead they were taught women rolesby their mothers. These activities included weaving, spinning, reading and writing, andcalculating. You also had the special opportunity to be taught secret, and special dancesand dances by your mother. Knowing these dances and songs allowed a special pass forwomen to enter extraordinary women festivals. In Sparta, women’s education was quitedifferent. Women were well-educated, allowed to take part in politics, and were evenallowed to participate in sporting events, while wearing very few pieces of clothing thatwas shocking to other Greeks.
RELIGION The ancient Greeks believed in a system of 12 main gods and goddesses that lived inthe clouds on mount Olympus. Also, many other Gods and Goddesses were patron saints ofsmaller matters. Greeks would often say prayers and worship Gods in their designatetemples. Sometimes sacrifices were made in order to earn respect of a God. Zeus was thehead God and the Lord of the Sky. He and his two brothers Poseidon and Hades were theGods of the sea and the underworld. Zeus had a wife called Hera, and a daughter Athena.Hera was the Goddess of marriage, Athena was the Goddess of crafts, war, and wisdom.Other Gods include Apollo, God of music, Artemis, Goddess of Maidens and hunting, Aresthe God of war. Aphrodite, Goddess of love and beauty, Demeter, Goddess of corn, Hermes,God of thieves messages, Dionysus, God of wine were some of the main twelve too. Anyimportant event taken place in your life were thought to be the result of the Gods actions.The people of Greece believed when it was sunny, Zeus was in a good mood, when therewere thunderstorms Zeus was angry. In the winter, the people believed that the GoddessDemeter was grieving from the loss of her daughter Persephone. During the day peoplewould make prayers, offerings and sometimes sacrifices for the gods to keep the godpleased, and male your life well. Or if you would like to make an apology to a god fordoubting them, similar actions would be taken. This god religion affected daily life of thepeople in Greek because it changed the way weddings and festivals worked, buildings werecreated from hard work in life, and this religion also took up parts of their day for praying.
ATHENA Athena was the favourite child of Zeus, the Goddess of wisdom, war andcrafts. She was the daughter of Zeus’ first wife Metis, Zeus ate her while shewas pregnant with Athena and she was born from him. The Goddess was bornfrom the head of Zeus, fully dressed in battle armour. Two Gods, Athena andPoseidon both loved an unnamed city in Greece. Both of them wanted the cityfor their own, and it was decided there would be a contest, whoever createdthe finest gift would win. Poseidon created the fountain, which was beautiful,but not very useful. Athena created the olive tree. This gift was perfect becauseit supplied the people of the city with food, oil and wood. She won the contestand the city was named Athens. The Parthenon, one of the most famoustemples in the world was dedicated to the Goddess. She almost always worearmour, so she would be ready to battle at a moments notice, a gray owl wasalways on her shoulder, signifying wisdom. Athena had no children andremained unmarried. In Rome, Athena was called Minerva.
CLOTHING Ancient Greek men often wore no clothing as the climate in Greece was verywarm. When women were around they were well covered, though athletes atsporting events were always nude. Women were always told to be properlyclothed and were not allowed outside naked unless you were a dancing girl. Whenleaving the house, rich or noble women wore veils which covered their heads andpart of their face. The clothing of the Ancient Greeks was simple and did notrequire much sewing. Usually Greek women were either barefoot or wore simplesandals. Most sandals were red or yellow. The material of mens sandals wereleather and polished with olive oil. Men wore tunics and women wore dorics, orchitons. Chitons were made of light fabric or linen and were sometimes worn withbelts. Men and womens clothing were very similar. Greek womens hair wasalways long because it was considered disrespectful for it to be short. Women hadpersonal maids to arrange gold and silver pins in hair. Men wore their hair manydifferent ways, from beards to full-faced helmets. If you were a wealthy Greekwomen you would wear gold jewellery and earrings. Only the servants ever gotsun tanned because they werent covered as well as the rich and noble. But thewealthy preferred it that way as it was undamaging to the skin and part oftradition.
ART AND MUSIC The ancient Greek’s creativity was amazing and they could even make wineglasses look beautiful. Ancient Greek art consists of 5 main types. These groupswere architecture, sculpting, painting, painted pottery, and music. Greek musicincluded the lyre, pipes and vocals. Ancient Greek architecture consisted oftemples, houses, city walls, theatres, and tombs. In fact, Greeks built five worldwonders. Only a few paintings over the centuries, so most of the art was onpottery like vases. Many sculpture muses were animals, Greek Gods andGoddesses, everyday scenes and ordinary people. Typical Greek paintings werecalled panel paintings and were portable and painted on wooden boards. AncientGreek sculptures were mainly bronze and stone, sometimes they used wood orother materials. Greeks also put on several plays, as well as dances. The plays wereentertaining for the whole community, and many people came to watch them.Men played all parts, even those of girls. Tambourines were used for dances tokeep the beat. Panpipes, the double flute, and kitharas were common orchestrainstruments. Ancient Greeks also made beautiful, and colourful pictures using tiles,called mosaics.
FESTIVALS Greek festivals were usually religious and related to the Gods, usually oneGod in particular. A common festival was the special womens festival inhonour of the goddess Athena, that only rich and noble girls and women couldattend. Only noble’s were allowed in because, to gain entry, they must knowsecret songs and dances that rich girls were taught. The biggest sporting eventin all of Ancient Greece was the Olympics, wars were cancelled in order for thegames to be enjoyable.. Olympic events included boxing, wrestling, running,jumping, pankration, equestrian events, and the pentathlon. The pentathlonincluded two sports, javelin throwing and discus. At a variety of festivalsmusicians and actors took part to entertain spectators and guests. Differentfestivals included religious, sporting celebrations and military parades. Thefestival for the Goddess Demeter was called Themophoria. Aphrodite’s festivalwas called Apaturia. Other festivals were in honour of the various gods onMount Olympus. Often festivals were joyfully celebrated and everyone whoattended was in a bright a good mood, although there were some festivals thatwere to be celebrated seriously.
Conclusion Ancient Greece was a wonderful place that offered sportsand education. Although if you lived in Ancient Greece, beingwealthy was a huge advantage in most areas as only the richand noble good afford delicacies such as rich food, maids, anda healthy family. Ancient Greek’s are well known across theworld for beautiful sculptures, the most famous of Greek godsand goddess, and for their creation of the Olympic Games.Children in Ancient Greece were brought up well and weretold to be strong, which may be why Greece was verysuccessful during war. So, do you think you could survive as anAncient Greek?
BibliographyBooks: How Would you Survive as an Ancient Greek? By Fiona MacDonald, David Salariya Scholastic Canada Atlas of the World By Philip SteeleWebsites: Ancient Greece Social Structure- http://projects.cbe.ab.ca/glendale/showcase/utopia/class_structure.htm Ancient Greek Art-http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/art/greekart.htm Ancient Greek Olympics-http://greece.mrdonn.org/olympics.htm Ancient Greek Period-http://www.the-artfile.com/ArtFile/history/greek/greek.shtml Children of Ancient Greece-http://historylink102.com/greece3/children.htm Everyday Life in Ancient Greece-http://www.localhistories.org/GREECE.HTML Greek Art-http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/greek-art.htm Houses in Ancient Greece- http://www.woodlandsjunior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/greece/houses.htm Marriages in Ancient Greece-http://www.historylink102.com/greece3/marriage.htm The Greek House-http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/dailylife/challenge/cha_set.html
Title Picture Bibliographyhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/27432548@N08/5532644784/sizes/m/in/photostrea/Map-http://www.bitsofnews.com/images/graphics/map_ancient_greece_large.jpegBackground-http://www.freakingnews.comhttp://www.britannica.comSocial Structure-http://www.truthtree.comHousing-http://www.archaeolink.comHow the Wealthy livedhttp://www.resourcesforhistoryteachers.wikispaces.comFood- http://www.movies-gradyjordanmartin.blogspot.comFamilyhttp://www.rainbow-theatre.comMarriage-http://www.aperfectcelebration.comChildhood-http://www.ookaboo.comhttp://www.ihs.issaquah.wednet.edu
Picture BibliographyCanada vs. Greece-http://www.partytimedirect.co.ukhttp://www.hamiltoncroatia.comEducation-http://www.websters-online-dictionary.netReligion-http://www.freethoughtpedia.comhttp://www.wallpaperphotoshare.comAthena-http://www.hranajanto.comhttp://www.theoi.comClothing-http://www.new-twinspace.etwinning.nethttp://www.jokingaround.co.ukArt and Music-http://www.stores.myvillagemusic.comhttp://www.grahamart.comFestivals-http://www.factoidz.comhttp://brads-healthy-lifestyle.com
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