MAP OF ANCIENT EGYPTDuring this time frame,ancient Egypt was dividedinto Upper and LowerEgypt. Lower Egypt wasfarther north and UpperEgypt was farther south.However, Upper andLower Egypt split between1000 and 1100 B.C. Thiscivilization lasted from3100 B.C. to 30 B.C. Thisis equivalent to the firstDynasty to the PtolemaicDynasty.
PyramidsBACKGROUND of Giza Hieroglyphic script The civilization of ancient Egypt that I chose lasted from 3100 B.C. to 30 B.C. (the first Dynasty to the Ptolemaic Dynasty). 3100 B.C. is when the Hieroglyphic script was invented and Upper and Lower Egypt were unified. In 30 B.C., Cleopatra VII died. In between this long period of time, many important events happened such as the pyramids of Giza were built, various kings ruled Egypt, the temple of Karnak was built, and Upper and Lower Egypt split. There have been many events that have occurred in Ancient Egypt that have made history. Temple of Cleopatra VII Karnak
SOCIAL STRUCTUREThe Social Pyramid is a metaphorical way of showing whichindividual is in a higher class than another. In this case, thePharaoh is the most important. Then come the viziers, who arethe Pharaohs most trusted advisors. The highpriests and nobles are next, the officials andscribes were the only people who knew howto read and write, the skilled craftsmen werebelow the high priests and nobles, and at thebottom of the Social Pyramid are the slaves,labourers, and the peasants. The position ofeach of these individuals was dependent ontheir class, gender, race, and occupation.
Mud bricks The average house in ancient Egypt had four rooms; small rooms joined to a central room. The central room was often higher than the others and used for sleeping. The other three H OUSING rooms were usually a kitchen, a storage room or extra bedroom, and an entry room that led to the central room. However, theIn ancient Egypt, the houses were mainly wealthy people usually had ten rooms andmade out of mud bricks. Brick makers would the poor people only had one.let the mud bake in the sun after placing themin wooden moulds. The mud bricks would bestacked to make houses as soon as they Ancienthardened. After the annual flood, there was a Egyptianlot of mud in ancient Egypt, especially around housethe Nile River. For the wealthier people, thehouses were made out of double thick wallsand the poor people lived in houses made outof walls that were only one brick thick. Tiles in aThe floor in a poor person‟s home was dug richbeneath the ground. The floor of a wealthy Every rich person‟s home had aperson‟s home was tiled. The roof of a house garden with a swimming pool. person‟swas made out of timber and was covered with Except for the poor, most people housethatch and matting. Reeds and straw bound had furniture in their home. Thetogether is thatch and it was layered with mud richer the person, the more furnitureplaster. Because the inside of a house was they had. The wealthiest homesdimly lit, people often used the roof as living even had painted walls; usually bluespace. or yellow with coloured ceilings.
Wheat FOOD Salmon Most Egyptian food came from the Nile River. Because of the Nile River, Egypt had extremely fertile soil around the area which was great for growing crops. The river produced enough fish to supply the people with their daily recommended amount of fish and meat, seeing as how it is difficult for ancient Egypt to raise livestock. Since there is very fertile soil around the Nile River, people would grow wheat to make many food recipes or be fermented and ground into different things, vegetables including peas, beans, onions, garlic, leeks, lettuce, cabbages, and turnips, and fruits including figs, dates, and grapes which could be used to make wine for those who could afford it. The wealthy people could afford to eat coconuts, olives, and meat on occasion. The poor people could only afford to eat wheat and whatever fruits and vegetables they could grow in a garden.Lettuce Figs Turnips Grapes
Egyptian Trading FAMILY LIFE Egyptian FamilyIn the poor ancient Egyptian families, the mother raised the children. In the richerfamilies, hired servants and slaves would help take care of the children and providethem with their basic needs. Whether rich or poor, ancient Egyptians thought ofchildren as a blessing and a treasure. Surprisingly, men and women were treatedequally and had the same rights for the most part; however, the women were still taught Egyptianand expected to obey their fathers and husbands. In fact, the wives and mothers of thepharaohs were known to have the „real‟ ruling power. In the absence of their husbands Acrobator sons, women could run farms and businesses. People hired women in courts andtemples to work as acrobats, singers, dancers and musicians. Women worked asmaids and nannies for the rich families and also could become priests if they werenoblewomen. Also, women sometimes worked as perfume makers and professionalmourners. Trading and crafting was the job of a young boy; they learned these skillsfrom their fathers or an artisan. Young girls learned their training from their mothers athome. If a family was wealthy enough, they would send their son to school to studyreligion, reading, arithmetic, and writing at about seven years old. Too bad that it wasagainst the law for girls to go to school. All children were intended to look after theirparents if they were elderly. If the parents died, the son would take over the land andthe girl would inherit all of the household goods. Although if there were no sons, theland would become the daughter‟s.
MARRIAGEAncient Egyptian marriage Egyptian Jewellery
CHILDBIRTH PRACTICES (EXTRA) Egyptian woman with babyBirth Stool
CHILDHOOD Most ancient Egyptian children had brothers and sisters. It was very rare for parents to let their children die if they were too poor to look after them because whether rich or poor, children were highly valued and loved. It made it easier for poor families because most children didn‟t need clothes until they left babyhood. Before the children were old enough to play outside, their mother looked after them. Wealthy parents owned servants to look after the babies, whereas working mothers took their babies wherever they had to go. If a child‟s mother was a slave, there is a chance that the child may become a slave as well. As a slave, people get beaten or sold, although if you did your job well, your owner may reward you with freedom. A lot of foreigners were quite surprised with the fact that children were loved very much for the most part because in other countries, people would take their children for granted.
Reading and writing; HieroglyphicsEDUCATIONWhen the boys were four years old, their father would start to teach themeverything they needed to know. The son would usually follow in hisfathers footsteps, so if a father traded goods, he would teach his son therules of trading so he could become a trader one day. Some childrenattended a school in a village, whereas other children went to school thatwas meant for a particular career such as a scribe or priest. The schoolsmainly taught reading, writing, math, sports, morals, and manners. Thehigher branch of education called “Instruction of Wisdom” taughtmorality, ethics, and knowledge needed to become a doctor or scribe.When a boy was fourteen, he would join his father in his career. Althoughschools were not open for girls, they could train to be dancers, bakers,entertainers, and weavers. Girls were usually trained by their mothers onmotherhood and learning how to be a good wife. Only the wealthiestfamilies could afford their daughters getting education in reading andwriting. Egyptian school
Ba (left) and ka (right)RELIGION The ancient Egyptians had around 2000 gods and goddesses; some of them were worshiped by everybody, and others worshiped by certain citizens and ethnic groups. Quite a few gods and goddesses were shown and represented as part animal and part human. It was believed that a person had the ba or soul of a bird with a human head and every ancient Egyptian had a twin called a ka. The ka would make trips to the world where gods and goddesses of the dead lived and the ba kept in touch with family and friends from the dead. The ka and ba always lived in the body of its person forever, even in his or her tombstone. If the ka and ba couldn‟t find its person, the Egyptian would not live forever and it was mummified so the ba and ka could locate it. For a person to live forever, he or she had to be honest. Egyptian god Anubis would weigh a person‟s heart with the feather of truth to decipher whether or not that person was honest. If the heart weighed more than the feather of truth, the person wasn‟t honest and his or her heart would be eaten by an animal that was part alligator, part cheetah, and part lion called the devourer, and if the feather weighed more than the heart, the person was honest and would live forever. There were many different theories on how the world started including the ocean started in darkness. After, dry land rose up and the sun god appeared and he created light and all things. There were many temples in ancient Egypt, as they were the dwelling places for the gods. When a pharaoh died, he became a god. All in all, religion was a big part in Egyptian lives. Weighing the heart with the Devourer feather of truth
CLEOPATRA VII She was the Queen of Egypt from 51 B.C. until(EXTRA) she died in 30 B.C. The people of Egypt idolized her for her original statements with her style and ways to govern the country.Cleopatra VII was a part of thePtolemaic Dynasty. She wasborn in late 69 B.C. and died in30 B.C. She ruled Egypt afterAlexander the Great. Sherefused to speak Egyptian andtherefore spoke Greek.
Egyptian Tunic wigsCLOTHING Loincloth Sandals JewelleryClothing has hardly changed over the course of a hundred years. Almostalways, the ancient Egyptian clothes were made out of linen, which theywove from fibres of the flax plant. The workers wore loincloths or tunicdresses; although when they were on the job, they would often worknaked and the servant girls just wore a belt. Wealthy people woretransparent white cloth that was pleated, draped, then tied to fit them. Ontheir heads they wore black wool wigs and makeup on their eyes and lips.Before being clothed, each person had to be washed. This means thatwater is poured over you and the rich people had tiled washing areas tobe washed on. After an Egyptian was washed, he or she would putscented oil all over his or her body. Each women would wear rings,necklaces, and earrings out of gold or beads, whether rich or poor.Ancient Egyptians wore sandals out of plaited papyrus, leather, and palmfibre, although they were only worn when they were necessary andcarried around otherwise. Loincloths and tunic dresses were made usinga spindle and a stripper and wigs were made out of human hair.
ART AND MUSICArt Flute (left) and cymbalsAncient Egyptian art consisted of painting,sculpting, architecture, papyrus, pottery, (left)hieroglyphs, and literature. Animals werevery symbolic in Egyptian art and the Musiccolours used were very expressive. When In ancient Egypt, music waspainting humans, it was typical to have thehead facing the side, showing the person‟s significant in every day life. Musicportrait, the torso facing front, and the legs occurred in festivals, entertainment,and feet facing the side. Sculptures mainly dancing, temples, workshops,represented Egyptian gods and palaces, farms, battlefields, andgoddesses. Architects used sun dried and tombs. Egyptian god Osiris broughtkiln baked brick to build. The buildingswere then decorated from top to bottom. music into everyday life. ThroughoutPapyrus means paper. Crafting papyrus the Predynastic period, Old Kingdom,had to be done with precision. Pottery was and Middle Kingdom, harps, flutes,steatite or soapstone carved into vases, double clarinets, percussiondeities, or animals. Hieroglyphs are an instruments, lyres, lutes, and cymbalsEgyptian form of writing. Literature wasalmost always written on papyrus and were brought into civilization. Inincluded elements of Egyptian art. ancient Egypt, there was folk music, coptic music, and saidi music. All in Painting (left) all, music was a large part of and sculpture civilization in ancient Egypt. (right)
There were often festivals of the gods. They were holidays that would sometimes even last for several days. Throughout festivals, there isFESTIVALS (EXTRA) singing, dancing, lots of noise in the streets, eating, and drinking. The Beautiful Festival of the Valley was celebrated in the Middle Kingdom period and later. This was in the 12th Dynasty. This festival was celebrated every year for the second month of Shomu (beginning of summer; harvest season). This festival represented the land of the dead and the Thebes that dated in the Middle Kingdom.
Egyptian children playing (left) and religion- ka (left)CONCLUSION Elders were respected
INFORMATION BIBLIOGRAPHYWebsites: Ancient Egypt http://www.woodlandsjunior.kent.sch.uk/homework/egypt/Hierarchy.html Ancient Egyptian Food http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ancient-egyptian-food.htm Ancient Egyptian Religion http://www2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.3.html Art of Ancient Egypt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_of_ancient_Egypt A Timeline of Ancient Egyptian History http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/time/explore/main.html Cleopatra VII http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleopatra_VII Education in Ancient Egypt http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/a-education.htm Egypt: Daily Life http://www2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.2.html Houses of Ancient Egypt http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/house.htm Housing in Ancient Egypt http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/a-housing.htm Music in Ancient Egypt http://www.umich.edu/~kelseydb/Exhibits/MIRE/Introduction/AncientEgypt/AncientEgypt.html Religion http://www.site-ology.com/egypt/RELIG.HTM Social Structures of Ancient Egypt http://www.all-about-egypt.com/social-structures-of- ancient-egypt.html The Middle Eastern Dowry http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/gift_giving_customs/77199
INFORMATION BIBLIOGRAPHY #2Books: Clare, John D. Pyramids of Ancient Pyramids. San Diego: Harcourt, 1992. Morley, Jaqueline. How Would You Survive as an Ancient Egyptian? Belgium: Franklin Watts, 1995.
PICTURE BIBLIOGRAPHY http://schools.tdsb.on.ca/silverthornjps/egypt/index.htm Pyramids. Slide 1. http://www.bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_pharaonic_egypt.html Map of ancient Egypt. Slide 1. http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/time/explore/tihie.html Hieroglyphic Script. Slide 3. http://tigerx.com/history/people/cleopatra.htm Cleopatra VII. Slide 3. http://www.places-to-visit.us/category/Egypt.html Pyramids of Giza. Slide 3. http://www.wayfaring.info/2006/10/30/the-astonishing-temple-of-karnak-in-luxor-spiritual-center-of-the- ancient-egyptians/ Temple of Karnak. Slide 3. http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/homework/egypt/Hierarchy.html Social structure of ancient Egypt. Slide 4. http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/a-housing.htm Ancient Egyptian House. Slide 5. http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/house.htm Mud bricks and tile floor. Slide 5. http://www.khalilpakistan.com/trading.html Wheat. Slide 6. http://www.victorialodging.com/recreation/fishing Salmon. Slide 6. http://www.foodpoisonjournal.com/foodborne-illness-outbreaks/the-uglier-side-of-lettuce/ Lettuce. Slide 6. http://www.sheknows.com/food-and-recipes/articles/805855/turnips-and-red-kidney-beans Turnips. Slide 6. http://www.justfruitsandexotics.com/Figs.htm Figs. Slide 6. http://www.free-extras.com/images/grapes-5432.htm Grapes. Slide 6. http://www.fathom.com/course/21701778/session2.html Egyptian family. Slide 7. http://www.mediastorehouse.com/trade_ancient_egypt/print/585699.html Egyptian trading. Slide 7. http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/themestream/egypt_soul.html Egyptian Acrobat. Slide 7. http://www.adornmentsatthefactory.net/tag/gemology/ Ancient Egyptian marriage. Slide 8. http://fashionweekblog.blog.com/ Ancient Egyptian Jewellery. Slide 8. http://www.fourmums.com/just-us-two/06-02-2011/one-yanked-out-every-minute-under-bright-hallogen-lights/ Birth Stool. Slide 9. http://www.ancient-egypt-history.com/2011/02/ancient-egyptian-womens-health-and.html Egyptian woman with baby. Slide 9.
PICTURE BIBLIOGRAPHY #2 http://pc.ign.com/dor/objects/669069/immortal-cities-children-of-the-nile/images/immortal-cities- children-of-the-nile-20040623042954236.html Children playing. Slide 10 & 17. http://oldegypt.wikispaces.com/Hieroglyphics+Symbols Hieroglyphics. Slide 11. http://ancientegyptmoberly.pbworks.com/w/page/12830337/Ancient-Egypt-Education Ancient Egyptian school. Slide 11. http://www.andrewgough.co.uk/forum/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=3360 Bird with human head. Slide 12. http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ka.htm Egyptian ka. Slide 12 & 17. http://www.stencilkingdom.com/catalogue/catalogue.php?page=egypt/catalogue_body_egypt_egypt 44.php Heart and feather of truth. Slide 12. http://www.egyptiandreams.co.uk/ammit.php The devourer. Slide 12. http://sastha-knowyourledge.blogspot.com/2011/02/all-of-historys-most-scandalous-woman.html Cleopatra VII. Slide 13. http://www.modthesims.info/download.php?t=163398 Loincloth. Slide 14. http://www.costumecraze.com/Couples-Costumes-p7.html Tunic. Slide 14. http://christianimageresource.org/catalog2.html Sandals. Slide 14. http://theafrostory.blogspot.com/2009/11/do-i-perpetuate-self-hatred-because-i.html Wigs. Slide 14. http://ancientegyptmoberly.pbworks.com/w/page/12830342/Ancient-Egyptian-Fashion-Legacy Egyptian jewellery. Slide 14. http://www.oldandsold.com/articles20/painting-methods-1.shtml Egyptian painting. Slide 15. http://www.pleasantmorningbuzz.com/arts/ Egyptian sculpture. Slide 15. http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/egyptian-music.html Flute. Slide 15. http://christianimageresource.org/catalog5.html Cymbals. Slide 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beautiful_Festival_of_the_Valley Festival of the Valley. Slide 16. http://www.tau.ac.il/humanities/archaeology/projects/proj_past_elder.html Egyptian elders. Slide 17.