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Athens surrenders to Sparta Thirty tyrants rule Athens 404 BCE
Democracy restored in Athens 403 BCE
Trial and execution of Socrates 399 BCE
Plato establishes the Athens Academy 380 BCE
Sparta defeated in Leuctra 371 BCE
Thebes defeats Sparta at Mantinea 362 BCE
Philip II, becomes King of Macedonia 359 BCE
Macedonian army defeats Athens and its allies at Chaeronea League of Corinth founded 338 BCE
Phillip II Assassinated. Alexander the Great becomes king of Macedonia 336 BCE
Aristotle founds the Lyceum in Athens 335 BCE
Alexander the Great defeats Persian army at Granicus river in Anatolia 334 BCE
Alexander the Great defeats Persians at Issus 333 BCE
Tyre capitulates to Alexander after siege 332 BCE
Alexander invades Egypt City of Alexandria founded in Egypt Alexander defeats Persians at Gaugamela 331 BCE
Alexander's army reaches Bactria (Afghanistan) 329 BCE
Alexander marries Roxane (princes of Bactria) 327 BCE
Alexander's army reaches India 326 BCE
Death of Alexander the Great 323 BCE
Hellenistic Period (323-146)
Aristotle dies 322 BCE
Stoic philosopher Zeno founds school in Athens 310 BCE
Stoic philosopher Epicurus founds school in Athens 307 BCE
Ptolemy I founds museum in Alexandria 300 BCE
Archimedes (287-212) born in Syracuse 287 BCE
Achaean League founded 284 BCE
Invasion of Greece by Gauls 279 BCE
Gauls defeated by king Attalus I 238 BCE
First Macedonian War (214-204) Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon 214 BCE
Second Macedonian War (200-196) Victory of Flamininus at Cynoscephalae 200 BCE
Third Macedonian War (172-168/7) Lucius Aemelius Paulus of Rome defeats Perseus of Macedon at Pydna. Macedonia divided into four republics 172 BCE
Roman Invasion of Greece Mummius Achaicus sacks Corinth and dissolves the Achaean league. Rome rules Greece henceforth 146 BCE
Late Hellenistic or Greco-Roman (146-30)
Romans lead by Sulla sack Athens 86 BCE
Battle of Aktion Octavian (later Augustus) defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra 31 BCE
Death of Cleopatra 30 BCE
End of "Ancient Greece" period
Something the Greeks are known for is the Parthenon. It is the temple of Athena Parthenos ("Virgin"), Greek goddess of wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens. The Parthenon was built in the 5th century BC, and has sustained a lot of damage but still stands. Another thing they are known for is fighting. Especially the Spartans.
The Greeks had a large social structure.
Ancient Greek houses were one of the best in the olden time because it was a strong country before. Most of them were built of clay bricks or stones, although some houses were made of wood. The roofs of the Greek houses were covered with reeds or tiles. Rich people and poor people had different types of houses. The houses of the riches generally had one or two stories, including a kitchen, a room for bathing and additional rooms as a sitting area, dining and even orgy's room.
Most Greeks, like most other people lived in families with a mother and a father and their children. Usually men got married when they were about twenty-five or thirty years old (as they do today), but women got married much younger, between twelve and sixteen years old. The typical ancient Greek house was a place where the man of the family was proud to live. Within the walls of the house, no one could treat him with any form of disrespect at any possible time. The house was the heart of the man, in which he had no choice but to protect it and its living and non-living contents. Because of this men got very worried when they were sent away from there house because of wok or war.
The Greek diet consisted of foods that were easily raised in the rocky terrain of Greece’s landscape. Breakfast was eaten just after sunrise. Lunch was like breakfast with some extra food added to it. Supper was the main meal of each day. It was eaten near sunset. It consisted of vegetables, fruit, fish, and possibly honey cakes. Sugar was unknown to ancient Greeks, so natural honey was used as a sweetener. Fish was the main source of protein in the Greek diet. Beef was very expensive, so it was rarely eaten. Beef and pork were only available to poor people during religious festivals. It was during the festivals that cows or pigs were sacrificed to the gods, and the meat was cooked and handed out to the public. Wine was the main drink in ancient Greece. It was watered down; to drink it straight was considered barbaric. Milk was rarely drunk, because again, it was considered barbaric. Milk was used for cheese production. Water was another possible choice as a drink. The Greeks did not have any eating utensils, so they ate with their hands. Vegetables, legumes, and fruit were the mainstay, and fish was a favorite.
Marriages in ancient Greece were arranged by the parents of the intended bride and groom. A financial arrangement was made between the families in the form of a dowry. Girls married between the ages of fourteen to eighteen, while typically men married in their twenties or even thirties. Spartan men continued to live in the barracks, even after the wedding, until they reached the age of thirty when they could move home with their wives. Priests did not direct weddings in ancient Greece. Instead, a set of rituals was followed, after which the couple would live together. The rituals started with baths. The groom then would go to the bride’s house in a chariot or a cart. A feast may be held at the bride’s father’s house, after which the groom would take his bride back to his parents’ house. They were greeted at the door by the groom’s parents and led to the hearth. There they were showered with nuts and fruit. The couple then retired to their bedroom. For the wife to be fully accepted into the groom’s family, a child had to be conceived from their union. Divorces were easily arranged. The man would have to pay back, in cash, the remaining dowry money to his wife’s parents. Divorces were granted on many grounds; for example, if the wife could not bear children. When a wife committed adultery, divorce was legally required. Greek men did not discuss with others their wives or other female relatives. They dared not even give their names outside their close family circle. They did not want to attract unwanted attention from unrelated males.
Babies born in ancient Greece often had a difficult time surviving. Many died in the first couple days of life; therefore, babies did not receive names until the seventh or tenth day of life. If a baby was born deformed, it might have been abandoned on a mountain (female babies were abandoned more often than males). Sometimes abandoned babies were rescued and brought up as slaves by another family. In some Greek cities, children were wrapped up in cloths until they were about two years old to insure straight and strong limbs. Other city-states, such as Sparta, did not do this to their children. Children spent the majority of their time with their mother. They stayed in the women’s part of the house. While they were being raised, girls would receive their entire education and training in the home with their mothers. Boys, on the other hand, might learn their father’s trade or go to school around the age of seven. In Sparta, seven-year-old boys were taken to the barracks by the city and raised. They were trained in the military and were not allowed to leave the barracks until age thirty. Many toys, similar to current day toys, have been found in archeological sites. Dolls, rattles, tops, swings, and many other items have been unearthed. As is common today, those from richer families had a greater assortment of toys, while those from poorer families were expected to work for the family at a much younger age. Evidence also shows that Greeks kept pets such as dogs, pigs, tortoises, and caged birds. Girls reached puberty at ages twelve or thirteen, at which point they were considered adults and could marry. Girls took their childhood toys and left them at the temple of Artemis. This signaled that their childhood was over and that they were becoming adults. After marrying, the women were expected to have a baby. Not being able to bear children was seen as curse from the gods. At age eighteen, boys in several ancient Greek cities were required to join the army for two years of service. Many cities required males to reach the age of thirty before they were able to participate in city politics.
Children in most of ancient Greece started their education at age seven. In Sparta, boys were given military training from ages seven to around twenty to prepare them for service in the army. Girls also were required to train physically. They believed strong women produced strong babies. In Athens, poor children did not go to school. They were needed around their homes to help their family make a living. Middle-class boys might go to school for only three to four years. For their lessons, the students used a wax-covered board with a stylus to carve out letters in the wax. When completed, the wax was smoothed over again and reused. The subjects they learned were reading, writing, basic math, music, and physical training. At the age of eighteen, most boys were required to join the army for two years of training. After military training, boys from wealthy families studied under a sophist. Known as a “wisdom seller,” a sophist charged a fee to teach subjects such as public speaking or rhetoric. In Athens and other democracies, public speaking and persuasion were highly prized skills.
Poseidon was the god of the sea, earthquakes and horses. Although he was officially one of the supreme gods of Mount Olympus, he spent most of his time in his watery domain. Poseidon was brother to Zeus and Hades. These three gods divided up creation. Zeus was ruler of the sky, Hades had dominion of the Underworld and Poseidon was given all water, both fresh and salt. Although there were various rivers personified as gods, these would have been technically under Poseidon's sway. Similarly, Nereus, the Old Man of the Sea, wasn't really considered on a par with Poseidon, who was known to drive his chariot through the waves in unquestioned dominance.
Ancient Greek art is mainly in five forms: architecture, sculpture, painting, painted pottery, and music. Greek music includes the lyre, pipes, and singing, and around 500 BC gradually developed branches like Greek plays (which always involved music) and Greek philosophy, which tried to figure out how music and numbers related to each other. Architecture includes houses, religious buildings like temples and tombs, and public building like city walls, theaters, stadia, and stoas. Sculpture includes small figurines and life-size statues, but also relief sculptures which were on the sides of buildings, and also tombstones. We have very little Greek painting from the Classical period; most of what we have is from the Bronze Age. The paintings were painted on walls, as decoration for rooms, like murals or wallpaper. On the other hand, we have a good deal of painted pottery from all periods of Greek history.