Map Of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was considered one of the longest civilization in Africa. It was located along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River. The kingdom reached from the Nile Delta in the north, as far as the south of Jebel Barkal at the fourth Cataract. Ancient Egypt lasted over 3000 years because they were surrounded by many natural barriers that includes the eastern and western deserts. The east and western deserts were very effective because if you try to get to Egypt with a big army you would get dehydrated since it’s a very wide desert. The other two barriers are the Mediterranean Sea and the cataracts on the south. Egyptian Map w/ Major cities Cities Egyptian Empire KEY Mediterranean Sea Red Sea
Ancient Egyptian Time Frame Pre 3100 BC Predynastic Period
Area around Nile settled
3200-3000 BC Protodynastic Period
Thinis takes over Naqada and Nekhen
2950-2575 BC Early Dynasty Period (1 st and 2 nd )
Memphis becomes the capital
2575-2150 BC Old Kingdom (3 rd -6 th dynasty)
Art of Embalming started
Pyramid of Djoser is build
2125-1975 BC 1 st intermediate period (7 th -11 th dynasty)
Unification of Egypt fell apart
Weather changes stopped the flooding of the Nile
1975-1640 BC Middle Kingdom(12 th and 13 th dynasty)
2055 BC Mentuhotep|| reunited Egypt
1979 BC Campaign to Nubian began
1630-1520 BC 2 nd intermediate period(14 th -17 th dynasty)
Egypt was not unified once again at the start of 14 th dynasty
17 th dynasty reunite Egypt
1539-1075 BC New kingdom(18 th -20 th dynasty)
First female pharaoh, Hatshepsut
Reign of Akhenaten, built new capital “Akhenaten”
1075-715 BC 3 rd intermediate period(21 st -25 th dynasty
Egypt Split up once again into two areas, upper and lower
715-332 BC Late Period
Egypt Conquered by Persians
404 BC Independent again
332 BC- 395 AD Roman Period
Alexander the Great invades Egypt and eventually declared as pharaoh
Alexandria is built
Egypt conquered by Arab forces, becomes Islamic after 300 years of Christianity.
The Egyptians lived for many centuries around the fertile banks along its side its banks. Flooding in the Nile Enriched the soil and is brought to good harvest and wealth to the land, which is why they lasted for a long time. Since Egypt was a warm place the Egyptian homes were built in mud bricks.
The Egyptians did not have some food they want, so they grew some of their food and trade it in at the market for a different food or some goods. Most of the Ancient Egyptian were farmers, traders, scribes and craftsmen but a small group of people were nobles. Altogether these different groups of people makes the Egyptian population. The ancient Egyptian are know for the things they invented such as the pyramids in Giza, they are known for the mummies, the papyrus used for writing and drawings, the pharaohs such as King Omatep and King Tut, Black ink, Paper and an organized labour. They were also know for their written words which is the hieroglyphic.
Scribe Egyptian Houses Egyptian getting water
Social Structure The very top of Ancient Egyptian social is the Pharaoh since he controls basically everything, the Army, the Politics etc. The second highest lies the nobles since every noble was related to the Pharaoh, there were also the priests and the pharaoh’s trusted man which is the Viziers. The third highest of the Ancient Egyptian population are the traders, shopkeepers, scribes and artisans. The scribes were the only Egyptians who knew how to read and write, standing out from the surrounding illiteracy by their command of the secret skills of reading and writing. The Fourth least important of the Egyptian social structures were the farmers herders and workers. At the bottom of all the different classes of people in ancient Egypt are the slaves and unskilled workers. They represents a great percent of the Egyptian population. They support all the classes above them which is why they are at the base of the Social structure Social Pyramid
The houses in ancient Egypt were made out of Mud bricks from annual floods from the Nile River. The brick makers would place mud into wooden molds and let them bake and harden in the sun. After that the bricks were stacked to be used for building. The wealthy people made their homes double-thick wall to increase the security of the house, but the poor people are only able to pay only one brick thick.
The average of Egyptian homes had four rooms, a central room with smaller rooms joined to it. A family spent most of their time in the central room and used it for sleeping quarters of the night. In the house from the central room I s a kitchen and another room that is used for storage or as an extra bedroom and off the street was an entry room, that led into the central room.
A nobleman’s house had a central
room in his house. Inside the
house there were more rooms surrounding the central room,
the furniture was also much more complex. Flooring was made
of mud tiles or was covered with plaster-like material. Wood for
building was rare in Ancient Egypt because the wood had to be
imported since it was so hot in Egypt the trees did not produce
good boards. Wood was used to support doorways, steps and
ceilings. Most of Egyptian kids lives with their father and mother
in a family, but usually they have brothers and sisters. Egyptian
families don’t often have their gramps and grams living with them
The wealthy and the nobles lived in large houses, unlike the lower-classes
they often have slaves to take care of their sons and daughters, so
they could attend to their daily needs. Court officials and nobles
helped the pharaoh rule the country and in exchange the pharaoh
would often give them rewards with gift of land or money if they had
done some sort of achievement. If you are wealthy you are send to
school, so some day you can either become a scribe or a priest. The
wealthy people are usually well-known, they live in a lifestyle with good wine, high fashion Egyptians and they often go to a lot of parties with other rich or nobles . Basically the wealthy people had finer and attractive things such as furniture, jewellery, houses and clothing. The wealthy people had better tombs for their dead ones, since they have a lot of money the rich often buy stuff from different places in Egypt. Being rich is something you would want in ancient Egypt.
Since Egypt was very dry and warm, the ancient Egyptians relied on the Nile River to water their crops. The Egyptians were only able to grow certain kinds of food, they mostly grew wheat and barley. The wheat and barley were turn into different types of food such as wheat getting turned into bread and into soup and porridge, while they turn barley into beer by adding hops. The beer was put in an Egyptian grave so they would have beer in the afterlife, that is if they pass the test.
The Egyptians also ate meat because they could go to a butcher shop and buy meat, just as we do today. Meats were stored outside in the courtyard because it rarely rains in Ancient Egypt. Although the Egyptians ate meat they would not eat pigs (bacon, ham, pork, salami) just like the
Jewish people in the Eastern Mediterranean because they thought
pigs carries leprosy. They only ate beef, mutton, duck and goose.
For desserts, Egyptians liked to eat dates. Dates were also put into
a persons grave so they could eat them in the afterlife, the Egyptians also grew water melons, and other kinds of melons
In ancient Egypt they highly valued family life. They treasured their children and consider them a blessing. In lower-class families the mother would take care of the kids while the father goes for work, but the wealthy and the nobles had slaves and servants to help them take care of their children. If you’re a father you are responsible for the economic well- being of your family while upper-class man become scribes or priest. The lower-class men were farmers, hunters and craftsmen. Women supervise the household, the servants(if you’re rich or is a noble) and her children while upper-class women priestesses or musicians.
Children stayed home until they reached their
adulthood. Most of the time Egyptian kids
spent their time preparing for adult hood. If you’re a kid you usually get taken to be an apprentice by your father. Some privileged kids are able to participate in school to become a scribe or a military official.
Gender Upper-class Lower-class Male Scribe or priest Farmers, hunters, Female Musician, Priestess Anyone female can become musician and Priestess
Marriage in Ancient Egyptian was considered as a sacred bond. Families runs smoothly since it is broken down into different roles to different people. A father would work all day as a scribe, farmer, a hunter or as a craftsman for his family, while the women would take care the household. Taking care of the household involves Cooking, cleaning and watching the children. A bride could be from 14-15 years old with a husband of 17-20 years old or more if he was divorced or is a widower. In order to get married there must a be a parents permission, especially in the upper-classes.
In Ancient Egypt divorce was allowed only if you hated your wife/husband, your wife betrayed you on some sort or she was unable to
have kids. When these circumstances are met,
the wife could get returned to her
parents. When a divorce is
granted, she gains the custody of
her children along with her
dowries if there was one. Dowries
did not appeared after the
Romans came to Ancient Egypt there, the Egyptians were
Childbirth was important in Ancient civilization and Ancient Egypt. There were two reasons why having a family was considered so necessary Ancient Egypt. One reason was that Egyptians relied on their children to take care of them in their old. While most people died of injury or sickness long before they had a chance to grow old, many did live long enough to have to rely on their sons or daughters to care for them. Without at least one son to assist them the olds were in serious trouble since they were not able to walk, cook and help themselves if there’re in trouble. The second reason was that all Ancient Civilizations needed to increase their population so that meant more workers. More workers meant greater wealth and a better chance of repelling invaders from different neighbors. In ancient Egypt words such as midwife, obstetrician or gynecologist because these words did not exist, even though the words did not exist it doesn’t mean there isn't one. Most Egyptian Women labored and delivered their babies on the cool roof on their houses or in arbor or in confinement for the nobles. Since delivering a baby is dangerous the midwife would pray to the gods and goddesses for help and protection of the child and the mother.
In ancient Egypt, Children were the heart of the family. If a couple could not have a child they would adopt a child. In Ancient Egypt children were thought to be kind and honest, to respect their parents, to help with family business such like watching over their store, they were thought to take care the elder members of their family. In Ancient Egypt it was important for children to be caring because they believe in “ma’at” –order and justice. The children spent a lifetime trying to be fair all the time. The children did this because the Egyptians believed that in order to reach the after their heart must be weight against a feather, and if the heart is lighter they would go to the afterlife but if not they are fed to monsters.
Young boys learned trading or craft from their father while young girls worked and is trained at home with their mother. Young boys had more privilege than girls because women are expected to raise the children and take care of household duties. Young boys were able to go to school while girls are home schooled. If their parents died, the son would inherit the land, while daughters inherit the household goods such as furniture and jewellery. The ancient Egyptians treasured their children and regarded them as a great blessing which is why they treated them like their little pharaohs and little queens and expected them to be kind, caring, truthful, and respectful.
Childhood Difference Between Canada and Ancient Egypt
The childhood in Ancient Egypt is similar and different compared to the childhood in Canada. First of all, the children in Ancient Egypt are never given any voice. This means that they didn’t have any right to say. They always had to do what their leader or parents told them to do. In Canada, every children has some rights. Children have a right to say and they can also argue, too. A similarity is that the job of parents were to educate their children like it is in Canada. However, only a small amount is known how girls were treated. In Ancient Egypt, boys were thought to be better than girls. The Ancient Egyptians thought that boys needed a firm hand to guide them. In Canada, boys and girls are treated equally. They are treated equally when they are young and they’re treated equally when they’re old, too. Both boys and girls receive education. Another thing is that in Ancient Egypt, children were cherished for their role of protecting their parents. In Canada, children are cherished because they’re eventually going to grow up and become the adults of the future. So, that’s why there are both many differences and similarities between Canada and Ancient Egypt.
The children in Ancient Egypt stayed at their homes with their mothers until they reached the age of four. Before they reached the age 4, they had a great respect for their mothers. After they reached the age 4, only boys’ and some girls’ education were taken over by their fathers. Since trading was the most important skill in Ancient Egypt, the sons followed the same way that their fathers once practiced. At this time some boys were put in just village schools and some others were put in schools just for a specific career. Schools taught writing, reading, math, and also sports. When they reached the age of 14, sons of farmers joined their father’s job. The other boys who were the sons of fathers who had high level jobs, studied more in temple or government related schools. Although the boys were treated like that, the girls weren’t treated equally as boys. Most of the girls were trained by their mothers how to become a good wife. However, daughters of rich and respected nobles received education in schools.
The Ancient Egyptian religion was passed down for 3,000 years until Christianity took over. The Ancient Egyptian religion was worshipped with sacrifices and prayers. The god for the Ancient Egyptians changed frequently during different periods in the Egyptian history. Some of the famous gods are Anubis, the God of Death, Ra, the Sun God, and God Osiris. Also, the myths that were related to those gods changed every time. Because of that, the Egyptians don’t have any myths from the olden times. Although they didn’t have a clear mythology, they had many complex beliefs.
One famous complex belief is the one about the afterlife. Ancient Egyptians thought that when people died, they had another life called the afterlife. Because they believed in this “afterlife,” they preserved people’s bodies. They wrapped the dead bodies in linen, then they put them in stone coffins, and finally they put the bodies inside pyramids with other jewelleries in it, so that they can use it in their “afterlives.”
Anubis is the God of Death and is also known as the God of Mummification. Anubis means a jackal-headed god in Greek. He is one of the famous gods in Ancient Egypt because he is the God of Mummification. Anubis is known as half human and half jackal. He was believed to protect the journey to the afterlife, and his duty was also to guide the souls of the death to the underworld. Because he was respected so much and was believed to be very powerful, whenever there was a mummification, the head embalmer always wore a jackal mask for good luck. There are lots of myths about who were Anubis’s parents. Some myths say that Nephthys gave birth to him, and some myths say that he was the son of Ra, the Sun God. However, after he took control for a long time, myths say that Osiris took over the job of being the God of Death.
Since the environment of Ancient Egypt was very hot, wore thin and very light clothes or sometimes no clothes at all. To make these clothes so light, most of the clothes were made out of linen. Linen was made out of flax, which was a plant that had very tiny leaves, blue flowers, and very long stem. Using linen, workers made long transparent robes for both men and women. Whether they were poor or rich, they all wore jewellery. Although, wealthy people wore gold and expensive jewellery, which showed that they were wealthy. Also, most Ancient Egyptians walked barefooted. They didn’t cover their heads either. An interesting fact is that they had a replacement for sunscreen called kohl, which was to help keep the glare down of the sun. It tells clearly that the Ancient Egyptians made their own clothes from what their environment provided them.
The art of Ancient Egypt is from 5000 B.C. to 300 A.D. It includes paintings, sculptures, crafts, and architecture done by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley. The Ancient Egyptians’ art were about the things they were influenced. They also made art for kings, queens, the dead, and gods. Pictures about their religion were frequently drawn. There were also different kinds of art forms. One interesting art form was relief art. Relief art meant pictures that were carved into layers. Its purpose was to give a raised look. They were often made in soft limestone. Another piece of art was their language. It was called hieroglyphics. It was their language in writing. Even though it was their language, they still counted it for their art. It is famous for its unique styles. Although there were music in Ancient Egypt, the evidence for it only starts after 3100 B.C.E. Music was an important part of worshipping in Ancient Egypt. There were also gods related with music, such as Hathor and Bes. One instrument that they played was harps.
There were several festivals in Ancient Egypt. One of these festivals was called the Beautiful Festival of the Valley. This festival was celebrated once a year in Thebes starting from the Middle Kingdom period. This festival was held originally in remembrance of the dead. Another festival that was famous was the Min Festival. This ceremony was held to celebrate the continued rule of a pharaoh. This festival was also celebrated to worship the God Min. The festival was started by the king himself. The queen, royal family, and the court came out with the king. The king, himself, entered the sanctuary of God Min and brought goods and offerings. Another festival that was held in Ancient Egypt was the Opet Festival. This festival was celebrated in Thebes during the New Kingdom period. In this festival, the statues of the Theban Triad, was escorted to the temple of Luxor to relive their marriage.
Also, a festival called the Sed Festival was celebrated in Ancient Egypt. The Sed Festival is one of the most important celebration because it was celebrated for the continued rule of a pharaoh just like the Min Festival.
The Ancient Egyptian army was divided into an army and a navy. They were divided in these two teams because the West Delta of the Nile was threatened by desert raiders and the East Delta of the Nile was threatened by the invaders from Asia. Because Egypt didn’t know horses, the Asians were much stronger since they had bronze strong weapons and horses. So, the Ancient Egyptians always had to keep an eye around everywhere. Eventually, the Ancient Egyptian armies built fortresses on the most attackable spaces, so that they didn’t need to always be frightened of where their enemies will come out from. Also, the Ancient Egypt was unified under one government. The main problem of the military was keeping enemies out. This was a very hard problem because everywhere around Ancient Egypt was the perfect spot to attack. As a solution, the Ancient Egyptian army built fortresses all around, so that it would be easier for them to block their enemies.
In Ancient Egypt, the court systems were very unfair. Noble men and rich citizens weren’t dealt harshly. Also, judges and tax collectors used their powers to control other people and for their own goods. Also, in Ancient Egypt rulers called pharaohs made the rules. The pharaohs made many strict rules and harsh punishments so that the citizens will stay in control. In Ancient Egypt, it was a huge shame for the family if a family member was a criminal and was harshly punished. One crime is 100 hits with a stick. If it was a really bad crime 5 more bleeding cuts would be added in the punishment. Also, if it was the worst crime ever, they would have to die in such painful ways like drowning, executing, and burning on fire. The people who catches these criminals are officials who are like police nowadays. They would know if a person is an official because they wear golden Ma.
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization that was in North Africa. Egypt is at the exact spot where Ancient Egypt used to be. The civilization started around 3150 B.C. and ended at 31 B.C. when the Romans took over. Ancient Egypt is famous for varieties of things, such as pyramids, sphinx, mummies, and papyrus. One thing that Ancient Egypt is famous for is the belief about the afterlife. Ancient Egyptians thought that when a person died, they had another life called the afterlife. They thought that Anubis, the God of Death, led dead souls to the underworld. So, they made up the process of preparing for the afterlife called mummification. They would wrap up dead bodies with linen and then put them in pyramids. Ancient Egypt was a very strict civilization. They had harsh rules and also punishments. They really trusted and believed in their gods. A similarity between Canada and Ancient Egypt is that we both have governments. They make up the rules, and there are also courts to argue their cases. Another thing is that they had police officers that were called officials. Ancient Egypt was a very smart civilization.