The main question of the research is: how do specific relational incidents affect one’s mood at work?
Note: you should think for yourself what your meaning in your study and/or work is. We do not tell you that you SHOULD create meaning, but we provide you opportunities to create more meaning in your work & study. Before we start the presentation, we would like you to think about these questions. It has appeared that having a sense of meaning, a sense of “why” in live is very important. Therefore, think about the reasons that you actually do what you are doing now in your life.
Some definitions on work meaning in literature.
Why should we focus on studying work meaning? Why is it such an important topic, next to the beneficial outcomes that it has? It appears that employees nowadays expect organizations to fulfill more than just providing money. People are searching for a greater sense of meaning and purpose in their (working) lives.
Firstly, we focus on the self. This presentation will focus on practical mechanisms, instead of theoretical mechanisms, to give you a concrete view of the things that you can do to give more meaning to your study. These two mechanisms are resilience and job crafting, they will be explained later on.
There are two gaps in literature that we will address in this presentation. The first one shows that literature is very theoretical, and we missed some practical guidelines about how you can concretely give more meaning to your work. E.g. Rosso et al. (2010) give some theoretical assumptions (e.g. authenticity, purpose and belongingness), but these are still quite vague and not really concrete. Next to this, we are very curious about how we can apply work meaning in our student lives. Is work meaning also applicable for students? And how can we give more meaning to what we are doing in our study? These are questions we want to address in our presentation.
This leads us to the shift of work meaning to study meaning. How can we, as students, practically create meaning in our academic lives?
We will discuss two topics here, resilience and job crafting. Resilience shows how a negative state of mind can turn into a neutral state of mind. In other words, negative incidents in your study can be transformed into a neutral state of mind. Then, jobcrafting (or studycrafting) can help you to create positive meaning in your study, going from level 0 to +1. Thus, this presentation has a positive focus, assuming that there are sometimes setbacks in your study, and we will give you some tools to create positive meaning in your study.
This part has yet to be filled in. Rico will tell here what resilience is and how students can deal with setbacks in their study and make sure that these negative setbacks will be overcome.
- Relevante vragen of ontbreekt er iets?
- Moet ik steeds benoemen dat het aannamen zijn (… that is assumed to also go for study crafting)?
Point 1: so I make assumptions on job crafting literature for applying it to study crafting
This sheet will give a summary of the main practices of resilience and job crafting, that students can use to give their study positive meaning.
This sheet will discuss what communication professionals still can study; what questions have still remain unanswered in the research field of work meaning, resilience and job crafting.
Here, the implications of our practices for communication professionals will be discussed. - Double edge sword hier bespreken??
- Job crafting discussiepunten, irrelevant?
How students can create meaning in academic life
"How can I be useful, of what service can I be? There is something inside me, what can it be?" - Vincent Van Gogh How students can create meaning in their academic livesEvelien Spoler Rico van Leeuwen &S020056521-11-12 S1237926 Work Meaning: How students can 1 create meaning in their academic
BEFORE WE START…“He who has a why to live can bear almost any how.” - F. NietzscheWhy...... are you here today?... are you doing the things you are doing in your life? Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 2 academic lives
CONTENT The Meaning of Work Overview on Work Meaning Students and Work Meaning Resilience How to get back on track by being more positive Job Crafting How to create meaning in your CS master study Research opportunities What can YOU study? Implications Discussion Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 3 academic lives
WORK MEANING – WHAT IS IT? No widely agreed definition in literature Meaning is the output of having made sense of something, or what it signifies, as in an individual interpreting what her work means, or the role her work plays, in the context of her life (Pratt & Ashforth, 2003) The essence of meaning is connection, and is linked to positive outcomes for both the individual and the organization (Baumeister & Vohs, 2002) Meaning is a tool used by individuals for imposing stability on life (Baumeister & Vohs, 2002) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 4 academic lives
THE IMPORTANCE OF WORK MEANING There has been a shift from a materialistic to a post-materialistic era and a rejection of individualistic cultural values, as people are seeking a greater sense of meaning and purpose in their extending working lives. (Guevara & Ord, 1996). Employees expect work to fulfill an increasingly larger set of psychological, social, and economic needs (Casey, 1995) Work meaning has benefits such as less depression, more work motivation, less absenteeism, improvement in work behavior, more engagement, increased job satisfaction, and increased empowerment (cited in Rosso et al, 2000) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 5 academic lives
HOW TO CREATE WORK MEANING There are different theoretical mechanisms of creating work meaning (Rosso et al., 2010): Authenticity Self-efficacy Self-esteem Purpose Belongingness Transcendence Cultural and interpersonal sensemaking This presentation focuses on practical mechanisms, namely: Resilience Job crafting Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 6 academic lives
GAPS IN WORK MEANINGTwo gaps in work meaning literature can be identified and will beaddressed in this research:Literature is very theoretical, there are not many practical guidelines to be found to givemeaning to your workThere is no literature to be found about study meaning, therefore, we will make assumptions onstudy meaning from what is already known about work meaning Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 7 academic lives
STUDENTS & WORK MEANING How can you, as a student, create meaning in your academic life?21-11-12 Work Meaning: How students can 8 create meaning in their academic
RESILIENCE & STUDY CRAFTING Resilience: negative incidents in your study neutral state of mind about your study Study crafting: neutral state of mind about your study positive study meaning +1 Job crafting 0 Neutral state of mind about your study Resilience -1 Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 9 academic lives
RESILIENCE The process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances (Martin & Andrew, 2002; Howard & Johnson, 2000) The heightened likelihood of success in school and other life accomplishments despite environmental adversities brought about by early traits, conditions, and experiences (Wang, Haertal, & Walberg, 1994, p. 46) Academically resilient students are those “who sustain high levels of achievement motivation and performance despite the presence of stressful events and conditions that place them at risk of doing poorly in school and ultimately dropping out of school” (Alva, 1991, p.19). Students ability to deal effectively with academic setbacks, stress, and study pressure (Martin & Andrew, 2002) Academic gains can be lost if students are not resilient to setback, study pressure, and stress in the school setting (Martin & Andrew, 2002) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 10 academic lives
PREDICTORS & OUTCOMES OF RESILIENCEPredictors: Academic resilience predicts three educational Self Efficacy and psychological “outcomes”: Control Enjoyment of school Planning Class participation General self-esteem Low anxiety Martin & Marsh, 2006 Persistence Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 11 academic lives
BECOMING MORE RESILIENT (1)At meta-level you, as a student can enhance motivation and becomemore resilient by improving your:Approach to schoolworkBelief about yourselfAttitude towards learning, achievement, and schoolStudy skillsReasons for learningMartin & Marsh, 2006 Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 12 academic lives
BECOMING MORE RESILIENT (2) Having and maintaining good relationships with family and friends; Avoid seeing crises or stressful events as unbearable problems; Accept circumstances that cannot be changed; Develop realistic goals and move towards them (planning); Take decisive, conscious actions in adverse situations; Look for opportunities of self-discovery after a struggle with loss; Develop self-confidence (stepping outside comfort zone); Keep a long-term perspective and consider the stressful event in a broader context; Maintain a hopeful outlook, expecting good things and visualizing what is wished; Take care of ones mind and body, exercising regularly, paying attention to ones own needs and feelings.American Psychology Association, 2008 Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 13 academic lives
POSITIVE EMOTIONS Build resilience... AND... Significantly better performance Higher intelligence Higher energy More creative Less burnout ... (Ong, Bergeman, Bisconti, & Wallace, 2006;Lyubomirsky, 2005). Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 14 academic lives
BUILDING POSITIVE EMOTIONS2 minutes per day, for 21 days in a row: 3 gratitudes per day (Emmons & McCullough, 2003) Journaling / writing about what went well that day (Seligman et al, 2005; Slatcher &Pennebakker, 2006) Exercise (Babyak et al, 2000) Identifying top five strengths, and use one of these for other purposes(Seligman et al, 2005) Meditation (Dweek, 2007) Random acts of kindness (Lyubomirsky, 2005) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 15 academic lives
JOB CRAFTING What is job crafting? Why should you craft your job? How can you craft your study and make it more meaningful? Things to consider when crafting your study Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 16 academic lives
WHAT IS JOB CRAFTING? Very young research field “[…] the physical and cognitive changes individuals make in the task or relational boundaries of their work. Thus, job crafting is an action, and those who undertake it are job crafters.” (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001, p. 179) Small changes, not completely rebuilding your job, to make your job suit you better Job crafting can be used to make your work more meaningful Even in the most restricted and routine jobs, employees can exert some influence on what is the essence of the work (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001) Motivations to craft a job most often will result from situations in which employees feel that their needs are not being met in their job as it is currently designed (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 17 academic lives
WHY SHOULD WE CRAFT OUR JOBS? Advantages of job crafting: More engagement with your work (Bakker et al., 2012) Give you the opportunity to take initiative, take control and express creativity (Chiao et al., 2011) Increase efficiency in your work (Chiao et al., 2011) Increased commitment to your work (Ghitulescu, 2006) Increase the passion within your job (Brickson, 2011) Being able to pursue unanswered occupational callings (Berg et al., 2010) “Job crafting could be a net positive for the organization.” (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001, p. 195) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 18 academic lives
HOW CAN YOU CREATE MEANING IN YOUR STUDY? Four types of study crafting: Cognitive crafting: changing task-related boundaries and mindsets Task crafting: changing the content of work Relationship crafting: changing the quality and amount of interaction with others at work (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001) Contextual crafting: actively changing your work place/ environment/time (Van Vuuren & Dorenbosch, 2011) Four techniques of study crafting: Add Change/adjust Repel Solve Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 19 academic lives
Cognitive crafting (changing task-related boundaries &cognitions)Add Perception of your study as a meaningful whole that positively impacts others (Berg et al., 2010) Gain more knowledge about the topics you are interested in (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) Find the connection between your study work and other domains and disciplines (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) Apply the things you have learned to things you do in practice (e.g. this presentation!) (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) Extend your knowledge by teaching other students (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) Identify your personal talents and strenghts, so that you can strive for a meaningful study or career (Wellman & Spreitzel, 2011)Change/adjust More positively interpret the study tasks you do (Van Vuuren & Dorenbosch, 2011) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 20 academic lives
Repel Try to not think about the ugly tasks you have to do (Van Vuuren & Dorenbosch, 2011)Solve Accept the ugly tasks you have to do; change your study expectations (Van Vuuren & Dorenbosch, 2011) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 21 academic lives
Task crafting (changing the content of the study work)Add Start new projects (Tims et al., 2012) Search for challenges, e.g.: follow extra courses, do a board year, study new and interesting research topics, follow courses at another faculty etcetera (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011)Change/adjust Ensure that your study, subjects and research is driven by questions that are meaningful personally, practically and theoretically (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) Altering the scope or nature of tasks, take on additional tasks (Berg et al., 2010)Repel Repel “ugly” tasks for nice tasks (Van Vuuren & Dorenbosch, 2011)Solve Improve your task skills and be able to solve ugly tasks by means of training (Van Vuuren & Dorenbosch, 2011) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 22 academic lives
Relationship crafting (changing the quality & amount ofinteraction with others encountered at work)Add Connect with fellow students, teachers (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) Search for beneficial connections, such as researchers, teachers, people working in organizations (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) Search for a coach (Tims et al., 2012)Change/adjust Change current relationships with fellow students (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) Ask others for feedback (Tims et al., 2012)Repel Avoid difficult students or teachers (Van Vuuren & Dorenbosch, 2011)Solve Learn how to solve interpersonal conflicts and improve interpersonal skills (Van Vuuren & Dorenbosch, 2011) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 23 academic lives
Contextual crafting (changing the study place/environment/time)Add Add nice elements to your study environmentChange/adjust Re-furnish your physical study environment Change the work environment/place: e.g. study in the middle of other students and academic books & magazines in the library Change the means with which you perform your tasks: e.g. try to search for interesting academic books instead of on-line articles Change the time at which you studyRepel Take away disturbing factors in your study environmentSolve Relieve discomforts in your study environment: e.g. a broken chairBased on Van Vuuren & Dorenbosch, 2011 Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 24 academic lives
THINGS TO CONSIDER WHEN STUDY CRAFTING Start small! (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011). You might have already started the process of study crafting in the beginning of this presentation… Students may have little autonomy to craft their studies, because of formal study designs (Based on Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) Crafting your study can be like a double-edged sword: universities desire students to be creative and receptive to changes, however it is unlikely that they desire that collective changes in studies or tasks can be enacted without their knowledge (Based on Lyons, 2008). Also: feelings of regret and stress (Berg et al., 2010) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 25 academic lives
SUMMARY-1 0 +1 Dealing with a setback Study crafting through: through: - Cognitive crafting - Focus on ‘yourself’ - Task crafting - Work on positive - Relational crafting emotions - Contextual crafting - Take decisive action Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 26 academic lives
RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES The impact that study crafting actually can have on students (assumptions from this presentation have not been tested yet) Job crafting at different career stages (Wellman & Spreitzer, 2011) The conditions under which job crafting can be fully positive or negative (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001; Petrou et al., 2012) Focus on the dynamic process of job crafting as it unfolds over time (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001) Job crafting as a part of organizational change (Petrou et al., 2012) Job crafting in different organizational contexts (Berg et al., 2010) Job crafting as a collective undertaking (Berg et al., 2010) Researchers and practitioners have focused on the energy and drive of students and not so much on their ability to deal with pressure and setback. Surprisingly, academic resilience has not received a great deal of attention in the research literature (Martin & Andrew, 2002) Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 27 academic lives
IMPLICATIONS FOR COMMUNICATION PROFESSIONALS As a student: being able to adjust your study to fulfill your unique skills, motives and preferences (Tims et al., 2012) and give more meaning to your study. As a manager: the importance of creating a work climate that encourages job crafting to create more job satisfaction, commitment and performance Job crafting could be a net positive for the organization, but is also a double edged sword that should be considered Development of students’ resilienceo Who is responsible? Teacher or student, or both?o Is an individual always able to deal with setback?o How resilient can you be? Is there a maximum? Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 28 academic lives
“Work is about a search for daily meaning as well as daily bread, for recognition as well as cash, for astonishment rather than torpor, in short for a sort of life rather than a Monday to Friday sort of dying.” (Terkel, 1972) THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! Are there any questions?21-11-12 Work Meaning: How students can 29 create meaning in their academic
DISCUSSION POINTS Teachers must give more attention to (improving/creating) the study meaning of students Teachers are responsible for students’ study meaning (by means of study-crafting and building resilience) CS education must focus more on the practice of building positive emotions The double-edged sword of jobcrafting: management should be involved in job crafting practices The organization should create a work climate that facilitates job crafting Work Meaning: How students can create meaning in their 21-11-12 30 academic lives