Chapter 6 - Selection and Placement


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A group presentation by:
Daniel Edward Ricio
Hannah Dy
Ian Tantoco Umali
Andrea Hizon

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  • The group will be reporting on the Selection and Placement standards and processes of which is one of the many functions of a Human Resource Department
  • The outline of our report
  • The chapter will familiarize you with ways to minimize errors in employee selection and placement, and doing so improve the organization's competitive position.
  • Five selection method standards will be discussed: reliability, validity, generalizability, utility and legality.
  • True Scores and the Reliability of Measurements—The concept of reliability is demonstrated by measuring height at different times. Even though height is supposedly a stable characteristic, slightly different results are generated every time height is measured. Standards for Reliability—Clearly, the more reliable the measure, the more likely decisions can be made on score differences
  • Some of the standards based on Reliability.
  • Predictive validation is a criterion-related validity study that seeks to establish an empirical relationship between applicants’ test scores and their eventual performance on the job. Concurrent validation is a criterion-related validity study in which a test is administered to all the people currently in a job.
  • These are types of selection methods used to assess a person for employment.
  • These techniques are, at best, weak predictors of future job success. Typically, references are very positive since only those who the applicants know will give a good reference are asked to do so. Many suites have been filed against past employers’ revealing too much information beyond job title and years of service. The biggest concern with the use of biographical data is that applicants who supply the information may be motivated to misrepresent themselves.Criterion‑related validities tend to be quite strong, although adverse impact on the disabled and women is highly possible.
  • One of the major drawbacks to these tests is that they typically have adverse impacts on some minority groups. Indeed, the size of the differences is so large that some have advocated abandoning these types of tests for making decisions regarding who will be accepted for certain schools or jobs.Verbal comprehension refers to a person’s capacity to understand and use written and spoken language.Quantitative ability concerns the speed and accuracy at which one can solve arithmetic problems.Reasoning ability refers to a person’s capacity to invent solutions to many diverse problems.Common dimensions assessed in a personality inventory are extroversion, adjustment, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and inquisitiveness.Work samples are job‑specific and tend to be high in criterion‑related and content validity and low in adverse impact.
  • In 1990, the Office of Technology and Assessment released a report on the validity of paper‑and‑pencil honesty tests. The conclusion of the report was that existing research was incon­clusive to determine the effectiveness of the tests. Tests commonly gauge attitudes and perceptions about professional behavior. The tests predict the level of risk of theft for employees. Drug‑use tests tend to be reliable and valid, particularly when the screening tests" are followed up with more expensive “confirmation” test.The major controversies of drug tests includes:Is it an invasion of privacyIs it an unreasonable search and seizureIs it a violation of due processTests should be administered systematically to all applicants applying for the same job.Testing is likely to be more defensible when there are safety hazards associated with the failure to perform. Test results should be reported to the applicant, who should have an avenue to appeal.
  • Chapter 6 - Selection and Placement

    1. 1. CHAPTER 6Selection and Placement<br />Presented By: <br />Daniel Edward Ricio<br />Hannah Dy<br />Ian TantocoUmali<br />Andrea Hizon<br />
    2. 2. Outline of the Report<br />Introduction<br />Selection Method Standards for Evaluation Purposes<br />Types of Selection Methods<br />
    3. 3. Introduction<br />Personnel selection is the process by which companies decide who will or will not be allowed into the organization.<br />The chapter will give ways to minimize errors in having a good selection and placement of employees of which can improve the organization’s competitive position.<br />
    4. 4. Selection Method Standards for Evaluation Purposes<br />Reliability<br />Validity<br />Generalizability<br />Utility<br />Legality<br />
    5. 5. RELIABILITY<br />
    6. 6. Selection Method Standard:“Reliability”<br />Reliability is the degree to which a measure of physical or cognitive abilities, or traits, is free from random error.<br />Involves selecting applicants based from their characteristics that the organization is looking for.<br />It uses statistical tools and graphs to test relationships between sets of numbers .<br />A perfect positive relationship equals +1.0<br />A perfect negative relationship equals - 1.0<br />
    7. 7. Selection Method Standard:“Reliability”<br />Examples of Reliability Standards: <br />Physical Characteristics (Height, Strength or Endurance)<br />Cognitive Abilities (Mathematical Ability or Verbal Reasoning Capacity)<br />Personality (Initiative or Integrity)<br />
    8. 8. VALIDITY<br />
    9. 9. Selection Method Standard:“Validity”<br />Validity is the extent to which a performance measure assesses all the relevant—and only the relevant—aspects of job performance.<br />The measure has the to be RELIABLE (e.g. Height) if it is to have any VALIDITY.<br />
    10. 10. Selection Method Standard:“Validity”<br />Criterion-related validation is a method of establishing the validity of a personnel selection method by showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job-performance scores. There are two types:<br />Predictive validation – A study that seeks to establish an empirical relationship between applicants’ test scores and their eventual performance on the job. <br />Concurrent validation – A test administered to all people currently in a job.<br />
    11. 11. Selection Method Standard:“Validity”<br />Predictive validation is superior to concurrent validation for three reasons:<br />Job applicants are typically motivated to perform well on the tests than are current employees.<br />Current employees have learned many things on the job that applicants have not yet learned.<br />Current employees tend to be homogeneous.<br />
    12. 12. Selection Method Standard:“Validity”<br />Content validation is a test-validation strategy performed by demonstrating that the items, questions, or problems posed by a test are a representative sample of the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job.<br />Best for small samples<br />Content validity is achieved primarily through a process of expert judgment<br />
    13. 13. GENERALIZABILITY<br />
    14. 14. Selection Method Standard:“Generalizability”<br />Generalizabilityis the degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts.<br />Three contexts include:<br />different situations<br />different samples of people<br />different time periods<br />
    15. 15. Selection Method Standard:“Generalizability”<br />It was once believed that validity coefficients were situationally specific—that is, the level of correlation between test and performance would vary as one went from one organization to another.<br />
    16. 16. Selection Method Standard:“Generalizability”<br />It was also believed that tests showed differential subgroup validity, which meant that the validity coefficients for any test-job performance pair was different for people of different races or genders. <br />
    17. 17. Selection Method Standard:“Generalizability”<br />Validity generalization stands as an alternative for validating selection methods for companies that cannot employ criterion-related or content validation.<br />
    18. 18. UTILITY<br />
    19. 19. Selection Method Standard:“Utility”<br />Utility is the degree to which the information provided by selection methods enhances the effectiveness of selecting personnel in organizations. <br />It is impacted by reliability, validity, and generalizability.<br />
    20. 20. Selection Method Standard:“Utility”<br />Other factors will influence utility even when the latter is constant. <br />For example, the selection ratio, which is the percentage of people tested versus the total number of applicants, will impact utility as well as the number of people selected, race of employee turnover, and level of perfor­mance among chose who leave.<br />
    21. 21. LEGALITY<br />
    22. 22. Selection Method Standard:“Legality”<br />All selection methods must conform to existing laws and legal precedents.<br />Three acts have formed the basis for a majority of the suits filed by job applicants:<br />Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 1991<br />Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967<br />Americans with Disabilities Act of 1991<br />
    23. 23. Selection Method Standard:“Legality”<br />Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 1991<br />This act protects individuals from discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, and national origin.<br /><ul><li>Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967</li></ul>Covers individuals who are over the age of 40.<br /><ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act of 1991</li></ul>Protects individuals with physical or mental disabilities (or with a history of the same).<br />
    24. 24. SELECTION METHODS<br />
    25. 25. Types of Selection Methods<br />Interviews<br />Honesty Tests<br />and Drug Tests<br />References and<br />Biographical Data<br />HR<br />Work Samples<br />JOBS<br />Physical Ability<br />Tests<br />Personality<br />Inventories<br />Cognitive Ability Tests<br />
    26. 26. INTERVIEW<br />
    27. 27. Selection Method:“Interview”<br />Selection interviews are defined as a dialogue initiated by one or more persons to gather information and evaluate the qualifications of an applicant for employment. <br />Interviews are the most widely used selection method, although research suggests it can be unreliable, low in validity, and biased against a number of groups. <br />
    29. 29. Selection Method:“Situational Interview”<br />A situational interview confronts applicants on specific issues, questions, or problems that are likely to arise on the job.<br />These interviews consist of:<br />experience-based questions<br />future-oriented questions<br />
    30. 30. OTHER SELECTION METHOD<br />
    31. 31. Other Selection Methods<br />References, Biographical Data, and Application Blanks gather background information on candidates.<br />Physical Ability Tests - Relevant for predicting not only job performance but occupational injuries and disabilities.<br />
    32. 32. Other Selection Methods<br />Cognitive Ability Test - Differentiates individuals based on their mental rather than physical capacities.<br />Personality inventories - Categorize individuals by their personality characteristics.<br />Work Samples - Simulate the job in miniaturized form.<br />
    33. 33. Other Selection Methods<br />Honesty Test - Paper-and-pencil honesty testing attempts to assess the likelihood that employees will steal.<br />Drug Test - Drug‑use tests tend to be reliable and valid, particularly when the screening tests" are followed up with more expensive “confirmation” test.<br />
    34. 34. SUMMARY<br />
    35. 35. Summary<br />There are FIVE selection method standards that HR usually follows to evaluate potential applicants in the organization.<br />Companies usually use INTERVIEW methods in selecting potential applicants, but some companies may use other selection methods.<br />