Architecture and Coupling<br />Richard Veryard<br />September 2011<br />
Motivation<br />System architects need to pay attention to coupling.<br />Because the degree and location of coupling in a...
Not just IT systems …<br />Consider the connection between the moulding shop and the paint shop in a factory. <br />This i...
Loose coupling is a judgement, not a mantra<br />Loose Coupling<br />Reduced interdependencies  reduced interoperability ...
Inscription and Loose Coupling<br />According to Simon, loose coupling gives you THREE different types of flexibility - te...
Weick on Loose Coupling<br />Karl Weick, Managing Change Among Loosely Coupled Elements<br />
Coupling and complexity can be a consequence of scale<br />At low volumes, a system may be able to operate effectively in ...
Management Coupling<br />Business Coupling<br />Organization Coupling<br />Data Coupling<br />Process / Control Coupling<b...
Business (Commercial) Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Cop...
Organizational Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright ...
Information Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © C...
Process Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI ...
Implementation Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright ...
Device Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI F...
Management Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CB...
Coupling may affect design-time and/or run-time <br />In simple manufacturing, the economics of scale involves long produc...
If you were intrigued by this presentation …<br />… read my architecture blog<br />RVsoapbox.BlogSpot.com<br />… and follo...
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Notes on Coupling

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Notes on Coupling

  1. 1. Architecture and Coupling<br />Richard Veryard<br />September 2011<br />
  2. 2. Motivation<br />System architects need to pay attention to coupling.<br />Because the degree and location of coupling in a system of systems critically affects its behaviour.<br />Coupling also affects complexity and adaptability.<br />
  3. 3. Not just IT systems …<br />Consider the connection between the moulding shop and the paint shop in a factory. <br />This is exactly the kind of architectural trade-off that enterprise architects should be qualified to consider.<br />
  4. 4. Loose coupling is a judgement, not a mantra<br />Loose Coupling<br />Reduced interdependencies  reduced interoperability risk<br />Minimize knowledge dependencies<br />Tight Coupling<br />Integration & interoperability  joined-up business<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Inscription and Loose Coupling<br />According to Simon, loose coupling gives you THREE different types of flexibility - technological flexibility, organizational flexibility AND flexibility in the relationship between technology and organization.<br />Kai A. Simon, Business Processes and IT in the Pharmaceutical Industry(Dissertation) http://www.informatik.gu.se/%7Ekai<br />Richard Veryard, Inscription and Loose Coupling (September 2005) http://rvsoapbox.blogspot.com/2005/09/inscription-and-loose-coupling.htm<br />
  6. 6. Weick on Loose Coupling<br />Karl Weick, Managing Change Among Loosely Coupled Elements<br />
  7. 7. Coupling and complexity can be a consequence of scale<br />At low volumes, a system may be able to operate effectively in asynchronous mode. <br />At high volumes, the same system may have to switch to a more synchronous mode.<br />If an airport gets two incoming flights per hour, then the utilization of the runway is extremely low and planes hardly ever need to wait. <br />If the airport gets two incoming flights per minute, then the runway becomes a scarce resource demanding tight scheduling, and planes are regularly forced to wait for a take-off or landing slot.<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Management Coupling<br />Business Coupling<br />Organization Coupling<br />Data Coupling<br />Process / Control Coupling<br />Implementation Coupling<br />Device Coupling<br />In 2003 I identified many aspects of coupling and decoupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI Forum<br />
  9. 9. Business (Commercial) Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI Forum<br />
  10. 10. Organizational Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI Forum<br />
  11. 11. Information Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI Forum<br />
  12. 12. Process Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI Forum<br />
  13. 13. Implementation Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI Forum<br />
  14. 14. Device Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI Forum<br />
  15. 15. Management Coupling<br />Richard Veryard, Component-Based Service Engineering (CBDI Journal, November 2003) Copyright © CBDI Forum<br />
  16. 16. Coupling may affect design-time and/or run-time <br />In simple manufacturing, the economics of scale involves long production runs, so that you can spread the setup costs across a large volume.<br />In agile manufacturing, the economics of scope involves minimizing the setup costs, so that you can have shorter production runs without affecting the economics of scale.<br />A major element of the setup costs for services involves matching the semantics.<br />Therefore semantic and related forms of coupling are critically important for the economics of scope.<br />
  17. 17. If you were intrigued by this presentation …<br />… read my architecture blog<br />RVsoapbox.BlogSpot.com<br />… and follow me on Twitter<br />twitter.com/richardveryard<br />

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