1. First settlers Nomads from mainland Europe (earliest human bone evidence found in 1994) Later settlers came from north-central and occupied eastern Britain. Others arrived from the Iberian areas and populated south-west England, Ireland, the Isle of Man and western Scotland.
2. Norman Conquest Important watershed in English history Batle of Hastings in AD 1066 (last successful external military invasion of the country) Great influence on the English people and their language. Initiated many of the social and institutional frameworks of the British history (feudal system)
3. Ethnic & national diversity Usually newcomers tended to concentrate initially in southern England and settlement patterns were not uniform over all of Britain at the same time. Despite some intermixture between the various settlers, there were racial differences between the English and the people from Ireland, Wales and Scotland.
4. The UKPolitical and military attempts long made by Englandto unite Wales, Scotland and Ireland under theEnglish Crown.Ireland was attacked in the 12th century. The latercolonization and control of Ireland by the Englishbecame a source of hatred between the twocountries.Irish settlements in London and west-coast portssuch as Liverpool.
5. The UKIreland became part of the United Kingdom in1801 but after civil unrest and political agitation,it was divided in 1921 into two political units.Wales lost its independence in 1285 after yearsof bloody conflict witht the English. It waseventually integrated with England by a series ofActs of Union between 1536 and 1542.
6. The UKThe English tried to conquer Scotland bymilitary force, but were repulsed at the Battle ofBannockburn in 1314.Scotland was to remain independent until thepolitical union between the two countries in1707 (creation of Great Britain)England + Wales + Scotland = Protestantism
7. The UKIreland = Catholicism colonization problems.Britain = recent and unstable union of four oldnations. The political entity called Great Britainin only slightly older than the United States ofAmerica, and the United Kingdom (1801) isyounger.Englishness Britishness (outsiders = colonialsubjects)
8. The UKDespite the tensions and bitterness between thefour nations, there has been steady internalmigration between them.Newcomers arrived from overseas, includinggypsies, blacks (associated with the slave trade)and a further wave of Jews, who in 1655 createdthe first permanent Jewish community.
9. The UKIn the 16th and 17th century the country attracted alarge number of refugees, such as Dutch Protestantsand French Huguenots (largely Calvinists whoescaped Catholic persecution, warfare andemployment needs).A second central development in British history wasa number of industrial revolutions in the 18th and19th century.Post colonial immigration.
10. The UKFirst World War = Jews and Poles escaped persecution ineastern Europe and settled in London.Anti-foreigner feeling spread, increased by nationalism andspy mania caused by WWI (Aliens Act of 1905)World Recession of the 1930s and WWII = Poles, Latvians,Ukrainians and other nationalities chose to stay in Britain.Later in the 20th century, political and economic refugeesarrived, such as Hungarians, Czechs, Chileans, Libyans, EastAfricans, Asians, Iranians, Vietnamese, to name a few.