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  1. 1. SWOT & PESTEL Week 8 Business IT/Systems
  2. 2. Organisations • ‘John Bryson quotes Sun Tzu, from the Art of War : • “So it is said that if you know others and know yourself, you will not be imperilled in a hundred battles; if you do not know others but do know yourself, you win one and lose one; if you do not know others and do not know yourself, you will be imperilled in every single battle.”
  3. 3. Organisation Definition • At this stage I would like to keep an organisation definition very broad: ‘constructs formed by social groupings to achieve a specific goal using designed and coordinated activities’ * * adopted but also have a look at Farnham & Horton;
  4. 4. Organisation Analysis • History of Organisations – Organisations have always been an integral feature of civilisation – However, since the start 20th Century and the onset of large organisation more research has focused on organisations • Organisations as Systems – Organisations can be viewed as systems and as such can be categorised with commonalities and differences
  5. 5. Organisation Perspectives – Accounts – School – Retail – Local Authority – Airport – Manufacture – Hospital – Hotel – Leisure Centre – Pharmaceutical Company – Bank – Expectations Setting – Industry (Nationalised/Private) The range of organisation types is large:
  6. 6. Differences & Common Factors • Differences factors: – Cultural – Social • Common factors: – People – Objectives – Structure • The fourth factor?: – Management: the organisations activities and its members efforts are directed and controlled towards the objectives Interaction of people in order to achieve objectives which forms the basis of an organisation. Some form of structure is needed by which people’s interaction and efforts are channelled and coordinated.
  7. 7. Group Example
  8. 8. Organisation Classification • The classification of organisation is an interesting and well documented subject area (see for example Blau and Scott) the detail of which we do not need to focus on at this time. • However, a good starting point for us to take is considering organisations as ‘open systems’: – ‘Organisations which take inputs from the environment (outputs from other systems) and via activities transform these inputs into outputs (inputs to other systems) to achieve some objective.
  9. 9. Organisation as an Open System
  10. 10. Environmental Interactions • Organisations are strongly influenced by a range of volatile, external and environmental factors. • Open Systems are open to and continually interact with the external environmental’ of which it is part • In order to be: – Effective, Survive and Grow • It must respond to the: – Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Limitations; presented by the external environment.
  11. 11. External Environment
  12. 12. Common Techniques – Decision Matrix
  13. 13. Support Technique - PESTEL: • One popular technique for analysing the general environment is the PESTEL analysis: – Political – Economic – Socio-Cultural – Technological – Environmental and – Legal influences This can be viewed as a ‘organisational macro’ perspective.
  14. 14. Ref: Lynch, R. Corporate Strategy, fourth edition, Financial Times Prentice Hall (2006), p. 84
  15. 15. Further Support Technique - SWOT • A more ‘organisational micro’ perspective of analysing the organisation • Tied in with the concept of Synergy (Ansoff) : – Synergy results when the whole is greater than the sum of the component parts • Seen as positive in common field mergers e.g. Product expansion • Seen as negative in different field mergers e.g. Different operating methods or markets
  16. 16. SWOT • A SWOT analysis starts with defining an objective. A SWOT analysis usually incorporated into strategic planning. – Many feel it is bets to first segment the organisation area first. • Strengths: characteristics of the business or team that give it an advantage over others in the industry. • Weaknesses: are characteristics that place the firm at a disadvantage relative to others. • Opportunities: external chances to make greater sales or profits in the environment. • Threats: external elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business.
  17. 17. SWOT (or ‘WOTS up’!)
  18. 18. SWOT SupportCapitalise Invest Identify http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=mH1EljfXp-0&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=mH1EljfXp-0&feature=related
  19. 19. SWOT analysis • STRENGTHS – inward looking • WEAKNESSES – inward looking • OPPORTUNITIES – outward looking • THREATS – outward looking 20
  20. 20. SWOT analysis INTERNAL STRENGTHS Assets Expertise WEAKNESSES Resources Manpower EXTERNAL OPPORTUNITIES Market niche Trend THREATS Competition “Red Tape”
  21. 21. Limitations of SWOT • The volume of S, W, O, Ts can become unmanageable • Can lead to disagreements • Leads to the question, “so what do we do now?”
  22. 22. SWOT Analysis - Method SO (exploitation of strength to gain an advantage) WT (minimise/avoid a weakness or threat)
  23. 23. SWOT Analysis - method 1. LIST Internal STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES 2. LIST External OPPORTUNITIES & THREATS 3. PRIORITISE THE LISTS and GIVE RANK 4. PRODUCE A SWOT MATRIX = 4 sets of possible strategies:-
  24. 24. SWOT MATRIX Strengths (S) Make a LIST Weaknesses (W) Make a LIST Opportunities (O) Make a LIST SO Strategies WO Strategies Threats (T) Make a LIST ST Strategies WT Strategies Internal External
  25. 25. SWOT Example Using the steps from previous slides provide a SWOT analysis and matrix for an SME researching : e.g. “Consumer E-commerce”
  26. 26. Strengths S1. Strong Government support S2. Tradition of retail innovation S3. Potential customer confidence S4. Development of search engines S5. Capability of focused marketing S6 Good benchmarks with trusted brands
  27. 27. Weaknesses W1 Lack of culture awareness in SMEs W2 Possible outsourcing costs of design W3 Inexperience of internet marketing W4 Limited payment systems W5 Limited knowledge of possible market W6 Lack of employee skills
  28. 28. Opportunities O1 Possible increase in market share O2 Potential for cheaper goods (volume) O3 Potential for growth via “virtual means” O4 Set up costs reducing O5 Continuous development of technology
  29. 29. Threats T1 Consumer Reluctance T2 Problems with delivery and after sales support T3 Fears over data security T4 High profile of bad experiences T5 Viruses and fraud T6 In-store ‘fight backs’
  30. 30. SWOT MATRIX eg: SO Strategies S5. Capability for focused marketing O1. Possible increase in market share WO Strategies ST Strategies WT Strategies Action point = INTERNAL PRODUCT/SERVICE ANALYSIS TO DECIDE ON AREA TO FOCUS MARKETING CAMPAIGN