Source: Tim Jackson, Rebound launch: keynote presentation (http://www.ukerc.ac.uk/Downloads/PDF/07/0710ReboundEffect/0710TJKeynote.pdf) “ Technology is an efficiency factor in the equation. Population and affluence are scaling factors. Even as the efficiency of technology improves, affluence and population scale up the impacts. And the overall result depends on improving technological efficiency fast enough to outrun the scale effects of affluence and population.” So these factors are not independent and “appear to be in a self-reinforcing positive feedback between affluence and technology, potentially – and I emphasise potentially – geared in the direction of rising impact” For a quick overview of I=PAT, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_PAT
Internationalisation and student voices: a disruption of business-as-usual?
Internationalisation and student voices: a disruption of business-as-usual? Richard Hall (firstname.lastname@example.org, @hallymk1)
What is the relationship betweenUK higher education,internationalisation agendas andstudent voices in a world thatfaces significant disruption?
a slice of HE• 166 HEIs and 116 universities.• 2007/8: participation for 18-30 years-old = 43%.• 2008/9: 251,300 international students, EU = 117,660.• Universities employ over 372,400 staff, or 1.2% of UK workforce.• Responsible for 353,900 jobs in other parts of the economy.• UK HE generates over £59bn of output for the UK economy, including export earnings of £5.3bn. UUK (2010). Submission to the 2010 Spending Review. http://bit.ly/9dwIqv
Large, complex, motive, gearedeconomically [it’s about resources]; is itabout people?What counts as business-as-usual[BAU]?
HEA, Strategic Plan 2012-16:http://bit.ly/GDkuVd
The Treasury position, on shared services:2.186 VAT: providers of education – TheGovernment will review the VAT exemption forproviders of education, in particular at universitydegree level, to ensure that commercial universitiesare treated fairly. (Finance Bill 2013) HM Treasury (2012) http://bit.ly/GCRYCy
The Treasury position, on technology and researcha new £100 million fund to support investmentin major new university research facilities,including through additional provisions. Thefund will allocate its first bids in 2012–13 andwill attract additional co-investment from theprivate sector HM Treasury (2012) http://bit.ly/GCRYCy
Issues of hegemony tied to economy• The UK sells more brainpower per capita than anywhere elsein the world. In 2008, this amounted to £118 billion in knowledgeservices – worth 6.3% of GDP (The Work Foundation, 2010).• The UK has 1% of the world’s population but undertakes 5% ofthe world’s scientific research and produces 14% of the world’smost highly cited papers (UUK, 2010).• HEIs are worth £59 billion to the UK economy annually and area major export earner. Through their international activities theyare one of the UK’s fastest growing sources of export earnings,and last year bought in £5.3bn (UUK, 2009).
Growth, mobility and circuits• There were 248,000 international students (excluding EU)enrolled at UK HEIs in 2008/09. There were also 121,000EU students the same year (HESA, 2010).• Students from India make up 14% of all internationalstudents (excluding EU) in UK HE. They are the fastest-growing group: the 34,000 in 2008/09 represented a 31.5%increase over the previous year (HESA, 2010).
Framing some issues for UK HE“distinguish between credit or within-programme mobility (suchas Erasmus) and degree or whole-programme mobility wherethe student moves abroad for an entire degree course. Wealso distinguish mobility experiences at different levels(undergraduate, postgraduate) and of different types (studyabroad, work placement etc).”“Globally, student migration grows faster than overallmigration: the US and the UK are the top destinations fordegree mobility; China and India are the top origin countries.” HEFCE (2010). International student mobility literature review: Final report. http://bit.ly/c6be49
Global issues of mobility and circuits• 2007: 2.8 million students were enrolled in HEIs outside their countriesof citizenship (up 4.6% on 2006). 11 countries hosted 71% of the world’smobile students (USA = 21.3%) (UNESCO, 2009).• 2007: 42% of UK PGR students were from abroad (15% of globalshare). This is more than its share of international students generally(UK HE International Unit, 2008).• 2008/09: 388,000 students studying for a UK qualification outside ofthe UK. Of this number, 83% were non-EU students (HESA, 2010).• 2009: 162 global HE branch campuses, up 43% on 2006 (USA = 50%;Australia = 11%; UK = 10%). The number of countries hostinginternational branch campuses grew, from 36 to 51 (OBHE, 2009).
Table 1: Top ten countries of origin of foreign students, 1975–20051975 1985 1995 2005Country No. Country No. Country No. Country No.Iran 33,021 China 42,481 China 115,871 China 343,126US 29,414 Iran 41,083 South Korea 69,736 India 123,559Greece 23,363 Malaysia 40,493 Japan 62,324 South Korea 95,885Hong Kong 21,059 Greece 34,086 Germany 45,432 Japan 60,424China 17,201 Morocco 33,094 Greece 43,941 Germany 56,410UK 16,866 Jordan 24,285 Malaysia 41,159 France 53,350Nigeria 16,348 Hong Kong 23,657 India 39,626 Turkey 52,048Malaysia 16,162 South Korea 22,468 Turkey 37,629 Morocco 51,503India 14,805 Germany 22,424 Italy 36,515 Greece 49,631Canada 12,664 US 19,707 Hong Kong 35,141 US 41,181Source: OECD and UNESCO data compiled in de Wit (2008: 33–34).
BAU: questions of global capital and powerIs there a balance between promoting inward and outwardmobility? How do foreign experiences enrich the curriculumand global “knowing”? (Deliberately opposed to “theknowledge economy”.)Is high relative inward mobility a vindication of the quality ofthe UK’s higher education system in the global market for HE?Or is this merely post-colonialism in another guise? For whomis this HE?How does internationalisation impact the relative (im)mobilityof ‘non-traditional’ students?
BAU: some questions of political economyTo what extent does the economy own HE? How does this impactthe students’ experiences? See: http://bit.ly/gTJCYpOverseas students’ fees contribute nearly £2bn of UK universities’income. Is this a form of capitalist primitive accumulation? Or is ittied to the transnational movement of global capital?Research on trends from East Asian students (cf. Waters 2006;2009) suggests that they and their families carefully strategise toachieve ‘positional advantage’ in a crowded and increasingly‘credentialised’ graduate labour market. Is UK HE contributing toelitist, hegemonic positions abroad?
How are students and institutionspositioned inside this model ofbusiness-as-usual?
Q. ‘What did, or do, you hope to gain as a result of study abroad?’Descriptives:•76%: greater confidence (68% males, 81% females)•72%: better employment prospects (70% males, 73% females)•66%: become more self-reliant (61% males, 70% females)•61%: ‘better language skills’ (57% males, 64% females).So:10.greater shares of mobile females responding positively to thevarious (perceived) benefits;11.rise up the ranking list of ‘employment’ as a benefit; and12.the failure to mention (beyond language acquisition) any directacademic pay-off.National Union of Students’ (2010). Student Experience Survey: http://bit.ly/3Eu0DR
What does this mean for UK HEIsand their staff in a competitive,global HE market?
Tension: institutional diversity• Internationalisation in HE is a multi-faceted phenomenon• Practice is experiental learning• Cross-fertilisation between the disciplines promotes innovative practice• Global collaboration fosters effective, inclusive practice and rigorous research• As a key concept in the student learning experience internationalisation requires collaboration between academic, professional, support and managerial staffCentre for Academic Practice and Research in Internationalisation of Higher Education, at Leeds Metropolitan University (2010): http://bit.ly/dFv17Z
Tensions: the curriculumCopy and paste culture, where plagiarism is rife. [The same claimthat is made of A-Levels.]Yet there is a focus on contextual/personalised understanding in highperforming Asian nations’ pedagogic practices (Oates, 2010:http://bit.ly/ajbCp2). c.f. Shanghai test scores: http://wapo.st/eYTUcqAnd there are some who would claim that, in any case, there arecommon “reform elements that are replicable for school systemseverywhere... to achieve significant, sustained, and widespread gainsin student outcomes.” (McKinsey and Co., 2010: http://bit.ly/b9JJtb)
Some curriculum stuff: comparative issues http://bit.ly/fevnWp
Some curriculum stuff: sharing stories http://bit.ly/fAPeFM
Some curriculum stuff: transfer http://bit.ly/hF8efY
So maybe this is about something else? More humane,maybe? It’s not just the (knowledge) economy (and efficiency),stupid.Maybe we need to discuss student-as-producer, rather thanconsumer, irrespective of cultural differences.Maybe there is something here on power and the productionof the curriculum/world at scale.Maybe commonalities are more important in a world that facessignificant disruption.
The Student VoiceThe HEA’s approach to student engagement considers studentsas active partners in their learning experience. It promotes thevalue of student engagement and shares effective practice acrossthe HE sector. Projects carried out this year have helped toensure that the student voice has been heard on topics rangingfrom sustainability to excellence in teaching. The HEA hasworked with HEIs to ensure that all students, whatever theirbackground, can benefit from inclusive teaching practices. HEA (2011). Annual Report: http://bit.ly/HYUDVw
Equality Challenge Unit (2010). Internationalisationand equality and diversity in HE: merging identities http://bit.ly/e2xkbL
cash and culture…the university recruits too manyinternational students because they payhigh fees… so many courses now haveconsiderable foreign numbers that donot talk to the local students…
us and them?International students have to make aneffort to integrate themselves as well…international students… slow down thelearning process……sometimes we don’t understand whythey smile…
stereotypesInternational students… always formtheir own groups and segregatethemselves from the Australian societyand never integrating… Internationalperspectives are also that ‘we pay wepass’ and therefore never put in effortin uni…
equalityDue to current politics and the result ofhistorical situation universities in the UKhave to face high number of internationalstudents. In order to create a wellworking system this diversity must bebased on equality.
NUS (2010). Internationalising students unions in HE. http://bit.ly/i6MZRR
alienationI ask why do I need to pay more for my tuitionfees since I am from abroad when all the services,resources, time, etc, rendered to me are the sameas my British and EC contemporaries… Am I alsonot “contributing” to the university in any way?
safetyYou [gravitate] towards people from your own culturebecause you think ‘…oh foreigners, I don’t know whatit is going to be like talking to them, I am safe talkingto someone of my own race’.Chinese international students refer to Australianstudents of Chinese background as ‘bananas’because in appearance they have yellow skin, butinside they have the ideas of white people, theybehave like the local people not like people from Asia.
the Othersome programmes of study tend to be mono-cultural,comprising large numbers of Chinese or Indian studentswho have little or no opportunity to engage with homestudents in the campus learning environment.the challenge... is breaking down barriers to facilitate thefree exchange of ideas, different world views, etc, tocounter the stereotyped images so frequently portrayedby the global media
A tendency to articulate internationalisation in its traditional guise =partnerships/exchanges, which enable students to experiencedifference but also to attract more students to the university.Recruitment of international staff = a key element ofinternationalisation, where students note diversity of staff comingtogether to discuss how to teach international students.Students acknowledge the legitimacy of the HEI as a business thatneeds to maintain good reputation and international standingthrough a student-centred approach/a quality product tointernational customers.An ‘international feel’ that sets the HEI apart from other institutions.
But the internationalisation of HEdoes not take place in a bubble.
Disruption1. Control and management of flows of ‘economic migrants’/asylum-seekers3. HE and post-colonialism5. HE in the natural world
Very little of the detail, the human density, thepassion of Arab-Moslem life has entered theawareness of even those people whoseprofession it is to report the Arab world. Edward Said, in The Nation (2010): http://bit.ly/gAuPqz
A key message is the need to manage diversityrather than simply recruit ever expandingnumbers of international students which mayresult in widespread student failures on hostilecampuses where various social groups areviewed negatively. Equality Challenge Unit, 2010: http://bit.ly/emsYwg
HE framed by austerity politics:eliding an attack on the public sector, andprotection of a hegemonic position, with afear of the other: http://bit.ly/dQRovN
Mobile students represent a ‘privileged’ selection. See:http://bit.ly/hL5y6ZFor students coming from poor countries, the wish to convert astudent visa into long-term or permanent residence – so-called‘student switchers’ (Robertson 2010) – is a rational life-strategy.Some receiving countries keen to recruit good students from anycountry, to fill gaps in their national labour market (Hazen andAlberts 2006; Gribble 2008)The increasing internationalisation of skilled and professionallabour markets frames the danger that the UK will produceproportionally fewer multilingual, multicultural graduates thanother competitor countries (http://bit.ly/vRyJH).
Disruption There is a strong correlation between energy use and GDP. Global energy demand is on the rise yet oil supply is forecast to decline in the next few years. There is no precedent for oil discoveries to make up for the shortfall, nor is there a precedent for efficiencies to relieve demand on this scale. Energy supply looks likely to constrain growth. Global emissions currently exceed the IPCC marker scenario range. The Climate Change Act 2008 has made the -80%/2050 target law, yet this requires a national mobilisation akin to war-time. Probably impossible but could radically change the direction of HE in terms of skills required and spending available.
I=PxAxT The impact of human activities (I) is determined by the overallpopulation (P), the level of affluence (A) and the level of technology (T). Even as the efficiency of technology improves, affluence and population scale up the impacts. [See: http://bit.ly/cldoaZ] 61
What does this mean for mobility?What does this mean for global competition?What does this mean for relatively high cost,energy insecure economies?
Repercussions for BAU New meanings and measures of success Limits on materials, energy, wastes and land use? More meaningful prices More durable, reparable goods Fewer status goods More informative advertising Better screening of technology More efficient capital stock More local, less global http://managingwithoutgrowth.com Reduced inequality http://www.steadystate.org/CASSEFAQs.html Less work, more leisure Education for life, not just work
Some possible outcomes in the next 10-20 years? From 2014, emergency investments required in new energy sources as oil declines and existing power stations decommissioned. Significant increase in cost of energy = Increase in cost of living. Problem with global food supplies. Increased (student) poverty? Shift from mitigation to adaptation efforts. Decrease/suspension of democracy. Increase in resource wars drains public funds. De-growth in developed countries. 2008-09 = peak of public spending on education. Contraction in HE sector (real estate/staff/students). “Uneconomic.” Growth in informal and/or non-institutional education. Increased spending on STEM at cost of all else. Unfailing faith in tech.
CapitalIn this way, and following Bourdieu’s notion of ‘forms ofcapital’ (Bourdieu 1986), students who move to study in aninternational arena, especially if they attend high-prestigeuniversities, accumulate multiple and mutually-reinforcingforms of capital – mobility capital (cf. Murphy-Lejeune2002), human capital (a world-class university education),social capital (access to networks, ‘connections’), culturalcapital (languages, intercultural awareness) and,eventually, economic capital (high-salary employment). HEFCE (2010). International student mobility literature review: Final report: http://bit.ly/c6be49
Is HE resilient in the face of disruption?Do our approaches to internationalisationand the place of students in HE limit re-invention?
the ‘contact hypothesis’ suggests that rather thanintercultural encounters automatically increasingintercultural competence, they can reinforce stereotypesand prejudices if critical incidents are not evaluated oncognitive, affective and behavioural levels. Students needto be able to learn about ‘differences’ and get to knoweach other with sufficient intimacy as to be able to discerncommon goals and personal qualities. This in turnsuggests reflection on individual and collective socialexperiences with people from other cultures Equality Challenge Unit, 2010: http://bit.ly/emsYwg
It’s not like we can’t do this (however loaded):UNIPCCHuman Genome ProjectParticipatory Action Research ProjectsStudent solidaritySee, Chatham House (2011). Asia and Europe: Engaging for a Post-Crisis World: http://bit.ly/fyrgkR
So what might this mean for studentvoices in HE?Can the voices of international studentshelp HE become more resilient?
Resilience: adaptation not BAU“the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance andreorganise while undergoing change, so as to retainessentially the same function, structure, identity andfeedbacks” Rob Hopkins (2009). Transition Culture: http://bit.ly/3ugoblSystemic diversity, modularity, feedback
resilience at scale“we have a choice between reliance ongovernment and its resources, and its approachto command and control, or developing anempowering day-to-day community resilience.Such resilience develops engagement,education, empowerment and encouragement” DEMOS (2010): http://bit.ly/15yRl9
Student-as-producerThe Student as Producer project re-engineers the relationshipbetween research and teaching. This involves a reappraisal of therelationship between academics and students, with studentsbecoming part of the academic project of universities rather thanconsumers of knowledge.“The educator is no longer a delivery vehicle and the institutionbecomes a landscape for the production and construction of amass intellect in commons.”Neary and Winn (2009). The student as producer: http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/1675/
Student-as-producercollaborative relations – teaching and research networks;refashioning in fundamental ways the nature of the university;redesign the organizing principle, (i.e. private property andwage labour), through which academic knowledge is currentlybeing produced;open, collaborative initiatives.Neary and Winn (2009). The student as producer: http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/1675/
Towards a curriculum for resilience?• Complexity and increasing uncertainty in the world demands resilience• Integrated and social, rather than a subject-driven• Engaging with uncertainty through projects that involve diverse voices in civil action• Discourses of power – co-governance; co-production?• Authentic partnerships, mentoring and enquiry, in method, context, interpretation and action• How does our international experience inform resilience and our work at scale?
Resilient HE: what is to be done?In the face of disruption what should be done? • The purpose of HEIs • The roles of students/staff • The place of openness • The design/delivery of the curriculum • How does our international experience inform resilience and our work at scale?
Are there other ways of producing knowing? What authority does HE/douniversities have? How relevant are fixed institutions/programmes in adisrupted world?How do internationalised student voices help to adapt to disruption? In aknowing world, rather than a knowledge economy, what does curriculuminnovation mean?Does a pedagogy of production need to start with the principle that we needto consume less of everything? What does this mean for ownership of theinstitution at scale [local, regional, global]?How can internationalised student voices help in the struggle to re-inventthe world?See: http://globalhighered.wordpress.com/2010/04/08/a-question/
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