OSHA Basic Training & Awareness- 01-20-2005


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Informative basic OSHA regulations that security personnel can find useful and beneficial when patroling/ protecting the facility.

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OSHA Basic Training & Awareness- 01-20-2005

  1. 1. OSHA First ResponderOSHA First Responder PresentationPresentation Awareness LevelsAwareness Levels Presented and Researched By:Presented and Researched By: Richard GarrityRichard Garrity
  2. 2. OSHA Regulations:OSHA Regulations: What is OSHA?
  3. 3. OSHA Regulations:OSHA Regulations: The question, “what is OSHA and what do they do” comes up often in safety discussions. Prior to 1970 many workers were either killed or seriously hurt at work. The Occupational Safety and Health Act was enacted in 1970 (OSH Act) to stop this trend. The creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was the result of this law.
  4. 4. OSHA Regulations:OSHA Regulations: It’s primary goal is to set standards that will promote workplace safety and health. OSHA implements these standards through training, information, and assistance to employers and workers; however, if employers fail to voluntarily comply, OSHA has the power to impose substantial monetary fines.
  5. 5. OSHA Regulations:OSHA Regulations: OSHA standards are rules that describe the systematic way employers are legally required to follow to protect their workers from hazards. The process to issue a standard is extensive and lengthy and includes substantial public participation, notification and comment. The government agency must show that a significant risk to workers exists and that there are practicable measures employers can implement to protect their employees.
  6. 6. OSHA Regulations:OSHA Regulations: OSHA approves safety manuals and safety inspectors can review an organization’s safety manual for compliance. Safety Program, Safety Officer, Hazard Communications, Fire Safety, Electrical Safety, Personal Protective Equipment, Emergency Preparedness, Hazard Signs and Warnings
  7. 7. OSHA Regulations:OSHA Regulations: • Hazardous Communications Standard –The Right to Know –Hazmats –Blood borne Pathogens –Transmission
  8. 8. OSHA Regulations:OSHA Regulations: • Hazardous Communications Standard –Safety –Exposure Incident –Fire Safety Advisor –Fire Life Safety
  9. 9. Hazardous Communications StandardHazardous Communications Standard • OSHA Hazardous Communications Standard gives each employee the “right to know” what hazardous materials they may come in contact with during their daily work schedule. • Security Officers must be informed concerning hazardous materials (Hazmats), how to identify them and how to respond to any emergency that may arise at the work site.
  10. 10. HAZMAT Primary Symbols:HAZMAT Primary Symbols:
  12. 12. Hazardous Communications StandardHazardous Communications Standard • HAZMATS: Any materials that would become a threat to health, safety and the environment if improperly controlled.
  13. 13. First Responder- Awareness levelFirst Responder- Awareness level • First Responders are individuals who are likely to witness or discover a hazard and have been trained to initiate a response by notifying proper authorities. • They take no further action
  14. 14. First Responder- Awareness levelFirst Responder- Awareness level • They must have sufficient training to: – Know how to recognize and identify Hazmats – Know how the material can enter the body – know the risks associated with the material – know what action to take in a Hazmat incident – Know how to deal with emergency response personnel
  15. 15. First Responder- Emergency ResponseFirst Responder- Emergency Response
  16. 16. Hazmat LabelingHazmat Labeling • Hazardous Materials are identified by diamond shaped placards using: Colors: •White - Poison •Red - Flammable •Yellow - Oxidizer
  17. 17. Hazmat LabelingHazmat Labeling –Symbols: •Flame for fire •Skull & crossbones for poison –Names: •May be the actual chemical such as oxygen or chlorine •May be a category such as corrosive or flammable
  18. 18. Hazmat Labeling - ContinuedHazmat Labeling - Continued • The National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) has designed a method for identifying hazards: –Diamond-shaped sign divided into four colored backgrounds: • White - Additional information • Red - Fire hazard • Blue - Health hazard • Yellow - Chemical reaction hazard
  19. 19. Material Safety Data Sheets (Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)MSDS) – Within each colored background are numerical ratings - 0 through 4 with 0 being the least severe and 4 the most severe • Information on hazards are also found on: – Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) – Shipping papers – Manifests – Warning labels
  20. 20. HAZMAT Labeling FormHAZMAT Labeling Form
  21. 21. United Nation ID Numbers:United Nation ID Numbers:
  22. 22. United Nation ID Numbers:United Nation ID Numbers: – UN numbers or UN IDs are four-digit numbers that identify dangerous goods hazardous substances and articles (such as explosives, flammable liquids, toxic substances, etc.) in the framework of international transport. Some hazardous substances have their own UN numbers (e.g. acrylamide has UN2074), while sometimes groups of chemicals or products with similar properties receive a common UN number (e.g. flammable liquid, not otherwise specified, have UN1993).
  23. 23. United Nation ID Numbers:United Nation ID Numbers: –A chemical in its solid state may receive a different UN number than the liquid phase if their hazardous properties differ significantly; substances with different levels of purity may also receive different UN numbers.
  24. 24. United Nation ID Numbers:United Nation ID Numbers: – UN numbers range from UN0001 to about UN3500 and are assigned by the United Nations committee of experts on the transport of dangerous goods. They are published as part of their Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods, also known as the Orange Book. These recommendations are adopted by the regulatory organization responsible for the different modes of transport.
  25. 25. United Nation ID Numbers:United Nation ID Numbers:
  26. 26. Globally Harmonized Systems (GHS)Globally Harmonized Systems (GHS)
  27. 27. Many employees work with hazardous materials every day. The ability to identify and specifically regulate these materials can be a difficult task. In the U.S. alone, there are an estimated 650,000 products that can be considered hazardous. In addition, a product that is considered to be hazardous in the U.S. may not be considered hazardous in another country, and vice versa. This can cause confusion and perhaps dangerous problems. Globally Harmonized Systems (GHS)Globally Harmonized Systems (GHS)
  28. 28. To combat these problems, OSHA has adopted the internationally recognized Globally Harmonized System for Classification & Labeling. OSHA is the agency responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions by setting and enforcing safety standards through the industry. Globally Harmonized Systems (GHS)Globally Harmonized Systems (GHS)
  29. 29. The Globally Harmonized System is a set of universal recommendations for hazard communication developed by the United Nations. The primary benefit of the GHS is to increase the quality and consistency of information provided to workers, employers, and chemical users by adopting a standard approach to hazard classification, labels, and safety data. The GHS has already been adopted by China, Australia, and the EU. What is GHS?What is GHS?
  30. 30. The new GHS labels are designed to simplify existing labels. In order to reduce problems with language barriers, the labels emphasize imagery rather than text and color coding. The Hazard Statement (s) on a GHS Label has a specific meaning that corresponds with the new pictograms. What is GHS Purpose?What is GHS Purpose?
  31. 31. Two sets of pictograms are included within the GHS, they are: 1. One for the labeling of containers and for workplace hazard warnings. 2. The second for use during the transport of dangerous goods. What is GHS Purpose?What is GHS Purpose?
  32. 32. Transport pictograms come in a wide variety of colors and may contain additional information such as a subcategory number, but they use the same images as the workplace hazard warning pictograms. What is GHS Purpose?What is GHS Purpose?
  33. 33. In the United States you need to understand what each hazard pictogram means and how it effects your safety before the December 1st, 2013 deadline. What is GHS Purpose?What is GHS Purpose?
  34. 34. Some of the changes resulting from the adoption of GHS are a new hazard classification system, as well as standardized labeling and safety data sheet requirements. Under the GHS, material safety data sheets (MSDS), will now be referred to as safety data sheets or SDS. These changes are significant and must be keenly noted. MSDS converts to SDSMSDS converts to SDS
  35. 35. The first step in minimizing chemical hazards in your workplace is to evaluate them. Hazard information can be found on the chemical’s safety data sheet and label. Under the GHS, the method of classification has been standardized to include health and environmental hazards, physical hazards, and the ability for the site/ facility chemical to mix with another substance. MSDS converts to SDSMSDS converts to SDS
  36. 36. The distinct differences between HazCom labels and GHS labels are as follows. GHS pictograms display a black symbol and each black symbol represents a set of hazards. This is key and vital to industry personnel who have any involvement or responsibility with SDS and or chemicals. Each pictogram symbol represents a “set of hazards”. GHS PictogramsGHS Pictograms
  37. 37. There are 9 pictograms in the GHS system that can be used in the new labeling system. These new distinct pictograms are black images surrounded by a red diamond border on a white background. GHS PictogramsGHS Pictograms
  38. 38. The United States is slated to adopt 8 of these pictograms. The United States will not adopt the environmental pictogram as that safety standard is already regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). GHS PictogramsGHS Pictograms
  39. 39. GHS PictogramsGHS Pictograms
  40. 40. The 9 GHS PictogramsThe 9 GHS Pictograms
  41. 41. GHS PictogramsGHS Pictograms 1-31-3
  42. 42. GHS PictogramsGHS Pictograms 4-64-6
  43. 43. GHS PictogramsGHS Pictograms 7-97-9
  44. 44. GHS Hazardous SymbolsGHS Hazardous Symbols
  45. 45. Standardized LabelsStandardized Labels
  46. 46. Each container of hazardous chemical in your workplace must be diligently marked & labeled so that you can recognize the hazards before you begin your daily activities. Labels are required to display six key identifiers as noted: Standardized LabelsStandardized Labels
  47. 47. 1. The new labels require a GHS pictogram which allows workers to quickly identify the types of hazard a chemical presents. 2. The label will also require a signal word which is a single word to indicate the relative level of severity or danger of the hazard. These words are “Danger” and “Warning”. Standardized LabelsStandardized Labels
  48. 48. 3. There must be a hazard statement which is assigned to a hazard class and category that details the nature of the hazard. 4. Labels are required to have a precautionary statement, a phrase that describes measures to be taken to reduce severe effects of exposure Standardized LabelsStandardized Labels
  49. 49. 5. In order for workers to recognize the chemical identity of a chemical substance, it is required that a product identifier be properly labeled and clearly visible. 6. Any GHS label should have the suppliers information. This would include name, address, and number. Standardized LabelsStandardized Labels
  50. 50. Threshold Limit Values- (TLV)Threshold Limit Values- (TLV)
  51. 51. The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of a chemical substance is a level to which it is believed a worker can be chemically exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse health effects. The TLV is an estimate based on the known toxicity in humans or animals of a given chemical substance, and the reliability and accuracy of the latest sampling and analytical methods. Threshold Limit Values- (TLV)Threshold Limit Values- (TLV)
  52. 52. By December 1st , 2013, US employers must train their employees (current) on the new label elements and safety data sheet format. By June 1st , 2015, employers must comply with all of the modified provisions of the final rule as GHS stipulated. GHS Deadlines:GHS Deadlines:
  53. 53. On December 1st , 2015, chemical distributors will no longer be able to ship products labeled under the old system classifications. On June 1st , 2016, all employers will be required to have all alternative workplace labeling and HAZCOM programs in full compliance. GHS Deadlines:GHS Deadlines:
  54. 54. Material Safety Data Sheets:Material Safety Data Sheets:
  55. 55. What are MSDS?What are MSDS?• Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) are designed to provide both workers and emergency personnel with the proper procedures for handling or working with a particular substance, and identifying them. MSDS sheets include information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spill/leak procedures. These are of particular use if a spill or other accident occurs in your building.
  56. 56. What are MSDS?What are MSDS?• Are your MSDS up to date? What person, group, or entity will most likely need to review MSDS sheets? In almost every instance, arriving Fire personnel, outside contractors, and or OSHA safety inspectors. Firefighter personnel must be completely aware of exactly what type of chemicals are on site and where they are used & stored. When faced with a real working Fire or explosion, Firefighters MUST be knowledgeable of where hazardous chemicals are located. If not, they could be severely hurt or killed.
  57. 57. OSHA MSDS InitiativeOSHA MSDS Initiative and Sample MSDS’sand Sample MSDS’s • OSHA is developing an enforcement initiative for compliance officers to review and evaluate the adequacy of MSDSs. Under this program, the Agency will choose a certain number of chemicals, and following the requirements in the HCS, identify some critical elements (phrases, words, etc.) that should appear on an accurate MSDS. •
  58. 58. OSHA MSDS InitiativeOSHA MSDS Initiative and Sample MSDS’sand Sample MSDS’s • Compliance officers would use this information as they encounter these chemicals at worksites. Where MSDSs are found that do not contain these critical elements, OSHA will notify the corporation in writing of the deficiencies or inaccuracies. •
  59. 59. OSHA MSDS InitiativeOSHA MSDS Initiative and Sample MSDS’sand Sample MSDS’s • Companies will be required to correct and update their MSDS. They will then have to respond to OSHA and inform the Agency of the steps taken to correct and update their data sheet. Those corporations that fail to respond or do not update their MSDS (now known as Safety Data Sheets- SDS), can potentially be cited under the HCS.
  60. 60. Health RisksHealth Risks • How materials enter the body – Absorption: Through breaks in the skin & eyes – Inhalation: Through breathing in of fumes or gases – Ingestion: Eating or swallowing – Injection: Puncture of the skin • Know the hazards at your site – Get a list from the client – Look at MSDS sheets and examine the “Right to know” station – Get to know which hazards are in different areas of the site and if they are poisonous, flammable, or may cause a chemical reaction
  61. 61. Responding to an IncidentResponding to an Incident
  62. 62. Responding to an IncidentResponding to an Incident • Don’t be afraid or hesitant! – You, the responder, are the most important person in an emergency – Protect others from harm • Evacuate if needed • Cordon off area – Look for victims but do not go in after them if you believe it is not safe – Look for labels or signs of the emergency – Call for help and assist upon arrival
  63. 63. Responding to an IncidentResponding to an Incident • Elements of an emergency response plan: The employer shall develop an emergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, as a minimum, the following to the extent that they are not addressed elsewhere.
  64. 64. Responding to an IncidentResponding to an Incident • Pre-emergency planning and coordination with outside parties. • Personnel roles, lines of authority, training, and communication. • Emergency recognition and prevention. • Safe distances and places of refuge. • Site security and control.
  65. 65. Responding to an IncidentResponding to an Incident • Evacuation routes and procedures. • Decontamination. • Emergency medical treatment and first aid. • Emergency alerting and response procedures. • Critique of response and follow-up
  66. 66. Responding to an IncidentResponding to an Incident • Employees engaged in emergency response and exposed to hazardous substances presenting an inhalation hazard or potential inhalation hazard shall wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus while engaged in emergency response, until such time that the officials in charge of the incident determines through the use of air monitoring that a decreased level of respiratory protection will not result in hazardous exposures to employees.
  67. 67. Responding to an IncidentResponding to an Incident • Security personnel will act as first responders only and NOT emergency responders. Security personnel will insure that all at risk employees have been safely located, identified and evacuated from the danger/ hot zone. Security personnel’s most vital role here is detection, evacuation and notification among other site critical procedures and guidelines.
  68. 68. Blood borne PathogensBlood borne Pathogens
  69. 69. What are blood borne pathogens?What are blood borne pathogens?
  70. 70. Blood borne PathogensBlood borne Pathogens • Blood borne pathogens are infectious materials in blood that can cause disease in humans, including hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. Workers exposed to these pathogens risk serious illness or death.
  71. 71. Blood borne PathogensBlood borne Pathogens • Purpose: Limit occupational exposure to blood & other potentially infectious materials • Affected Personnel: All employees for whom there is a “reasonable anticipation” as a result of their jobs, to come in contact with blood or other infectious materials • Exposure Control Plan: Employers are required to identify, in writing, tasks and procedures as well as job classifications where exposure to blood occurs. • Compliance Methods: Use of Body Substance Isolation (BSI) or Universal Precautions is mandated.
  72. 72. Blood borne PathogensBlood borne Pathogens • Hazard Communication: Warning labels with biohazard symbols on all containers of infectious materials • Training: Mandates training upon assignment and annually • Record keeping: Medical records for each employee with occupational exposure for duration of employment plus 30 years • Vaccination: Hep B vaccine for those employees who work in medical facilities, blood banks and labs, and response teams. Post-exposure vaccine for those whose primary tasks are not medical.
  73. 73. PathogenPathogen A micro-organism (germ) that can cause disease • Viruses: hepatitis, measles, mumps, chicken pox, meningitis, rubella, influenza, warts, colds, herpes, shingles, HIV, genital warts • Bacteria: tetanus, meningitis, scarlet fever, strep throat, TB, gonorrhea, syphilis, diphtheria, food poisoning • Fungi: Athlete’s foot, ringworm
  74. 74. PathogenPathogen A micro-organism (germ) that can cause disease • Protozoa: Malaria, dysentery • Rickettsia: typhus, Rocky Mt. Spotted fever • Parasitic worms: Abdominal pain, anemia, lymph blockage, respiratory & circulatory complications
  75. 75. Action Plan:Action Plan: • Establish an exposure control plan. This is a written plan to eliminate or minimize employee exposures. Employers must update the plan annually to reflect technological changes that will help eliminate or reduce exposure to bloodborne pathogens. In the plan, employers must document annually that they have considered and implemented safer medical devices, if feasible, and that they have solicited input from frontline workers in identifying, evaluating, and selecting engineering controls.
  76. 76. Action Plan:Action Plan: Use labels and signs to communicate hazards. The standard requires warning labels affixed to containers of regulated waste, refrigerators and freezers, and other containers used to store or transplant blood or other potentially infectious materials. Facilities may use red bags or containers instead of labels. Employers also must post signs to identify restricted areas and areas that could be hazards.
  77. 77. Secondary Containment Transport:Secondary Containment Transport:
  78. 78. Action Plan:Action Plan: If hazardous specimens or waste are being transported within your facility, security personnel should be fully aware of and enforce the standard secondary containment procedures established. Secondary containment of any potentially hazardous material is mandatory.
  79. 79. Proper Secondary ContainmentProper Secondary Containment
  80. 80. ProperProper disposal & documentationdisposal & documentation of any hazardous waste is requiredof any hazardous waste is required
  81. 81. If you work with pathogens regularly:If you work with pathogens regularly: Provide information and training to employees. Employers must ensure that their workers receive regular training that covers the dangers of bloodborne pathogens, preventive practices, and post-exposure procedures. Employers must offer this training on initial assignment, then at least annually. In addition, laboratory and production facility workers must receive specialized initial training.
  82. 82. Disease Control andDisease Control and Prevention in the Workplace:Prevention in the Workplace:
  83. 83. Diseases: The unseen killersDiseases: The unseen killers
  84. 84. How Diseases SpreadHow Diseases Spread • All four of the following conditions must be met: –Pathogen is present –There is enough pathogen to cause disease –A person is susceptible to the pathogen –The pathogen passes through the correct entry site
  85. 85. How Diseases SpreadHow Diseases Spread • Pathogens enter the body in 4 ways –Direct contact –Indirect contact –Airborne –Vector-borne
  86. 86. Exposure Control PlanExposure Control Plan • Identifying and making a written record of jobs in which exposure can occur • Methods of implementing the OSHA standard – Personal hygiene & protective equipment – Engineering and work practice controls – Equipment cleaning & disinfecting • Procedures for evaluating details of an exposure incident.
  87. 87. Exposure IncidentExposure Incident • If you suspect an exposure: – Wash area of contact immediately – Write down what happened – Report incident to supervisor or HR immediately – Be evaluated by a healthcare professional – Source individual and exposed person’s blood is tested, to the extent of the law – Everything, by law, is kept confidential
  88. 88. ProtectionProtection • Remember: Your safety comes first – If you find yourself in a situation where contamination is possible and you do not have the means to protect yourself, request immediate assistance from medical response personnel and do as much as you can for the victim without endangering yourself. – Always wear gloves • Always use a barrier device when administering CPR • Wear goggles if blood is splattering • Wear a mask when at risk of airborne pathogens
  89. 89. The ultimate goal is to make sure thereThe ultimate goal is to make sure there are no visits to the ER Nurse or the Doctor!are no visits to the ER Nurse or the Doctor!
  90. 90. Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips:Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips:
  91. 91. Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips:Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips: Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips are made from Aluminum sheets, coated with Luminescent materials. These luminous strips absorb surrounding light. In the event of a power failure or fire, these strips glow in the dark immediately. Glow time is between 6 to 8 hours. A perfect emergency lighting system that requires no maintenance or electrical back up.
  92. 92. Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips:Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips: On September 16, 2008 signifying a shift toward enhanced high rise building evacuation in the post 9/11 environment the International Code Council revised the International Fire Code to include New York City’s standards requiring the installation of glow-in-the-dark path markings in the evacuation stairwells of new and existing high rise buildings over 75 feet tall, without exception. The code went into effect Jan. 1, 2009.
  93. 93. Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips:Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips: Designed to glow in the dark when emergency generators and lighting fails, photoluminescent path markings enable people inside buildings to safely use enclosed staircases in the event of an emergency evacuation. A calm, organized evacuation can save lives. Two events led to New York City and ultimately The International Building code requiring the inclusion of glow-in-the-dark path markings in stairwells of high rise buildings. They are:
  94. 94. Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips:Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips: September 11, 2001 World Trade Center evacuees said that photoluminescent markings guided them out of the towers quickly. The markings were installed in the towers after the 1993 bombings. The second influencing event was the August 2003 black out, which left a good portion of the Northeast without electrical power.
  95. 95. Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips:Glow in the Dark Staircase Strips: In New York, the emergency electrical backup systems in many buildings failed, typically due to poor maintenance, faulty batteries and generators, or improper installation. Without this emergency power, people were stranded in buildings, unable or scared to make their way down the exit stairs.
  96. 96. It is all aboutIt is all about Safety!Safety!
  97. 97. Emergencies and Disasters:Emergencies and Disasters: Planning and PreventionPlanning and Prevention • The National Response Plan establishes a comprehensive all-hazards approach to enhance the ability of the United States to manage domestic incidents. The plan incorporates best practices and procedures from incident management disciplines, homeland security, emergency management, law enforcement, firefighting, public works, public health, responder and recovery worker health and safety, emergency medical services, and the private sector and integrates them into a unified structure.
  98. 98. Emergencies and Disasters:Emergencies and Disasters: Planning and PreventionPlanning and Prevention • It forms the basis of how the federal government coordinates with state, local, and tribal governments and the private sector during incidents. It establishes protocols to help in the following:
  99. 99. Emergencies and Disasters:Emergencies and Disasters: Planning and PreventionPlanning and Prevention • Save lives and protect the health and safety of the public, responders, and recovery workers; • Ensure security of the homeland; • Prevent an imminent incident, including acts of terrorism, from occurring; • Protect and restore critical infrastructure and key resources; • Conduct law enforcement investigations to resolve the incident, apprehend the perpetrators, and collect and preserve evidence for prosecution and/or attribution;
  100. 100. Emergencies and Disasters:Emergencies and Disasters: Planning and PreventionPlanning and Prevention • Protect property and mitigate damages and impacts to individuals, communities, and the environment; and • Facilitate recovery of individuals, families, businesses, governments, and the environment. • The full 426 page copy of this Emergency Management Plan can be located at www.OSHA.gov in PDF format.
  101. 101. OSHA Data Sheet- FactsOSHA Data Sheet- Facts • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration aims to ensure worker safety and health in the United States by working with employers and employees to create better working environments. Since its inception in 1971, OSHA has helped to cut workplace fatalities by more than 60 percent and occupational injury and illness rates by 40 percent. At the same time, U.S. employment has doubled from 56 million workers at 3.5 million worksites to more than 115 million workers at 7.1 million sites. In Fiscal Year 2004, OSHA has an authorized staff of 2,220, including 1,123 inspectors. The agency's appropriation is $457.5 million.
  102. 102. OSHA Data Sheet- FactsOSHA Data Sheet- Facts • There were 5,524 worker deaths in 2002, a 6.6 percent drop from 2001. Fatal work incidents occurred at a rate of 4.0 fatalities per 100,000 workers. Fatalities related to highway incidents, fires and explosions, and contact with objects or equipment all declined. Deaths from job-related falls dropped 12 percent - the first decrease since 1998 - while the number of homicides decreased to its lowest level - 609, a 5-percent drop - since the fatality census was first conducted in 1992.
  103. 103. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor
  104. 104. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor • What should employers do to protect workers from fire hazards? Employers should train workers about fire hazards in the workplace and about what to do in a fire emergency. If you want your workers to evacuate, you should train them on how to escape. If you expect your workers to use firefighting equipment, you should give them appropriate equipment and train them to use the equipment safely. (See Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910 Subparts E and L; and Part 1926 Subparts C and F.)
  105. 105. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor• What does OSHA require for emergency fire exits? Every workplace must have enough exits suitably located to enable everyone to get out of the facility quickly. Considerations include the type of structure, the number of persons exposed, the fire protection available, the type of industry involved, and the height and type of construction of the building or structure. In addition, fire doors must not be blocked or locked when employees are inside. Delayed opening of fire doors, however, is permitted when an approved alarm system is integrated into the fire door design. Exit routes from buildings must be free of obstructions and properly marked with exit signs. See 29 CFR Part 1910.36 for details about all requirements. Do employers have to provide portable fire extinguishers? No. But if you do, you must establish an educational program to familiarize your workers with the general principles of fire extinguisher use. If you expect your workers to use portable fire extinguishers, you must provide hands-on training in using this equipment. For details, see 29 CFR Part 1910 Subpart L.
  106. 106. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor • Must employers develop emergency action plans? Not every employer is required to have an emergency action plan. OSHA standards that require such plans include the following: • Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, 1910.119 • Fixed Extinguishing Systems, General, 1910.160 • Fire Detection Systems, 1910.164 • Grain Handling, 1910.272 • Ethylene Oxide, 1910.1047 • Methylenedianiline, 1910.1050 • 1,3 Butadiene, 1910.1051
  107. 107. It’s all about Prevention….It’s all about Prevention….
  108. 108. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor When required, employers must develop emergency action plans that: • Describe the routes for workers to use and procedures to follow. • Account for all evacuated employees. • Remain available for employee review. • Include procedures for evacuating disabled employees. • Address evacuation of employees who stay behind to shut down critical plant equipment. • Include preferred means of alerting employees to a fire emergency. • Provide for an employee alarm system throughout the workplace.
  109. 109. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor • Require an alarm system that includes voice communication or sound signals such as bells, whistles, or horns. • Make the evacuation signal known to employees. • Ensure emergency training. • Require employer review of the plan with new employees and with all employees whenever the plan is changed. • Must employers have a fire prevention plan?
  110. 110. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor Employers covered by these standards must implement plans to minimize the frequency of evacuations. All fire prevention plans must: • Be available for employee review. • Include housekeeping procedures for storage and cleanup of flammable materials and flammable waste. • Address handling and packaging of flammable waste. (Recycling of flammable waste such as paper is encouraged.) • Cover procedures for controlling workplace ignition sources such as smoking, welding, and burning.
  111. 111. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor Provide for proper cleaning and maintenance of heat producing equipment such as burners, heat exchangers, boilers, ovens, stoves, and fryers and require storage of flammables away from this equipment. • Inform workers of the potential fire hazards of their jobs and plan procedures. • Require plan review with all new employees and with all employees whenever the plan is changed.
  112. 112. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor • What are the rules for fixed extinguishing systems? Fixed extinguishing systems throughout the workplace are among the most reliable fire fighting tools. These systems detect fires, sound an alarm, and send water to the fire and heat. To meet OSHA standards employers who have these systems must: • Substitute (temporarily) a fire watch of trained employees to respond to fire emergencies when a fire suppression system is out of service. • Ensure that the watch is included in the fire prevention plan and the emergency action plan. • Post signs for systems that use agents (e.g., carbon dioxide, Halon 1211, etc.) posing a serious health hazard.
  113. 113. OSHA Fire Safety AdvisorOSHA Fire Safety Advisor
  114. 114. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • 5-00-20 Flammable and Combustible Materials • A. Substitution • Flammable liquids sometimes may be substituted by relatively safe materials in order to reduce the risk of fires. Any substituted material should be stable and nontoxic and should either be nonflammable or have a high flashpoint. • B. Storage • Flammable and combustible liquids require careful handling at all times. The proper storage of flammable liquids within a work area is very important in order to protect personnel from fire and other safety and health hazards.
  115. 115. Flammable Storage ContainerFlammable Storage Container
  116. 116. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: C) Cabinets – Not more than 120 gallons of Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids may be stored in a storage cabinet. Of this total, not more than 60 gallons may be Class I and II liquids. Not more than three such cabinets (120 gallons each) may be located in a single fire area except in an industrial area.
  117. 117. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • 2) Containers – The capacity of flammable and combustible liquid containers will be in accordance with Table 1. • 3) – Storage Inside Buildings. – Where approved storage cabinets or rooms are not provided, inside storage will comply with the following basic conditions: – a. • The storage of any flammable or combustible liquid shall not physically obstruct a means of egress from the building or area. – b. • Containers of flammable or combustible liquids will remain tightly sealed except when transferred, poured or applied. Remove only that portion of liquid in the storage container required to accomplish a particular job.
  118. 118. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: – c. • If a flammable and combustible liquid storage building is used, it will be a one-story building devoted principally to the handling and storing of flammable or combustible liquids. The building will have 2-hour fire-rated exterior walls having no opening within 10 feet of such storage. – d. • Flammable paints, oils, and varnishes in 1 or 5 gallon containers, used for building maintenance purposes, may be stored temporarily in closed containers outside approved storage cabinets or room if kept at the job site for less than 10 calendar days.
  119. 119. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • C. Ventilation • Every inside storage room will be provided with a continuous mechanical exhaust ventilation system. To prevent the accumulation of vapors, the location of both the makeup and exhaust air openings will be arranged to provide, as far as practical, air movement directly to the exterior of the building and if ducts are used, they will not be used for any other purpose.
  120. 120. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • D. Elimination of Ignition Sources • All nonessential ignition sources must be eliminated where flammable liquids are used or stored. The following is a list of some of the more common potential ignition sources: • Open flames, such as cutting and welding torches, furnaces, matches, and heaters-these sources should be kept away from flammable liquids operations. Cutting or welding on flammable liquids equipment should not be performed unless the equipment has been properly emptied and purged with a neutral gas such as nitrogen.
  121. 121. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • Chemical sources of ignition such as D.C. motors, switches, and circuit breakers; these sources should be eliminated where flammable liquids are handled or stored. Only approved explosion-proof devices should be used in these areas. • Mechanical sparks- these sparks can be produced as a result of friction. Only non- sparking tools should be used in areas where flammable liquids are stored or handled.
  122. 122. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • Static sparks- these sparks can be generated as a result of electron transfer between two contacting surfaces. The electrons can discharge in a small volume, raising the temperature to above the ignition temperature. Every effort should be made to eliminate the possibility of static sparks. Also proper bonding and grounding procedures must be followed when flammable liquids are transferred or transported.
  123. 123. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • E. Removal of Incompatibles • Materials that can contribute to a flammable liquid fire should not be stored with flammable liquids. Examples are oxidizers and organic peroxides, which, on decomposition, can generate large amounts of oxygen. • F. Flammable Gases • Generally, flammable gases pose the same type of fire hazards as flammable liquids and their vapors. Many of the safeguards for flammable liquids also apply to flammable gases, other properties such as toxicity, reactivity, and corrosivity also must be taken into account. Also, a gas that is flammable could produce toxic combustion products.
  124. 124. Fire Extinguishers:Fire Extinguishers:
  125. 125. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • Fire Extinguishers: • A portable fire extinguisher is a "first aid" device and is very effective when used while the fire is small. The use of fire extinguisher that matches the class of fire, by a person who is well trained, can save both lives and property. Portable fire extinguishers must be installed in workplaces regardless of other firefighting measures. The successful performance of a fire extinguisher in a fire situation largely depends on its proper selection, inspection, maintenance, and distribution. • A. Classification of Fires and Selection of Extinguishers • Fires are classified into four general categories depending on the type of material or fuel involved. The type of fire determines the type of extinguisher that should be used to extinguish it.
  126. 126. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • 1) Class A- Fires involve materials such as wood, paper, and cloth which produce glowing embers or char. • 2) Class B- Fires involve flammable gases, liquids, and greases, including gasoline and most hydrocarbon liquids which must be vaporized for combustion to occur. • 3) Class C- Fires involve fires in live electrical equipment or in materials near electrically powered equipment. • 4) Class D- Fires involve combustible metals, such as magnesium, zirconium, potassium, and sodium.
  127. 127. OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines:OSHA Fire Life Safety Guidelines: • Fire Extinguishers will be selected according to the potential fire hazard, the construction and occupancy of facilities, hazard to be protected, and other factors pertinent to the situation.
  128. 128. OSHA Duty Clause 29 CFR 1910:OSHA Duty Clause 29 CFR 1910: The 29 CFR 1910 federal general duty clause, also known as Section 5(a)(1), requires an employer to furnish a workplace that is "free from recognized hazards that are causing death or serious physical harm to his employees."
  129. 129. Thank you for attendingThank you for attending today’s presentationtoday’s presentation
  130. 130. Questions?Questions?