Gender analysis: systematic identification of key issues that contribute to gender inequality, including access and control of resources, roles and responsibilties of women and menGender power analysis: analysis of power relations that maintain gender discrimination, subordination and exclusion in society.Intersectional analysis: looks at how gender intersects with identity based on class, ethnicity, caste, age, disability, sexuality, and religion that can be a basis for marginalization.
Examples: a black man in the United States may have more power over his wife in the household, especially if he has more assets. But he may have little power in his place of work as a low wage worker.a woman from a low caste in India may have little control over community-level decisions. However, a mother-in-law from the same caste can have power in the household as a mother-in-law.
Consciousness:knowledge, skills, political consciousness and commitment to change toward equalityCultural Norms: influences what changes are possible at individual level, some think most important We need to understand what change is needed in all of the domains to plot our intervention and achieve sustainable change and long-term impact.
Can’t assume women’s groups are included in civil society groups – we can help convene, foster linkages
Gender, Power and Campaigns
GENDER, POWER and
February 5, 2014
Oxfam CALP Webinar
February 5, 2014
From Oxfam national
• “Addressing unequal gender and power relations is
foundational to Oxfam’s theory of change and must
be addressed as an organisation that puts women’ s
rights at the heart of all we do.”
• “Women and girls represent the majority of poor
people Oxfam is trying to reach through its work. This
means that our influencing propositions, and the
strategies to achieve them, must recognise and
respond to the specific needs and capacities of
women and girls.”
Why Gender Power Analysis?
• Gender analysis has been required in Oxfam
projects, programs and campaigns, given
gender is a key determinant of poverty and
• Gender power analysis is needed given power
inequality undermines gender equality and
Characteristics of Power
• Women and men hold multiple roles and
relationships. With each, their level of power can
• Power can be economic, political, social, cultural
and symbolic. People are rarely powerful in (nor
powerless across) all forms.
• Power is not a zero-sum game.
• Power is socially constructed.
• A person’s experience of power can depend on
their gender, race, class, age, etc.
Considerations for Gender
• What are the gender dimensions and impacts of
• Who holds power? How does their gender
reinforce it? Which women want to be leaders in
transformative change that we could engage?
• Where are decisions made? Are they closed
spaces to which women?
• How can we address the barriers (social norms,
attitudes/beliefs, legislation) to change? What
strategies will we use to transform power?
A framework for looking at
gender and power
Women’ s access
Women’ s and men’ s
Adapted from Gender at Work
Forms of Power
(with Gender Dimensions)
• Personal power (Power Within, Power To): The power
within and power to know, pursue and achieve one’s
• Cooperative power (Power With): The power with others
to work together to pursue one’s collective interests.
• Controlling power (Power Over): The power over others
through rules and governing processes (visible), through
determining who has the right to participate in decisionmaking and the settings in which people interact (invisible),
as well as through the power to define what is possible,
reasonable or logical within a given context through
shaping ideologies of kinship, capitalism, religion, science
and education (hidden).
Principles of Power Transformation
• Transformative power
• is rights based
• aims to transform gender power relations and norms based on a gendered
• incorporates an understanding of how multiple identities intersect to
create and sustain discrimination and violence
• facilitates and supports individual and collective capacity for sustainable
• supports women’s articulation of their own political voice and agendas
• supports partner organisations to identify their own needs and implement
their own agenda
• creates an enabling environment for women’s leadership at all levels and
in all domains (family, economic, political and social).
Lessons on Influencing on Women’s
Rights and Gender Justice
• Strong alliances with WROs ensure women’s
perspectives, interests and demands are reflected
• We can use our influence to convene, foster linkages
between and build broad-based alliances
• Legal advances are necessary, but transformation
requires change in social and cultural norms
• Engaging men and boys is necessary to build a broad
constituency against gender discrimination
• We need to allocate resources to do gender power
analysis and integrate in our advocacy, campaigns,
and influencing strategies
• Solidarity for African Women’s Rights
presented by: Shukri Gesod, Gender Justice LeadPan- Africa Programme
• Violence against Women and the Arms Trade
presented by: Caroline Green, Gender Policy
Food for Thought
• Did anything surprise you about how gender
power analysis was incorporated?
• What have you learned that you could apply to
• What did you notice about what worked and
Some inspiring examples
WE Can Campaign
Female Food Heroes