Calp 3 Power Analysis Webinar Presentation


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For particpants of CALP 3 Progamme

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  • Note: Keep the power analysis light - 'good enough' to ensure effectiveness and efficient investment of resources.
    More scoping is required once you have established your main change objectives and who the specific targets of your influencing work are, for example to investigate their views and position on the issue in more detail
  • Alliances: Effective alliances may be ‘horizontal’, bringing together similar organizations such as peasant producers or women’s savings groups, but often Oxfam can play a particular role in convening (and building trust within) ‘vertical’ alliances of non-usual suspects, bringing together civil society organizations with private sector companies, urban groups, middle class philanthropists, sympathetic state bodies or faith-based organizations.
    Pivotal moments: Change is sometimes a smooth, steady process, but often emerges from ‘critical junctures’ – windows of opportunity provided by elections, changes in leadership, natural disasters or conflicts. Oxfam’s theory of change stresses the need to improve its ability to identify and respond to such moments. Nor is change always peaceful – it is often accompanied by social conflict. Improving our understanding of the turbulent and complex dynamics of change in the lives of poor people is at the heart of Oxfam's strategic plan.
    Note: remind participants that their informal networks are as important as their formal ones. It’s important to network externally and make the most of opportunities to influence people. This is particularly important when doing a power mapping exercise as people often forget to make the most of their personal networks, who they know that my well have contact with or influence over important stakeholders.
  • Visible power
    Power is most commonly associated with the state and formal political Institutions. Laws and legal processes create a formal system for the exercise of this power. Most advocacy by CSOs is directed at this formal or visible type of power. Advocacy is seen as a way to use existing power structures to persuade
    those with power to make changes to legislation, policies or the allocation of resources.
    Invisible power
    Values, beliefs and attitudes, and cultural norms and practices, all reinforce the status quo and can cause people to accept their powerlessness and even blame themselves for it, or fail to see that their situation could be different.
    For example, despite being against the law, the practice of dowry (the payment in cash or/and kind by the bride’s family to the bridegroom’s
    family) is still widespread in parts of South Asia. Laws (in the formal arena of power) prohibiting the practice have not brought about the change required in practice. Laws are not enforced both because powerful groups with ‘hidden’ power do not see it as an important issue or in their interests to enforce the law, and because strong social norms mean most women themselves may accept the practice.
    Hidden power
    Un-elected and un-accountable groups and institutions can also be powerful, such as big corporations. These groups have hidden or
    informal power to influence the formal decision-making processes and can determine what gets discussed, who sits around the table, and even what is decided. This often results in the concerns of less powerful groups being excluded. Increasingly CSO advocacy has targeted those who try to influence decision makers, such as corporate lobby groups. More fundamentally, some advocacy is aimed at exposing these hidden processes and opening up decision making processes so that those who have been excluded can have a voice.
  • Targets need to be specific
    Limited number of fronts on which your organisation or you can work.
    Refer to named individuals rather than simply institutions
  • One element it doesn’t look at fully is the relationship between targets – ‘who influences who’
    So actively think about that. If you’re a visual person you can capture some of that thinking by drawing a power map (next slide)
  • This explores the relationship between targets – ‘who influences who’. Ask participants to spot the error. Answer: IMF has not been broken down to specific individuals within it! Ask them to remind you why that’s a problem i.e. IMF is a large institution – there may be allies and opponents within it so don’t treat it as ‘a blob’.
  • Calp 3 Power Analysis Webinar Presentation

    1. 1. POW ANALYSIS & ER POW MAPPING ER CALP webinar Dec 2013
    2. 2. Agenda • Re-cap on HCH, power and context analysis • Gender & Power • Power mapping  Brief theory  Top tips on doing  Share tools  Case studies  Models CALP participants have used. What’s worked? What’s been challenging? • Introduce institutional & process mapping Page 2
    3. 3. Re-cap on HCH, power and context analysis
    4. 4. Re-cap context/power analysis/HCH • Putting power at the centre of our thinking: political power, economic, psychological, religious and cultural and who & what drives change • Transformative change – i.e. sustainable changes in power relationships in the lives of poor people • Achieving change involves using power and affecting power relations and putting power at the centre of all our influencing strategies Page 4
    5. 5. When do you analyse your context? • At the beginning to ensure your programme: - takes account of the external context - establishes why change is necessary and what that change should be (your ToC) • Once you have established your main change objectives and who the specific targets of your influencing work are – go deeper • Be alert to changes in the external environment throughout your influencing work Page 5
    6. 6. When analysing the external context it is important to: • Grapple with complexity • Deepen our understanding of power, power relationships, institutions • Understand the interaction between political and economic processes and the trends in distribution of power and wealth – (see political economy analysis) • Work out your theory or theories of change in order to decide HOW to go about your programmes and WHO to work with Page 6
    7. 7. Your context • What are the important local and national changes happening in your context? • What are the main obstacles (attitudes and beliefs, institutions, economic or political players) to change? • Which of these changes are most relevant (whether positive or negative) for poor and excluded people? Page 7
    8. 8. Page 8
    9. 9. Power and Change Cycle Page 9
    10. 10. Understanding Power Understanding power is fundamental if you are to understand how change happens. What is it? Who has it? How it is exercised? Page 10
    11. 11. Dimensions of Power - Is decisionmaking? •Visible •Hidden – e.g. operates behind the scenes •Invisible - based on ideology or beliefs. Who decides what’s ‘normal’? •Made in closed groups (formal or informal) •With invited parties •Created (e.g. when less powerful actors set up own structures and set own agendas) And made at what level – household, local, national, global Page 11
    12. 12. Examples
    13. 13. Page 13
    14. 14. Page 14
    15. 15. Page 15
    16. 16. Power and Gender
    17. 17. Power Mapping
    18. 18. Power Mapping What is a 'power analysis map’? Why do one? • Understand the networks and relationships between people and institutions – who has the direct power to deliver the change you want, who can influence them? i.e. • Who makes decisions concerning your objective? • How are these decisions made? • Who can influence the decision making process and those with the power to bring about the change you want? • Allies and opponents? What are their interests? Page 18
    19. 19. Top tips Remember: • Make your stakeholders specific to your objective i.e. ‘targeted’ & ‘prioritised’ • Your analysis of an institution needs to be subdivided in to named individuals so a) you can be specific and b) there may be allies/champions, opponents/blockers, floaters or targets within one institution • Think about how power can shift and change Page 19
    20. 20. Power Mapping cont. • More than way to cut a cake! • So a few different tools to establish: - the stakeholders for your advocacy objective(s) - their degree of power to deliver the change you want - who has influence over who. Page 20
    21. 21. Power Power mapping grid High Influence Medium Influence Low Influence Blocker Floater Champion Page 21
    22. 22. Page 22
    23. 23. A visual power map Page 23
    24. 24. Page 24
    25. 25. Examples from the CALP Group
    26. 26. Institutional or Political Economy Analysis and Process Mapping
    27. 27. Analysing policy and decision-making processes • Underlying processes of decision making, and how policy is developed and decided on • The technical processes e.g. how budgets processes or service delivery works • The less tangible issues of social exclusion, gender relations and historical legacy in decision-making • National and sub-national relationships • Laws and regulations • Ideology and cultural/religious values that effect decisionmaking • Global drivers Page 27
    28. 28. Institutional analysis • The formal and informal ‘rules of the game’ and how they are embedded in organisations and processes • Some institutions will need to be ‘taken as given’, and therefore understood better so can work with or around them • Some can be changed – and therefore you need to understand them in order to work out how Page 28
    29. 29. Process maps • Help illustrate the network of flows of decision making, resources or information • Help identify bottlenecks and constraints • Help analyse opportunities for changing processes to make them more efficient or effective • Help us work out how formal and informal institutions affect: • how things are intended to work • how they actually work Page 29
    30. 30. An example: small scale mining licensing procedure Page 30
    31. 31. Organisational mapping of the budget process for urban sanitation in Senegal Page 31
    32. 32. DFID’s Political Economy Analysis: How To Note Page 32
    33. 33. Page 33
    34. 34. Page 34
    35. 35. Page 35
    36. 36. Power analysis & power mapping as part of your programme’s advocacy and campaigning • • • • • • • • • Put it at the core of any successful campaign strategy development. Dispel the myth—power analysis is not the same as power mapping Integrate it at all the stages of strategy development Analysis happens within the media – so be on top of it! Ideally all members of the team should be part of power analysis (programme officers/managers, communications staff, advocacy/campaigns staff, MEL) “Share the love” of power analysis (allies, partners, experts). High maintenance: constantly update and review Don’t hesitate to block initiatives that are not based on rigorous power analysis Don’t overdo it – rigorous but light! Page 36
    37. 37. Questions AND NEXT STEPS