Conservation, Digitisation                        and PreservationThe need for digitisationPreservation planning    mappin...
Terminology     Preservation – “Everything needed to ensure     permanent access” = maintenance                Conservat...
Conservation    VFI in Ho Chi Minh City showed excellent film    conservation    packaging, handling and shelving    en...
The need for digitisationOnly three ways to preserve:1.Keep what you have2.Copy using same technology3.Copy using new tech...
What about vinyl?     Gramophone     records: lacquer,     shellac and vinyl                 Lacquer = a master         ...
More on gramophone records    Shellac was used for 78     rpm commercial     recordings    Also fragile – the main     r...
But, what about vinyl?     Used for 45 and 33 1/3 rpm recordings     They are fragile (though less fragile than     shel...
Gramophone                       damage     Dropping a     needle onto a     vinyl disc     Oil coming to     the surfac...
Where was I?Only three ways to preserve:Keep what you have: only works for film•     Audio, Video: analogue technology obs...
Preservation of Film     VFI provides excellent example of conservation     Film technology still exists     BUT – the ...
The end of film projection?“ Were About to Lose 1,000 SmallTheaters That Cant Convert to Digital.Does It Matter?”Indiewire...
Digitisation of Film     Now: needed for access                Internet                Digital cinema     Soon: needed...
PRESTO Digitisation“Better Faster Cheaper” Daniel Teruggi, Institut  National de lAudiovisuel (INA), ParisBasic concepts:1...
Digitisation Planning     All the Presto information on a wiki:     http://wiki.prestospace.org/     Strategy – what doe...
Collection Strategy    Long-term purpose of the digitisation                Preserving the collection                Ma...
Access Outcomes     Collection access from computer stations                Mediatheque approach     Collection access ...
Restrictions on Access     Attitudes: we dont do that     Fear: somebody might complain     Rights: we dont hold the ri...
Access:                     Technical Requirements     A usable catalogue     Online support services: questions, linkin...
Digital Archive: workflow     Everything changes when shelves disappear:                Acquisition: digital ingest     ...
Getting Started     Map – The collection needs to be divided by     format, condition, purpose ...     Priorities – arra...
BBC film examples from wikiMap: http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.GettingStartedStrategy: http://wiki.prestos...
The Factory Approach                                                         Photo by Toban Black4-5 September 2012    Vie...
The Factory Approach     The division of labour in pin manufacturing:     (and the great increase in the quantity of work...
A BBC Preservation Factory4-5 September 2012       Vietnam Film Institute Workshops   24
The Factory Approach     “Division of labour” requires having specialists,     which means having a team     Which means...
BBC Preservation:             £5M per year (for 20 years)Audio: 7000 hours per year of ¼ inch tape  Also digitised 63 00...
     News film: 43 000 items in 3 years                Ektachrome; digitised to SD video (Digibeta)     10% of total co...
Discussion     Digitisation projects of delegatesIn the afternoon we will discuss technical issues,  but we need to begin...
Time for LunchThis afternoon:1) Practical Session on Digitisation     What is your long-term plan?     What are your imm...
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Workshop 2 audiovisual conservation, preservation and digitisation

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Conservation of analogue audiovisual content; planning for preservation; planning a digitisation project

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  • Wright DPC report, p 9: Conservation of analogue content can be divided into the following concerns. packaging, handling and shelving (storing): the immediate environment of a physical item; environmental conditions: essentially control of temperature and humidity, and the stability of that control, but also protection from anything harmful in the environment, such as dust, pollutants, magnetic fields, excess light or infrared and ultraviolet radiation; protecting the masters; and condition monitoring.
  • http://www.unesco.org/webworld/virtual_exhibit/safeguarding/film.gif http://www.unesco.org/webworld/virtual_exhibit/ safeguarding/texte10.html Before magnetic tapes came into general use, recordings were made on so called ‘instantaneous records’, which could be replayed immediately after the cut. The most popular form was the ‘lacquer disk’, or ‘acetate disk’ used from the 1930s to the 1950s in broadcasting and scientific institutions for unique recordings. Chemical decomposition (hydrolysis) causes the information carrying lacquer layer to become brittle and thus to separate from the metal or glass core of the record. Of an internationally assessed total of three million records, many have already been lost, including numerous unique interviews and speeches from historically important politicians and artists. Photo: Phonogrammarchiv, Austrian Academy of Sciences
  • http://www.theaudioarchive.com/ TAA_Resources_Disc_Transcription.htm
  • BL Sound Archive access: http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/bldept/soundarch/ about/soundarchive.html Br Film Inst access: Cinema, IMAX, Mediatheque Sells DVDs and publications BFI Inview: http://www.jisc-collections.ac.uk/ Catalogue/Overview/index/24 BFI Online sales: http://filmstore.bfi.org.uk/ Other online: http://www.bfi.org.uk/ Archive-collections/ introduction-bfi-collections/archive-resources-online
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/tobanblack/3433957359/ License Some rights reserved by Toban Black The division of labour in pin manufacturing: (and the great increase in the quantity of work that results)
  • Workshop 2 audiovisual conservation, preservation and digitisation

    1. 1. Conservation, Digitisation and PreservationThe need for digitisationPreservation planning mapping your collections; setting priorities; making a collection strategy, apreservation strategy and a preservationplanThe Preservation Factory approach4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 1
    2. 2. Terminology Preservation – “Everything needed to ensure permanent access” = maintenance  Conservation: keeping what you have (for as long as you can) = safe storage and handling  Preservation actions: interventions. Changing what you have = repair and replace − Making a new negative or interneg − Copying from an old carrier to a new carrier − Digitising  Which separates content from carrier = liberation4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 2
    3. 3. Conservation VFI in Ho Chi Minh City showed excellent film conservation packaging, handling and shelving environmental conditions: temperature and humidity; protection from pollution, dirt etc protecting the masters; and condition monitoring = checking the stockFull description on Preservation Guide wiki: http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.PreservationStrategy#Conservation4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 3
    4. 4. The need for digitisationOnly three ways to preserve:1.Keep what you have2.Copy using same technology3.Copy using new technologyKeep what you have: only works for film• Audio, Video: analogue technology obsoleteCopy on same technology: only works for film• Audio, Video: analogue technology obsolete4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 4
    5. 5. What about vinyl? Gramophone records: lacquer, shellac and vinyl  Lacquer = a master recording (acetate, instantaneous disc); very fragile ! 4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 5
    6. 6. More on gramophone records Shellac was used for 78 rpm commercial recordings Also fragile – the main risk is handling; the shellac itself is stable (compared to laquer)4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 6
    7. 7. But, what about vinyl? Used for 45 and 33 1/3 rpm recordings They are fragile (though less fragile than shellac) Warp from heat (can be fixed with care) Easily scratched, and can get very dirty The groove can be damaged in playback (if the needle and tone arm adjustment is not right) Vinyl is soft !!! Vinyl and shellac can suffer chemical damage4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 7
    8. 8. Gramophone damage Dropping a needle onto a vinyl disc Oil coming to the surface on a lacquer disc4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 8
    9. 9. Where was I?Only three ways to preserve:Keep what you have: only works for film• Audio, Video: analogue technology obsoleteCopy on same technology:only works for film• Audio, Video: analogue technology obsoleteSo we are left with only one option (for audio and video):Copy using new technology4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 9
    10. 10. Preservation of Film VFI provides excellent example of conservation Film technology still exists BUT – the situation is rapidly changing  Kodak in severe economic trouble  Commercial cinemas changing to digital projection − Norway changed completely in 2011-2012 Commercial cinema will change or go out of business Commercial cinema will not keep old projectors4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 10
    11. 11. The end of film projection?“ Were About to Lose 1,000 SmallTheaters That Cant Convert to Digital.Does It Matter?”Indiewire, USA 4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 11
    12. 12. Digitisation of Film Now: needed for access  Internet  Digital cinema Soon: needed for preservation  When manufacture of film stock is stopped Result: ALL media needs to be digitised, audio and video and film  Thats a lot of content that has to be digitised  There isnt enough time  There isnt enough money4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 12
    13. 13. PRESTO Digitisation“Better Faster Cheaper” Daniel Teruggi, Institut National de lAudiovisuel (INA), ParisBasic concepts:1) Dealing with the whole collection2) Developing a strategy For the institution and its collection For the preservation work3) Developing a preservation plan4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 13
    14. 14. Digitisation Planning All the Presto information on a wiki: http://wiki.prestospace.org/ Strategy – what does your institution do?  What does the collection do?  What can digitisation do? Planning – making a preservation plan  How to estimate a budget  Building a business case4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 14
    15. 15. Collection Strategy Long-term purpose of the digitisation  Preserving the collection  Maintaining services (old business)  Creating new services (new business) Physical Outcomes:  Digital files  Mass storage  Cheaper, better maintenance  Cheaper, better digital access copies  Web access4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 15
    16. 16. Access Outcomes Collection access from computer stations  Mediatheque approach Collection access via the Internet  With restricted access − British Film Institute: higher education, public libraries … and on YouTube − British Library Sound Archive: higher education institutions only  Or even unrestricted access − INA has 30 000 hours of broadcast content online !4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 16
    17. 17. Restrictions on Access Attitudes: we dont do that Fear: somebody might complain Rights: we dont hold the rightsA solution:1) public institutions create public value by opening their collections as widely as possible2) non-fiction content has the most information and the least rights problemsWe have a public service obligation to create access to our collections !4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 17
    18. 18. Access: Technical Requirements A usable catalogue Online support services: questions, linking to online sales, dealing with faults Logins, access control, authentication, data protection … Computing power to support what could be large numbers of people requiring access  UK National Archive crashed; Europeana crashed Managing lots of information technology4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 18
    19. 19. Digital Archive: workflow Everything changes when shelves disappear:  Acquisition: digital ingest  Cataloguing: complex metadata issues: embedded metadata, preservation metadata, mapping  Curation: huge opportunity to create online collections  Research: self-research, fast scanning of hits – changes the requirements of cataloguing  Access: requirements need to be built into the digitisation workflow (access copies, public metadata, rights clearance, censorship?)4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 19
    20. 20. Getting Started Map – The collection needs to be divided by format, condition, purpose ... Priorities – arrange the “areas on the map” according to what needs to be done first wiki: Make a Map of your Collection Divide the collection by physical formats, and collect the following information on each format: age range storage history genre or value physical condition4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 20
    21. 21. BBC film examples from wikiMap: http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.GettingStartedStrategy: http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.PreservationStrategyPlan:http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.PresPlan4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 21
    22. 22. The Factory Approach Photo by Toban Black4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 22
    23. 23. The Factory Approach The division of labour in pin manufacturing: (and the great increase in the quantity of work that results) Approach: NOT about cutting corners or reducing quality Instead: about cutting wasted time and wasted effort Batches: doing one thing at a time, and then doing it again (and again, and again) Problem: how to keep the work interesting!4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 23
    24. 24. A BBC Preservation Factory4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 24
    25. 25. The Factory Approach “Division of labour” requires having specialists, which means having a team Which means having a middle-sized or larger project But: even a single person can use a batch approach, and get some efficiencies4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 25
    26. 26. BBC Preservation: £5M per year (for 20 years)Audio: 7000 hours per year of ¼ inch tape Also digitised 63 000 “sepmag” elements: separate magnetic sound tracks for film; − Transferred to CD (good!) and to polyester (bad!) Also 35 000 shellac and vinyl recordings Also DAT and MD digital recordings2” videotape: 46 000 tapes, transferred to D3 or Digibeta, done over 7 years1” videotape: 80 000 in 5 yrs, to D3/Digibeta U-matic: 40 000 in 3 yrs, to MPEG-2 files
    27. 27.  News film: 43 000 items in 3 years  Ektachrome; digitised to SD video (Digibeta) 10% of total cost is cataloguing 20 to 30% is quality control (checking) Since 2008: transfer 40k D3 videotape to files:  Uncompressed; MXF wrapper = INGEX Now: transfer of BetaSP and Digibeta to files Major confusion over High Definition formats !4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 27
    28. 28. Discussion Digitisation projects of delegatesIn the afternoon we will discuss technical issues, but we need to begin with knowing what projects the delegates are working on: Audio, video, film Which physical formats (eg ¼-inch audio tape, 1-inch video tape, 16mm B&W film … ) ? Size: how much content, how many people, how many years ?4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 28
    29. 29. Time for LunchThis afternoon:1) Practical Session on Digitisation What is your long-term plan? What are your immediate problems?2) Digital Formats and Hardware  (tomorrow is software)4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 29
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