Audio and Video Preservation -- and Loss!


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Estimate of 70% of analogue holdings never becoming digital; other information on cost-effective digitisation, digital preservation and a 4-part mantra for access: granularity, navigation, citation and annotation.

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  • Opening remarks about Catalunya: Catalonia is an important part of British and American history, the pivotal point of the 20th Century.I first came, to Barcelona, 10 years ago – to see a TV station that already was digitising its archive, already had online content on a large (for those times) server, and was delivering digital content from the archive direct to the newsroom using files and a network. The development by Sra Alicia Conesa at TV2, which was (along with Sweden and perhaps one or two other Scandinavian broadcasters) leading the way for European broadcast archives.
  • Homage to Girona: Museo del Cinema, excellent technical information. I’ve seen Turin and UK and US moving image and film museums, and many film institutes, nothing better than here in Girona for technical history, meaningfully presented. I also visited the Museum of Jewish History. Very moving to see the effort that Girona has made to recover a history from hundreds of years ago that could have been lost forever – and instead has been made accessible: history brought to life. Again, I visit Jewish history museums wherever I go (Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Amsterdam), and I also visit Jewish quarters (Paris, Venice, Barcelona). The effort by Girona to preserve and rediscover and restore is truly rewarding.
  • In 2036, will have digitised 45% of 2006 holdings, if digitisation continues at 1.5% per year.Will have 7.2 million hours of digitised pre-2006 content, and the other 8.8 million will be lost.It won’t be noticed (by some) because we will have 28.8 million hours of new digital content, from post 2006.
  • But the analogue will be fading away, and becoming unplayable – through deterioration and obsolescence of equipment.
  • So really we should subtract the unrecoverable analogue content from the picture in 2036, leaving us with digitised and digital ONLY
  • If digitisation proceeds at 1%, not 1.5%, then 4.8 million hours saved, 11.2 million hours lost.
  • Again, subtracting the analalogue material that is unrecoverable leaves only digital content in 2036.
  • But the picture in 2036 also needs to consider film, which if properly cared for, and if datacine technology remains available, will still be a usable format in 2035 – except for some content that will be lost through vinegar syndrome and colour fade. The endangered film content should be digitised before being lost, so hopefully there won’t be lost film, only usable film and digitised film.
  • Audio and Video Preservation -- and Loss!

    1. 1. PrestoPrime: Digital Preservation of Audiovisual Materials Richard Wright, Preservation Guide, London UK
    2. 2. Introduction • Catalonia • Barcelona • TV2 • Sra Alicia Conesa
    3. 3. Girona • Museo del Cinema • Museum of Jewish History • The city itself !Girona • History, preservation, restoration, use of information, use of archives, use of audiovisual content ...
    4. 4. Overview of my Presentation• The continuing problem for archived film, video and audio content: how to preserve the content that still sits on our shelves.• The solution is (mainly) digitisation• Then – the problems with the solution: – Digital content CAN be maintained – Digital content IS affordable – Tools and information from PrestoSPACE (and elsewhere)
    5. 5. The Problem• Large amounts of audiovisual content in formal collections: TAPE: 20 million hours• Presto: 50 million hours in Europe• UNESCO: 200 million hours worldwide• Presto (2001): 70% at risk – Obsolescence, decay, damage• The solution is digitisation (except film?) – But time is running out – And resources are inadequate
    6. 6. What will happen to content now sitting on shelves60 Digital30 Digitised20 Analogue100 2006 2016 2026 2036
    7. 7. Digitise or disappear !605040 Digital30 Digitised20 Analogue100 2006 2016 2026 2036
    8. 8. Obsolete formats become unplayable, so can’t be counted4540353025 Digital20 Digitised15 Analogue1050 2006 2016 2026 2036
    9. 9. SummaryIn 2036, 45% of 2006 holdings will be digitised, if digitisation continues at 1.5% per year.Saving 7.2 million hours of digitised pre-2006 content; the other 8.8 million will be lost.The loss won’t be noticed (by some) because of 28.8 million hours of new digital content, from post 2006.My prediction: 1% digitisation, not 1.5%
    10. 10. Austerity digitisation (1% per anum)605040 Digital30 Digitised20 Analogue100 2006 2016 2026 2036
    11. 11. Again, analogue disappears40353025 Digital20 Digitised15 Analogue1050 2006 2016 2026 2036
    12. 12. Summary• My prediction: digitisation at 1% per year, because of loss of funding since 2008• If digitisation proceeds at 1%, not 1.5%, then 4.8 million hours will be saved, 15.2 million hours lost (out of the TAPE 16 million hours)• For the global picture, just multiply by 10.
    13. 13. Film is exceptional !35302520 Digital Digitised15 Analogue audio video10 Film50 2006 2016 2026 2036
    14. 14. Before PrestoSPACE• Presto: efficient mass digitisation: – The Preservation Factory (for broadcast archives)• PrestoPrime: making information from broadcdast archives available to all – Better, Faster AND Cheaper digitisation – Wiki: Preservation Guide
    15. 15. Storage: Managing Migration• Digital Preservation has a lot of technology and proposed technology:
    16. 16. OAIS
    17. 17. PrestoPRIME mapping• Metadata mapping tools for common sets of audiovisual metadata: – Dublin Core – MPEG-7 – Europeana Data Model – FESAD – W3C MA – EBU Core•
    18. 18. Preserving Files• What are the problems? – Obsolescence of file formats • Encodings, wrappers – Obsolescence of storage technology • Hard discs last about 3 to 5 years • Data tape: new generation every 2 years – Cost: • Academy of Motion Pictures (AMPAS) Digital Dilemma • Swedish National Library (J Palm) Digital Black Hole
    19. 19. Preserving Files• What are the solutions?• Formats: PrestoSPACE model for format and encoding management• Storage: living with permanent migration• Cost: exaggerated; digital is cheaper (for audiovisual content)
    20. 20. Formats: PrestoSPACE Roadmap (1) START HERE Is the format a (2) problem? YESArchive for a few years NO (3) (4) (5c) What cost/quality/risk option can you afford Compress lossy (5b) (5a) Compress Uncompress lossless END HERE
    21. 21. ... with emulation START HERE Is the format at risk? YES Archive for a few years NO What cost/ quality/risk can you afford? Compress lossy Compress Uncompress losslessMultivalent END HERE
    22. 22. PrestoPRIME Preservation Model
    23. 23. Cost• PrestoSPACE online tools for comparing estimated costs of various storage systems and combinations of storage systems• For example: – What’s the difference – in cost and risk – between two copies on disc, or one copy on disc and one copy on tape? – What does it cost and what is the risk reduction, if file checking is done every six months instead of once per year?
    24. 24. Cost models and tools• Digital Preservation Tools from IT Innovation• Modelling long-term retention and access – Storage planning – Simulation of storage systems over time• Web service control of storage• Service monitoring and management
    25. 25. Other PrestoSPACE technology• A full digital repository following OAIS• Quality control: analysis of video for ‘disruptions’• Management of user-generated metadata• A formal language for rights description – with software for rights management automation• Getting audiovisual content into Europeana
    26. 26. Access: four technical requirements• Granularity• Navigation• Reference / Citation• Annotation
    27. 27. Granularity - division into meaningful units• Keyframes• Other methods to represent video• and audio:
    28. 28. Navigation• "Click and play" on visual representation of the meaningful units
    29. 29. Reference and Citation• the core requirement for scholarly discourse – along with a major change in attitude!• Needs a permanent place for “things to be” – Hence the need for stable audiovisual collections “Hamlet, for example, is comparable to Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum.[citation needed] King Lear is based on King Leir in Historia Regum Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth, retold in 1587 by Raphael Holinshed.[citation needed] “ wikipedia
    30. 30. Annotation• the core requirement for social web = interactivity• individual interacts with content• individuals interact with other individuals
    31. 31. AccessDigital objects can walk through walls (and violate most other laws of physics)Unless access is denied – interfering with a miracle!
    32. 32. For More InformationPrestoSPACE: www.prestospace.euPrestoCentre: www.prestocentre.euSlides: write to you