The Saxophone

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I got this powerpoint presentation in the web, but i modified it, edited and made it kind if more ellaborate than the original and omitted some not so relevant slides. This is kind of short but still, it is substantially enough. :)
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  • Transposing instrument = any instruments in which the written notes are different to how it actually sounds from the corresponding to concert pitch
  • The Saxophone

    1. 1. The Saxophone
    2. 2. Saxophone <ul><li>Commonly referred as “sax” </li></ul><ul><li>Conical-bore transposing instrument </li></ul><ul><li>From the woodwind family </li></ul><ul><li>Made usually with brass </li></ul><ul><li>Played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to the clarinet </li></ul>
    3. 3. Foreign Names <ul><li>Italian </li></ul><ul><li>German </li></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>Sassofono </li></ul><ul><li>Saxophon </li></ul><ul><li>Saxophone </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Created by Antoine Sax from Belgium in 1934; it was a bass clarinet design </li></ul>-An instrument-maker -flautist -clarinetist
    5. 5. Reasons why he made the Saxophone <ul><li>He wanted an instrument that would be the most powerful and vocal in all the woodwinds </li></ul><ul><li>Most adaptive of the brass </li></ul><ul><li>Which would overblow at the octave </li></ul><ul><li>To fill the vacant middle between the two sections </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>In 1846, Sax granted patent for saxophone </li></ul><ul><li>He received a 15 year patent </li></ul><ul><li>It encompassed of 14 versions of the fundamental design into 2 groups, which has 7 instruments each. </li></ul><ul><li>Sax’s patent ended in 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>Various modifications were made, improvement, design and facility </li></ul>
    7. 7. Description <ul><li>The saxophone consists of an approximately conical tube of thin metal </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly plated with gold, silver, and nickel flared at the tip to form a bell. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>At intervals along the tube are between 20 and 23 tone holes of varying size, including two very small 'speaker' holes to assist the playing of the upper register. </li></ul><ul><li>These holes are covered by keys (also known as pad cups), containing soft leather pads, which are closed to produce an airtight seal; at rest some of the holes stand open and others are closed.  </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>The keys are controlled by buttons pressed by the fingers, while the right thumb sits under a thumb rest to help keep the saxophone balanced. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>The fingering for the saxophone is a combination of that of the oboe with the  Boehm system , and is very similar to the flute or the upper register of the clarinet.  </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Neck - Also called the &quot;gooseneck&quot;, it is a metal tube that is attached to the body of the saxophone. It is removable except for a soprano saxophone </li></ul><ul><li>Octave Vent and Key - The octave vent is a single hole and key located on the neck of the saxophone. Next to that is a flat metal key called the octave key </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Mouthpiece - Is found on the neck of the saxophone. A cork is needed so that the mouthpiece can slide in. As you may already know, this is where the musician places his lips and blows air into the instrument to produce sound. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Body - It is a conically shaped brass tube that has plates attached to it and holds the rods, keys and other parts of the saxophone. The straight part of the body is called the tube . The u-shaped bottom of the sax is called the bow . The flared part of the sax is called the bell . The keys on the bell are called bell keys. The body usually has a high-gloss brass lacquer or clear-coat lacquer finish. Some saxophones are either nickel, silver or gold plated. </li></ul><ul><li>Thumb Rest - It is a hook-shaped piece of plastic or metal where you place your right thumb to support the sax. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Keys - May either be made of brass or nickel and often some or all of the keys are covered with mother-of-pearls. The keys on the middle and lower part of the bow are called spatula keys . The keys on the bottom right side are called side keys </li></ul><ul><li>Rods - This is one of the most important part of the saxophone in terms of its' performance. So it is very important that the rods be strong and well maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>Pads - It covers the holes of the saxophone enabling it to produce different sounds. The pads must completely cover the tone holes. They also have a resonator to help in sound projection. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Sound is produced by the vibration of the reed </li></ul><ul><li>The length of the conical bore or the amount of space between the mouthpiece and the bell determine how low the sound will be </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Soprano Sax </li></ul><ul><li>Alto Sax </li></ul><ul><li>Tenor Sax </li></ul><ul><li>Baritone Sax </li></ul><ul><li>Rarer Saxophones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bass, Conn-O-Sax, F-Baritone, C Melody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F Mezzo Soprano, C Soprano </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Soprano Sax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The soprano is in the key of B flat, sounds down a M2 and one full octave higher than the tenor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not recommended for beginning players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can have a straight neck or curved neck </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Alto Sax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The alto saxophone is an E-flat instrument and sounds down a M6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medium sized saxophone and is the most commonly played size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most recommended horn for those just starting on the saxophone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curved in a backwards &quot;J&quot; shape but can sometimes come in a straight model with a slightly tipped bell </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Tenor Sax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor is in the key of B flat and sounds down a M9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor saxophone is slightly larger than the alto with a small bend in the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the relatively large mouthpiece allows a great range of timbers or variations in tone quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personified as a jazz saxophone </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Baritone Saxophone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The baritone is in the key of e flat and sounds down a M6 + 8va </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>baritone saxophone is the largest of the &quot;regular&quot; saxophone family </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Primarily made up of brass but can be coated by gold, silver, nickel, and lacquer. Some are made of Silver or possible plastic which was popular in the 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>body is effectively conical, giving it properties more similar to the oboe than to the clarinet </li></ul><ul><li>combination of four conical sections </li></ul>
    22. 24. Rarer Saxophones <ul><li>Bass Saxophone </li></ul><ul><li>- second largest member of the  </li></ul><ul><li>saxophone  family </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to the baritone sax with a loop of tubing near the mouthpiece </li></ul><ul><li>-the first type of saxophone that was presented to the public </li></ul><ul><li>-a transposing instrument pitched in Bflat, an octave below the tenor saxophone. </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Very rare </li></ul><ul><li>Very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>A straight conical bore instrument (one step above the E-flat alto) with a slightly curved neck and spherical bell </li></ul>Conn-o-sax
    24. 26. C Melody <ul><li>Pitched in the Key of C, one whole step above the tenor sax </li></ul><ul><li>Was part of the series of saxophones pitched in C and F, intended for orchestral use </li></ul><ul><li>Larger than an alto but smaller than a tenor </li></ul>
    25. 28. F Mezzo Soprano <ul><li>Sometimes called the F-Alto saxophone </li></ul><ul><li>In the key of F, pitched a whole step above the alto saxophone </li></ul>
    26. 29. C Soprano <ul><li>Closely related to the Bflat soprano saxophone, whose shape it resembles </li></ul><ul><li>Marketed to those who wished to perform the oboe parts in military band, vaudeville, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily confused with the Bflat soprano sax because of their striking similarity, size and shape and only 3 cm of length difference, however, a C soprano sax would have usually a stamped mark of “C” near the serial numbers. </li></ul>
    27. 30. Sopranissimo <ul><li>Or soprillo is the smallest of the saxophone family </li></ul><ul><li>It is pitched in B♭, one octave above the soprano saxophone . </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the difficulties in building such a small instrument—the soprillo is 12 inches long, 13 inches with the mouthpiece—. The keywork only extends to a written high E♭(rather than F like most saxophones) and the upper octave key has to be placed in the mouthpiece. </li></ul>
    28. 31. Contrabass Saxophone <ul><li>Lowest-pitched extant of the saxophone family </li></ul><ul><li>It is extremely large (twice the length of tubing of the  baritone saxophone , with a  bore  twice as wide, standing 1.9 meters tall, or 6 feet four inches) and heavy (approximately 20 kilograms, or 45 pounds), and is pitched in the key of E♭, one octave below the baritone. </li></ul>
    29. 32. Subcontrabass Saxophone <ul><li>A type of saxophone that Adolphe Sax patented and planned to build but never constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Was called saxophone bourdon (named after the lowest stop on the pipe organ) </li></ul><ul><li>Could have been a transposing instrument pitched in Bflat, one octave below the bass saxophone and two octaves below the tenor saxophone </li></ul>
    30. 33. Tubax <ul><li>A modified  saxophone </li></ul><ul><li>developed in 1999 by the German instrument maker  Benedikt Eppelsheim . It is available in both E♭contrabass and B♭ or C subcontrabass sizes. Its name is a  portmanteau  of the words &quot;tuba&quot; and &quot;sax&quot;. </li></ul>
    31. 34. <ul><li>How saxophone is made - Background, History, Raw materials, Design, The manufacturing process of saxophone, Quality control </li></ul><ul><li>Saxophone History Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Saxophone Sound & Tone </li></ul>
    32. 35. <ul><li>Sax on the Web - The Saxophone Information Site </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Saxophone </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube - How to Play the Saxophone </li></ul><ul><li>Saxophone Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to saxophone acoustics </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of the Saxophone </li></ul>

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