The Human/TechnologyTensionThe new solutions that address thisemerging workplace realityIssue 66Exploring workplaceresearc...
The thirst for innovation has never been stronger andorganizations everywhere are pursuing every possibleway to amplify th...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com4 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 5Search “Steelcase 360 Magazine” on the newstand.Compatible...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com6 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 7PerspectivesMeet some of the peoplewho contributed informa...
Crises seems to be more frequent today. Is that whyresilience is such a hot topic?Yes, absolutely. Consider that in 2012 a...
“There’s tremendous power inthe physical environmentto help build trust, cooperationand resilient behavior.”How does the o...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com12 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 13ResilientRealEstate:Space asan adaptivesystemBy Chris Co...
a sustainable approachResearchers define resilience as the ability to adaptto changed circumstances while continuing tomai...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com16 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 17Resilient places are designed for maximum per-formance. ...
#3 Feedback Loops“From economies to ecosystems, virtually all resilientsystems employ tight feedback mechanismsto determin...
Hospitalityenhanced business environment on the fourth floorof Chicago’s historic Inland Steel Building can’t helpbut tran...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com22 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 23The fully hosted, 10,000-square-foot Workspring at30 W. ...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com24 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 25It targets four distinct markets: corporate cowork-ing f...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com26 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 27The proof is in clients’ reactions: surveys show custome...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com28 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 29What Workers WantTrends 360Basics ACCESSGet the Basics R...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com30 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 31Innovate or die. In 1997 American business writerTom Pet...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com32As organizations seek to amp up their innovationquotient their biggest challenge is more l...
360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 35In the synthesis of its research, the Steelcase teamidentified five overarching insights ...
After years of extensive research Steelcase em-barked on creating its own innovation center.Armbruster, along with co-spon...
360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 39Creatingan innovationcenterResearch and SynthesisDesign CriteriaAn Innovation Center Typo...
Open/SecureHow could the new space support the need fortransparency while balancing the need to incubatevery fragile ideas...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com44 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 45To drive growth and leverage the strength of a glob-ally...
| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com46 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 47The new innovation center offers a range of spacesthat p...
The Mobile Neighborhood providesboth individual and small groupspaces for workers away from theactivity of the Project Stu...
As the team considered how to best support a cul-ture of innovation, one of the paradigms they neededto shift was to move ...
Project studios are configured in a variety of sizes—small, medium and large. The research confirmedthat small teams don’t...
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Innovate or die. In 1997 American business writer Tom Peters coined this famous phrase. It was true then and rings even more true now. For CEOs worldwide it’s obvious: Innovation is critically important to an organization’s success, and it is imperative that it remains a key corporate strategy.

To move beyond survival and actually thrive, leading organizations know that innovation is the way to supercharge an organization and shift it to growth. In fact, 33% of global business leaders rank “the innovation of new products and services” as their companies’ top focus in the next three years, according to a recent study by McKinsey. But the reality these organizations confront, notes McKinsey, is that innovation faces ongoing challenges, such as increasing global competition, short-term priorities, and the need to integrate it into key organizational objectives. As a result it remains elusive, and leading organizations are looking to uncover every possible way to boost their I.Q.—i.e., their innovation quotient.

IBM’s recent Global CEO Study found that 69% of leaders believe they need to look outside their own organizations to prime the innovation pump. “Companies in all sorts of industries and markets are struggling to understand innovation, and looking for ways to drive more disruptive thinking,” says Sara Armbruster, vice president, Steelcase WorkSpace Futures and corporate strategy. “External partners can be a catalyst for new ideas, but organizations also need to build an internal culture of innovation.”

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  1. 1. The Human/TechnologyTensionThe new solutions that address thisemerging workplace realityIssue 66Exploring workplaceresearch, insights andtrends360.steelcase.comResilient Real Estate:Space as an adaptive systemHealthcare: Time forChangeMaking every moment countQ
  2. 2. The thirst for innovation has never been stronger andorganizations everywhere are pursuing every possibleway to amplify their innovation quotient.Most organizations unknowingly overlook a crucialsuccess factor: the role of physical space. Work-places that are intelligently designed to bring peopletogether in a fluid process—virtually as well asphysically—have unprecedented power to propelinnovation in today’s global economy.By working in collaboration with leading thinktanks, closely observing innovation at powerhousecompanies and conducting intense primary researchin its own facilities, Steelcase is able to shed new lighton the behaviors that drive 21st-century innovationand how workplaces can be intentionally designedto amplify it.about this issue
  3. 3. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com4 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 5Search “Steelcase 360 Magazine” on the newstand.Compatible with iPad. Requires iOS 3.2 or later.Find the “Steelcase 360”app for free on iTunes10Resilient Real EstateTough times don’t last, but resilientcompanies do. In fact, they flourishwhen others wilt. An innovative realestate strategy sets the stage for aresilient company.360 Magazine is published by Steelcase Inc. All rights reserved. 13 -0000214 Copyright 2013. Design by Plural, in collaboration with Steelcase.Material in this publication may not be reproduced in any form unless you really want to help people love how they work—just ask us first, okay?Amplify Your InnovationQuotient: The New I.Q.I.Q. takes on a new definition as or-ganizations everywhere are pursuingevery possible way to amplify theirinnovation quotient. Most unknowing-ly overlook a crucial success factor:physical space. Workplaces that areintelligently designed to bring peopletogether—virtually as well as phys-ically—have unprecedented powerto propel innovation in today’s glob-al economy.Join the conversationConnect with Steelcasevia social media and letus know what you’rethinking. Or emailus at 360magazine@steelcase.comSearch “Steelcase 360Magazine” on the Newstand.Compatible with iPad.Requires iOS 3.2 or later.2874Healthcare: Time for ChangeMaking every moment count.Exploring workplace re-search, insightsand trends360.steelcase.com360 on the ipadfacebook.com/steelcaseyoutube.com/steelcasetvtwitter.com/steelcaseDepartments4 Perspectives26 Trends 36056 Insight-LedSolutions116 SustainabilitySpotlight104 LearningCurve128 LeadershipMoment130 Atoms Bits6 QA with AndrewZolliAuthor, thought leaderand consultant AndrewZolli explains whyresilience is what everycompany needs,especially now.18 Work HospitalityWorkspring helps com-panies rethink their realestate footprint.106 10x10From reducing AIDS toachieving world peace,10x10 is committed toimproving the worldthrough education, onegirl at a time.70 Rethinking Think®Even a breakthroughproduct can becomebetter.120 Small Companies,Big IdeasEntrepreneurial wisdomvaluable to a company ofany size.96 How Technology isChanging EducationMake way for theMOOCs and otherforms of cyberschoolingthat are bringing radicaltransformation to everylevel of education.82 Reports from theNomadic FringeNew research fromCoalesse sheds lighton nomadic workhabits.58 Designing for the Human/Technology TensionTechnology is changing everythingabout the ways we work. Read hownew solutions are helping workers ad-dress the tension this is causing in theworkplace.Contents
  4. 4. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com6 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 7PerspectivesMeet some of the peoplewho contributed informationand ideas to this issue.▲ Martin Oberhäuserand Sebastian Struchoberhaeuser.infoThe founder of the design studio oberhaeuser.info inHamburg, Martin Oberhäuser, together with graphicdesigner Sebastian Struch, created the infograph­icsthat illustrate our feature “Amplifying Innovation”and Trends360. He has a passion for complex datavisualization and informa­tion design, which he saysshould always be easy to use and also fun to lookat. Sebastian works as an independent designerin different disciplines. Besides information design,his fields of activity are also corporate and packag-ing design. Good design should always be able totouch you, he says.▲ Allison ArieffFreelance writer, The New York TimesAllison Arieff applied her perspective as a journalistto write about Steelcase’s latest product innova-tions. Based in San Francisco, she is an editor andcontent strategist for the urban planning and policythink tank SPUR, and is also a regular contributor toThe New York Times, Wired, Design and other publi-cations. A former book editor, from 2006-2008 shewas senior content lead for IDEO.▲ Chris Congdon and Gale MoutreySteelcaseChris Congdon and Gale Moutrey are passionateadvocates for the idea that organizations can becomemore resilient and actually amplify their performanceby being very intentional about the places wherethey bring people together to work. Congdon isdirector of research communications and editor of360 Magazine and Moutrey is vice president, brandcommunications. They collaborate with leadingorganizations to help them rethink the strategic roleof their physical environment.“At the very heart of an organization lies its purpose—its reason for being—and it can activate that purposeby fusing together its strategy, brand and culture,”says Moutrey. “Creating the right places can make thisvisible to the people who work there, and help bringan organization’s purpose to life,” adds Congdon.“These ‘right places’ are diverse ecosystemsof work destinations—places where people want tobe because they perform better when they are there.”▲ Shujan BertrandCoalesseWith 13 years of experience as an industrial designerand strategist, Shujan Bertrand is working withSteelcase’s Coalesse group to translate user insightsinto new products that support creative workers athome as well as in workplaces. Having led designstrategy projects for Samsung, Microsoft, Fujitsu,Procter Gamble and other leading consumerbrands, she’s an experienced innovator whose phi-losophy is to use insights to provoke new thinkingthat ultimately results in designs that evoke strongemotional responses.▲ Cherie Johnson, James Ludwig,and Allan SmithSteelcaseCherie Johnson, James Ludwig and Allan Smithshare a conviction: good experiences and outcomesresult from user-centered design that’s based oncareful observational research. As the design man-ager for Steelcase’s new innovation center, Johnsonworked closely throughout the project with Ludwigand Smith, whose teams would be moving into thespace. Johnson has a bachelor’s degree in interiordesign and gained nearly 15 years of experience ata large architectural firm before joining Steelcase. Anarchitect and designer, Ludwig lived and worked inBerlin before joining Steelcase in 1999. Smith’s ac-ademic training combines business and art history,and his 20-year career with Steelcase includes a re-cent three-year assignment in France.Ritu Bajaj, Patricia Kammer, andFrank GrazianoSteelcase WorkSpace Futures ResearchersTo understand the behaviors of creative collaborationand innovation, Steelcase WorkSpace Futuresresearchers Ritu Bajaj, Frank Graziano and PatriciaKammer worked for several years, braiding whatthey learned into game-changing insights and acohesive set of principles that informed the designof Steelcase’s new innovation center. Bajaj, who wasan architect in India and holds a master’s degree inhuman-centered product design, applied her exper-tise in ethnographic techniques to lead an experiencepilot in a full-scale prototype of the center. Graziano,who holds an undergraduate degree in design anda master’s degree in fine arts, led strategic investi-gations into innovation at leading companies and thed.school at Stanford University. With a degree in inte-rior design, Kammer conducted benchmarking andprimary research, and she played a key role in synthe-sizing the team’s findings into design programming.
  5. 5. Crises seems to be more frequent today. Is that whyresilience is such a hot topic?Yes, absolutely. Consider that in 2012 alone we had aheat wave that melted the tarmac under airplanes inWashington, D.C.; half the country declared a federalemergency due to the largest drought in a century;the largest blackout in history left one in nine peopleon Earth (all in India) in the dark; and super storm Sandy—all influenced by a warming climate.This kind of permanent and intrinsic volatility is becomingthe new normal. And not only are we experiencingmore disruptions, but their consequences are be-coming harder to predict. That’s because the world isconnected in ways we can scarcely imagine: climate,energy, the financial, social and political systems areall interlinked and hard to observe. And worse, wehave all sorts of natural cognitive blindness when itcomes to disruptive change. Our brains are trainedto attend to certain forms of change but not others,which is why we are constantly surprised that ourmodels are not as nuanced as the world we live in.When you combine complexity, interconnectivity andblindness, tie the systems together and stress themall, you get these volatile spikes, or crises.What’s the impact on individuals and organizations?Obviously, these kinds of spikes to the system—thefinancial crisis, droughts, food shortages, hurricanes,etc.—are costly. The last year for which we have data,2011, was the most expensive year for natural disas-ters in human history and 2012 will likely top it. Butthat’s really just the beginning.There are also indirectcosts: the increasing costs of insurance and the in-creasing difficulty of long-term planning. And then youhave things like the psychic stresses—on our peo-ple, which can be less visible but no less damaging.Give us an example of organizational resilience.When Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, people’s homeswere literally under water. They lost their possessions,money, identification, everything. One of the mostimportant regional banks, Hancock Bank, lost 90of their 115 branches and their headquarters wasdecimated.The electricity was out, computers weren’tworking and their offices were flooded, but the bankcame up with an ingenious response:“Innovation andresilience are closelyrelated.”Hurricanes. Droughts. Recessions. Network crashes. Geopoliticalconflicts. The order of the day seems to be disruption and crisis.That’s why it’s critical for companies to be resilient, says AndrewZolli, co-author of “Resilience: Why Things Bounce Back,” a bookabout why some organizations fall apart in the face of disruptionwhile others flourish. Resilient organizations don’t rely on any singleplan for the future; they’re agile, cooperative and responsive. Amidchange they don’t just survive, they thrive. What builds resilience?Empowered middle management and helping the company’ssocial networks grow like kudzu, for starters.Zolli is executive director and curator of PopTech, an influential globalinnovation network that explores key forces influencing the futureand develops new approaches to the world’s toughest challenges.He’s helped companies such as Nike, American Express and GEto understand the evolving global operating environment and howto excel in an increasingly precarious world.QA WithAndrewZolli| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com8 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 9
  6. 6. “There’s tremendous power inthe physical environmentto help build trust, cooperationand resilient behavior.”How does the organization develop ad hoc solutions?Not like you might think. The cliché of leadership in acrisis is either the square-jawed visionary CEO at thetop or the street activist/external agitator. Yet whendisruption occurs it’s hard for people to issue top-down commands because they don’t have goodsituational awareness, while people on the front lineslack a broad, systemic view. The real strength in aresilient organization comes from the organization’smiddle management.If the middle is strongly connected and there’scultural permission to be improvisational, they canuse their shared values and mission to get creativeand respond to a crisis. They don’t have to check withthe top. There are no rules, so they invent them asthey go along. And they can do extraordinary things.The Hancock Bank employees understood the bankwas about helping people achieve their financialgoals. The board and CEO didn’t decide to set upthose tables and tents. The empowered middle,fueled by creativity and improvisation, came up withthat solution.They set up tents and card tables as offices, andoffered anyone who needed it—customers andnoncustomers alike—$200 in cash on the spot. NoID, no problem. It was a radical act of trust in thecommunities they serve. In the first few weeks afterthe storm, Hancock loaned out $50 million in cash inthis manner. And what was the result? 99.6% of theloans were repaid, and net assets at the bank grewby $1.4 billion dollars in the 90 days after the storm,as people moved their money over to the bank. Thisis the kind of adaptive, flexible response that definesa resilient enterprise —and it didn’t come from thecorner office. It came from the middle management,who understood and were motivated by the valuesof the institution.Where does that kind of resilience come from?Resilience has lots of correlates. First and foremost,we see it in organizations with tight cultures but loosetactics. These are companies that have a culture ofcontinuous, modest risk-taking and are flexible andadaptive to circumstances.Interestingly, these aren’t always places where peopleall think the same way—indeed, most are companiesthat tolerate a lot of cognitive diversity. They have peo-ple who think about the world in different ways, whothink about the same problem, with the same facts,but from different perspectives.Another critical aspect of organizational resilience istrust: People have to be ready to believe in one anotherand cooperate when things go wrong. Resilienceis what we call adhocratic—it involves lots of littlecollaborations between many different actors; rarely isit driven by some top-down plan. So you find it in orga-nizations with a lot of trust, diversity and collaboration.People are mobile and organizations are oftenwidely dispersed. How do you get widely dispersedpeople to work together?There was a famous study done in the 1970s abouthow people find jobs through networking. Most peo-ple found new employment not from people they knew,but from people they knew who in turn knew someoneelse. That’s called a “weak tie”: someone you knowthrough someone else. Researchers also foundthat most people found novelty through these weakconnections, whether it was looking for a new jobor new information. So if you’re looking for new in-formation, having a lot of weak-tie—the kinds of tieswe have through social media—is really helpful. Butif you’re trying to produce and synthesize new workor new products, you actually need intimate, strong-tie connections.The best teams are small groups of people who haveclose ties with each other, and each of those peopleindividually have large weak tie networks. They keepin touch with widely disparate ideas and differentways of thinking. They’re exposed to new ideas andinformation constantly, which they then bring to thetable to share with their small, strong-tie colleagues.It makes each of them a better collaborator to havea large weak-tie network. Twitter is a good exampleof a technology that helps people maintain and usea large weak-tie network. Later, when you need towork more closely together, you meet in person, usethe telephone or a videoconference for higher band-width to develop a strong-tie with the person you’recollaborating with.The trick is to pick the right spaces for the right kindsof work. Say we’re going to design a new product.If we’re on the team, we have to have really strongties and connections together. Most effective teamsare small groups of strong-tie folks who themselveshave very large weak-tie networks—people who knowtheir team members well, and have a lot of sources ofinformation, insight and inspiration.Some companies recently decided to bring home-based employees back into the office. What doesthis mean for distributed work?Companies are realizing that people need time towork face-to-face, that they can’t work apart all thetime. Many companies are realizing this and to someextent they are re-urbanizing, recognizing the hugevalue of face-to-face communication, that peopleneed to work together. Our cognitive processes aredesigned for human interaction.°How can you build that kind of collaboration whenthe organization isnt facing a catastrophe?The ability to withstand disruption is mostly a by-product of decisions made when things are calm. Wesee resilience emerging from four basic capacities.The first is the ability to build regenerative capacitywhen things are going well. This is measured bythe health of an organization’s culture, its levels ofappropriate risk tolerance, the strength of its internaland external social networks, the physical and mentalhealth of its people, its embrace of diversity, its adapt-ability and its level of trust. This self-renewing capacityis the single most important aspect of resilience, andit’s proactive, not reactive.The second aspect of resilience is the ability tolisten for change, to sense impending disruptions.This means listening for weak signals, things that areon the edge today but might be major disruptors soon.It also means interpreting those signals, rehearsingfor various forms of change and embracing scenario-based thinking.The third aspect is the ways we respond to disruption,unlocking the kind of adhocratic, improvisationalresponse we discussed.Finally, consider learning and transformation, takingthe lessons of response and reshaping the kinds ofcapacity-building we’re doing, and the ways we’relistening for future changes. Resilience isn’t foundin doing one of these things well—it’s found in doingall of them well.Can a company’s physical space influence resilience?Absolutely. There’s tremendous power in the physicalenvironment to help build trust, cooperation andresilient behavior. Humans are social, and the naturalenvironment is our preferred environment. We alsolike to be near places where we’re by ourselves in thecontext of other people. When people are in theseenvironments, their cortisol levels drop and their pro-social and trust behaviors increase.Yet so many offices put people in the interior of thebuilding, away from the natural environment anddaylight. Soul-crushing cubicleville. They take awayevery aspect of a human’s preferred environment.However, there’s an enormous performance andresilience benefit that comes from working in anenvironment that’s physically designed to mimic theenvironments to which we have innate, low stressreactions.To build trust and cooperation, change the placeswhere you want people to engage in trusting behaviors.Put them in environments that naturally unlock thosebehaviors, places where they’re less stressed, lessfearful and more at ease.| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com10 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 11
  7. 7. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com12 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 13ResilientRealEstate:Space asan adaptivesystemBy Chris CongdonandGale MoutreyAmongst the whirlwind of volatility that seems tospin from one crisis to the next, business leadersare looking for new skills and strategies that will helptheir organizations thrive in the new global economy.At the same time, in this era of unprecedentedcomplexity, the study of resilience has emerged inwhich scientists, economists, government leadersand psychologists are working to understand howsystems, organizations and people can adapt tostay fit within an environment of constant change.In his new book, “Resilience, Why Things BounceBack,” author Andrew Zolli draws from ecology andsociology to consider resilience “as the capacityof a system, enterprise, or a person to maintain itscore purpose and integrity in the face of dramaticallychanged circumstances.” Zolli suggests that “If wecannot control the volatile tides of change, we canlearn to build better boats.”The notion of resilience is generally talked about interms of economies, markets, ecosystems or people,but rarely in conjunction with organizational realestate. Leading real estate professionals considerhow to create greater flexibility in their portfolios,but many overlook how they might better leveragethese assets by developing strategies designedfor resilience. At Steelcase we asked ourselveshow the concept of resilience could be applied tothe creation of the places where people within anorganization come together. Could we construct astrategy designed to leverage today’s complexitiesand embrace the speed in which circumstanceschange? Could real estate become an adaptivesystem to better support an organization’s strategy,brand and culture by shifting fluidly while remainingeconomically viable? Could we develop that “betterboat” through real estate? In each case, we believethe answer is yes.
  8. 8. a sustainable approachResearchers define resilience as the ability to adaptto changed circumstances while continuing tomaintain core purpose and integrity. Exploring andapplying some of the principles of resilience providesa framework for real estate strategies to achieve thisadaptive capacity.When a real estate strategy embraces these ideas,it can create a more sustainable approach that isnot only capable of withstanding volatile economicconditions, but also help builds trust and cooperation—what Zolli terms “people’s ability to collaboratewhen it counts.” It creates real estate that can helpaugment the interactions of people at work and buildresilient workplace communities through strong socialnetworks based on trust, that can flourish even in themost challenging situations.To date, in an effort to respond to rapidly changingconditions, organizations have implementedalternative work strategies (AWS) such as teleworking,hotelling and mobile working. These have beenimplemented as a way to limit real estate costswhile supporting organizational objectives, such aswork-life balance for employees or reducing carbonfootprints. The idea behind AWS was pioneered byIBM in 1989, but it’s only in the last five years that mostcompanies—80% according to one recent study—took hold of it as a means of reducing real estate costsand supporting a more mobile workforce.Overall, AWS reduced the size of real estate portfoliosabout 6-10%, according to CoreNet Global. While abroad implementation of alternative work strategiesmight have reduced portfolios further, currentlyonly about one-fifth of employees are engaged inalternative work programs. And some companies thathave implemented AWS as a space-cutting strategyoften leave real estate idling: 11% of workers whouse alternative workspaces still have an assignedworkspace.AWS has resulted in modest reductions in real estateportfolios, but there is a steady shift happening.Ten years ago the average allocation of space peremployee in the U.S. was 250 square feet; today it’s185-195 and projected to shrink to just over 150 in fiveyears. Europe posts similar numbers, according toglobal real estate firm Cushman Wakefield: officesin Italy average 215 square feet, in France 180; Spain,162; the United Kingdom, 170; Germany, 320; andAustria, 130.While the cost-reduction trend is encouraging, thereis a growing awareness that AWS can be effectiveonly if it’s part of a broader approach that considerseffectiveness as well as efficiency. This begins withunderstanding that work is inherently a social endeavorand that in order to be successful people need otherpeople, they need access to technology and theyneed places that bring these elements together. Asone of our research colleagues put it, “The workplaceis the original social network.” Thus space is beingrecognized by executives as a key element of orga-nizational success.Places where people want to workIn the past, people had to go to the office to go to work.If they weren’t in the building they couldn’t connectwith co-workers, the company’s IT system, or printedfiles; if they weren’t in the building, they weren’tworking. Then technology cut the tethers to specificlocations for work, the global economy becameeveryone’s marketplace and cutting expensesbecame paramount.Technology tantalized us with the idea that we couldsave money by rethinking our approach to work andtraditional concepts about the workplace. Did weneed buildings at all? Could workers simply workfrom home and communicate virtually? Could thecompany substantially reduce its real estate and itsinherent costs by implementing alternative work-place strategies? Companies that focused primarilyon cost-cutting and finding ways to put more peo-ple into smaller spaces learned some tough lessons,says Peter Shannon, managing director of JonesLang LaSalle, a worldwide real estate services firm.“Companies lost some things in the process. Teamscould not truly collaborate. Employees felt disjointed.Leaders saw a decline in creativity and productivity.”Today some companies have started mandating thatpeople come back to the office as a way to drive col-laboration and rebuild a sense of connectedness tothe organization.Despite plenty of pros and cons cited for co-locationversus distributed work, real estate professionalsagree that the discussion has elevated the awarenessof how much the physical environment drivesorganizational performance and business results.Leading organizations know this means more thanjust bringing people together in buildings that beartheir name. It means going beyond the aesthetics ofthe environment to creating places that actually helppeople engage more fully in their work, help buildtrust with distributed co-workers and allow peopleto innovate faster. “Companies have learned andnow they’re asking how to create work environmentswhere people really want to come to work,” saysShannon.The tensions of todayKnowing how to create places that amplify theperformance of people and the organizations theywork for means understanding and designing for thetensions that exist today: The more mobile our devices allow us to be, the more we need fixed places to come together to connect and collaborate The smaller our technologies, the more we need scale to share and communicate effectively with others The more data we generate, the more we need places to help us make sense of it The more collaborative we became, the more we need time alone The more distributed we become, the more we need to be together The more virtual we need to be, the more physical we want to beThis is the role that place can and should play. Inan increasingly interconnected and interdependenteconomy, the places where organizations cometogether matter more than ever.The opportunity is to not just build smaller offices, butto create destinations that attract people becauseit is where they can do their best work. Places thatprovide meaningful experiences for the people whouse them, today and tomorrow. Workplaces whereresilient organizations can grow and thrive.Ten years ago the average allocation of spaceper employee in the United States was 250 sq. ft.Five years from now its projected to shrink to150 and other countries are moving in the samedirection.Global organizations have an opportunity tonot only shrink their real estate footprint but alsoamplify the performance of their people.Resiliency is not just about making thingssmaller, but also better.USAustriaFranceGermanyItalySpainUKA Global OpportunitySpace Per Employee 2013| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com14 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 15
  9. 9. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com16 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 17Resilient places are designed for maximum per-formance. Every square foot contributes to theeffectiveness of the people working there. Thisunderstanding caused us to question convention-al thinking about real estate and why the focusis primarily on the horizontal plane and rarely onthe vertical.Through further research and development, we haveexplored how vertical real estate can expand the roleof walls beyond boundary and division to becomevehicles for communication, collaboration andconcentration—the elements essential for augmentinghuman interaction. We believe the vertical plane is afoundational element in creating an interconnectedworkplace and can be the underpinning of resilientreal estate when it’s designed for intelligence as muchas for function.#2 ModularityThere are certain structural features of resilientsystems that allow them to ensure continuity bydynamically reorganizing when circumstancesrequire it. “While these systems may appear outwardlycomplex, they often have simpler internal modularstructure with components that plug into one another,much like Lego blocks,” writes Zolli. “This modularityallows a system to be reconfigured on the fly whendisruption strikes, prevents failures in one part of thesystem from cascading through the large whole, andensures that the system can scale up or scale downwhen the time is right.”A resilient real estate strategy mimics this principlewhen it has been intentionally designed to create abalance of spaces equipped for individual work andgroup work, some which are owned by individualsand teams and some which are shared. The abilityfor users to self-select places where they can bemost effective allows the overall space to addressthe shifting needs of the organization.In terms of the physical properties of resilient spaces,modularity integrates interior architecture, furnitureand technology to allow for easy configuration andadaptation as required to support the types of spacesorganizations need at any stage, especially duringtimes of rapid change and disruption.As the needs of users shift and external factorsimpact business conditions, these spaces remain vitalbecause they are capable of morphing and evolvingas required, without increasing the overall footprintand operational costs.The Elementsof a Resilient RealEstate StrategyClusteringDesign the physical environment to help bring adiverse range of people, resources, tools and ideasinto close proximity with each other, while achievingthe right level of density—not too sparsely populatedor overcrowded.Clustering promotes the cross-pollination of people,ideas and experiences through places that bringthem together. These places are designed toaugment people’s interactions, whether workingside-by-side or across continents.ModularityCreate places with a modular structure, using inte-grated interior architecture, furniture and technologycomponents that can be easily reconfigured andenhanced when business needs change, especiallyduring times of rapid growth or disruption.Modularity requires an intentional design thatbalances spaces equipped for individual work andgroup work, some which are owned by individualsand teams and some which are shared. The abilityfor users to self-select places where they can bemost effective allows the overall space to addressthe shifting needs of the organization.Feedback LoopsA feedback loop for the physical environment allowsorganizations to learn what is working or not, tomodify the workplace and continue to iterate andevolve. This means developing a diverse system ofquantitative and qualitative data that can alert theorganization to the need for gradual or rapid change.By also employing the concepts of clustering andmodularity, the feedback loop allows an organizationto rapidly and dynamically reconfigure its spacesand avoid business disruption.Through our ongoing design research about thebehavior of people at work, we know that choiceand control over where and how people work isfundamental to satisfaction and engagement. Placesthat support the various modes of work in ways thatconsider physical, social and cognitive wellbeing helppeople be most effective at what they do.Based on this understanding,we developed a conceptthat we deploy in our own spaces as well as with ourcustomers: the interconnected workplace. It promoteschoice and control over the places people work withinan overall ecosystem of spaces with three key features: Palette of Place: a range of owned and sharedspaces designed for both individual work andteam work Palette of Posture: spaces designed to sup-port movement Palette of Presence: spaces that support mixedpresence experiences, both physical and virtual,and analog and digital information-sharingThis concept leads to workplaces that allow peopleto choose where and how they want to work, or aswe call it, “best place”: the ideal place, anywhere oncampus, based on the type of work that needs to bedone and the environment required to be successful.The result is a global ecosystem of spaces designedto augment the interactions of people, while reducingthe company’s overall real estate footprint and costs.This approach allows an organization to do more withless and challenges the company to leverage today’scomplexities to rethink rather than merely shrink realestate. The return it yields can impact the bottom linein ways that transcend cost-cutting since resilientreal estate invests in the key asset of any organiza-tion: its people.constructing a resilient realestate strategyThree principles from the study of resiliency form theframework weve developed for creating real estatethat fluidly adapts to to ever-changing circumstancesand an evolving organization, while continuing toserve the company’s mission.#1 ClusteringZolli writes that “resilience is often enhanced by theright kind of clustering—bringing resources into closeproximity with one another...a special kind of clustering,one whose hallmark is density and diversity—of talent,resources, tools, models and ideas.”A resilient real estate strategy is one that embracesthis principle as a foundational element and promotesthe cross-pollination of people, ideas and experiencesthrough places that bring them together. These placesare designed to augment their interactions, whetherworking alone or in teams, side-by-side or acrossthe globe.Such places enhance both the quality and quantity ofhuman interaction when they are equipped with thetools and experiences that matter most—quick andeasy access to colleagues, the tools people need todo their jobs and the technologies that amplify theirperformance.
  10. 10. #3 Feedback Loops“From economies to ecosystems, virtually all resilientsystems employ tight feedback mechanismsto determine when an abrupt change or criticalthreshold is nearing,” Zolli writes. “We are soaking ina world of sensors and the feedback data that thesesensors produce are a powerful tool for managingsystems performance and amplifying their resilience–particularly when those data are correlated with datafrom other such systems.”Real estate executives and the teams they work withneed to apply this same thinking to make sure theyemploy feedback mechanisms that offer regular,ongoing feedback that can signal when change isrequired or critical issues need to be addressed.“The business cycle is so dynamic and elastic. Theenvironment changes and you can’t always predictwhere the business needs to go, so you have toincrease your capability to respond. Flexibility isso much more important in real estate now,” saysShannon of JLL.While collecting and analyzing feedback that informsglobal real estate strategies can seem daunting,there are a number of ways to capture the data. Thespaces themselves should provide organizationswith feedback that can help inform their real estatestrategies. Advanced scheduling systems integratedinto individual and group spaces can track spaceutilization with real-time analytics that measure andreport reservation patterns, lighting, temperature, etc.The PricewaterhouseCoopers real estate groupclosely monitors workplace performance data foreach of its member-owned firms by tracking whenstaff members access PwC’s network, check-in tothe hotelling system from digital devices or use anaccess card. Data is captured daily and segmentedby lines of services (tax advisory, assurance, etc.)and types of employees (partners, directors, staff).“Detail is key,” says Steve Adams, PwC’s director ofworkplace strategy in the U.S. “Who is coming in theoffice? Are people taking advantage of our mobilityprograms?”Each month, updated workplace performanceinformation is made available via an internal web-based dashboard and document repository for PwC’ssenior leaders and partners who manage marketsand facilities. It shows who’s following hotellingprotocol in their office, conference room usage, evenhow other firms are responding based on their clientlist, where they’re located and their mix of business.“If you don’t have this information to manage yourworkplace it’s like running a business without abalance sheet. It’s essential to understanding howour office environments are working,” says Adams.(For another innovative way to measure workspaceperformance, see Moneyball for Business on theopposite page).Like every balance sheet, workplace performancedata reveal only part of the story. Adams says that,like most organizations involved in the knowledgeeconomy, “our people are our product. They’re theones who serve our clients, so we want to makesure they have the best workplace experiencepossible.” This experience translates into supportfor mobile workers and a workplace that attracts andengages talent, communicates the company brand,and supports the relationship-building that sustainscollaboration, trust and company culture.Workplace surveys can be an effective way for organi-zations to monitor and measure the experiences theirpeople are having at work. Steelcase offers a widerange of workplace surveys to our clients, providingfeedback data on mobility, collaboration, worker sat-isfaction and other measures. We use these surveysto measure the effectiveness of our own global realestate portfolio.Resilient OrganizationsA company’s people and its real estate are its twogreatest expenses—and its greatest resources. Thetwo are irrevocably intertwined. Real estate can andshould do more to create value for the organization byamplifying the performance of people at work. Thereinlies its greatest value to the company.In a world that seems to leap from one crisis to the next,resilience can make the difference between successand failure for an individual, a group, a company. “Wecan design—and redesign—organizations, institutionsand systems to better absorb disruption, operateunder a wider variety of conditions and shift morefluidly from one circumstance to the next” notes Zolli.A resilient real estate strategy, based on the principlesof clustering, modularity and feedback, helps createstrong communities of people in the workplace. Itallows them to be more adaptive to change, moreable to respond quickly and decisively to a changingglobal marketplace, and collaborate and cooperatemore effectively. Steeped in trust, these people aremore agile, innovative, and ultimately more resilient.And resilient people lie at the heart of a resilientorganization.°Using big data to develop better workplacesMoneyballforBusiness“Since much of the value that a company producescomes out of the interactions that people have witheach other, it’s critical to know the kinds of spacesthat best support interactions.”Lathop’s team works with Sociometrics Solutions,a firm begun by people from MIT Media Lab, anorganization with which Steelcase has had a workingrelationship for many years. Sociometrics developedthe sensors and the software that analyzes thecollected data.Ben Waber, Sociometrics CEO, likens the work tohow baseball teams switched from using intuition andobservation in player evaluations to using detailedstatistics, a game-changing idea featured in the movie“Moneyball.” “We’re applying Moneyball to business.We’re taking what’s been a very qualitative processfor a long time and using data to inform and drivedecisions.“If you ask people, for example, who they talked toyesterday, their responses will be about 30% accurate.They’ll respond with the people they know best, orwho they like. People aren’t being dishonest, they justdont remember that kind of detail. By tracking theirinteractions, we get very fine-grain, accurate data.”Individuals are not identified; people are linked toteams and only aggregate data is analyzed. Individualinformation is kept confidential.“At the end of the day, this information gives us theability to fine-tune our designs and applications likenever before,” says Lathrop.185-195 square feet. That’s the typical amount ofspace allocated for a knowledge worker in the U.S.today. Five years from now it will be 150 square feet,according to CoreNet. At Steelcase’s global head-quarters, the current average is 155.“While this is almost 30 square feet less than it wastwo years ago, the more important question is,how well do these spaces support communicationand collaboration? How well will they adapt to newtechnology, new work processes? How resilient willthey be over time? These are difficult questions forany company to answer,” says Dave Lathrop, directorof WorkSpace Futures and strategy at Steelcase.But the company is using new research methods togauge workplace performance, and the results we’reseeing are more accurate, detailed and nuanced thanever,” says Lathrop.For example, the research reveals that conversations inthe morning are more process-related conversations,with more informal interaction happening in the laterafternoon, even though both take place in the samelocation. Lathrop believe “people hit the groundrunning and are task-focused in the morning. Asprojects peak and wind up, there’s more back-and-forth discussion, more sharing of what happened anddiscussion of results.”In the new workplace people are communicatingmore, both face-to-face and via email, video and text,with colleagues located farther away on the floor. “Webelieve that since these people have worked togetherfor some years, they know others nearby but needto connect with people located further away,” saysLathrop.To provide such detailed data, employees wearsensors (about the size of a company ID badge) thatrecord detailed information about their movementsand conversations over a period of weeks: bodymovements, the energy level of conversations, wherethey’re located in the work environment, what spacesthey use and the interactions they have. By analyzingthis data, we can track how information flows aroundthe company, the diversity of connections, whatworkspaces are being used the most, how connectedor disconnected people are, how they relate to otherson their team and similar information,” says Lathrop.| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com18 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 19
  11. 11. Hospitalityenhanced business environment on the fourth floorof Chicago’s historic Inland Steel Building can’t helpbut transform their view of the traditional office. Thispioneering venture of Steelcase alters that perspectivewith an inviting, diverse work space that will helpcompanies re-think their real estate footprint, appealto an increasingly mobile work force, and provideproject teams with inspiring space to collaborate.Visitors to the Workspring
  12. 12. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com22 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 23The fully hosted, 10,000-square-foot Workspring at30 W. Monroe St. in the heart of Chicago’s CentralLoop—a destination now considered the flagship ofthe Workspring brand—offers a palette of technology-infused studios and task-oriented spaces gearedtoward stimulating an optimum work experience forgroups and individuals on an as-needed basis.John Malnor, vice president of growth initiatives forSteelcase, calls it “charismatic” space.In much the same way that an upper-echelon fitnessclub offers members the latest equipment, comfortsand personal services as needed, Workspring em-braces the philosophy of “collaborative consumption,”a business model gaining momentum based on theconcept of sharing rather than owning resources.It’s an attractive option for companies that don’t havethe real estate—or the financial resources for expansion—to host group and team meetings, as well as foroff-site staff, satellite employees and independentprofessionals seeking premium office space in whichto work and meet clients.And it offers businesses refreshing and invigoratingspace away from the everyday office to tackle criticalprojects within a tailored setting that places a highpriority on gracious hosting, equipped with thelatest tools and ergonomic seating. Workspring’s“work hospitality” aspires to fulfill every need—fromwhiteboards, paper and supplies to nutritional foodand snacks—thus nurturing quality results.“When you walk in, people know your name, you feellike you’re important, you feel cared for and, hopefully,when you leave, you’re healthier than when you camein,” Malnor says. “We want to make everything evokecuriosity and interest. We want it to be so good, it’slike the caffeine in Starbucks. You feel a craving for it.”“Workspring embraces the philosophy ofcollaborative consumption, a businessmodel gaining momentum based on theconcept of sharing rather than owningresources.”The seeds of Workspring date back to 2006, whenSteelcase researchers documented two significantworkplace trends: fast-emerging technologies withbandwidth expansion that allow people “to work fromeverywhere” using mobile devices and increasinglycomplex business problems that require multipleperspectives and group collaboration.Greiner recognized that changes in businesseconomics and a tougher competitive environmentalso required the company to find ways to “generatemore value in the eyes of our customers.”Inspired in part by books such as “The ExperienceEconomy” by B. Joseph Pine II and James H. Gilmore,which emphasizes the importance of client experi-ences in stimulating economic growth, Greiner ledresearchers to “create an experience of work thatwould be more highly valued” by Steelcase customers.“The future is not just about the stuff we make. It’sabout the experience we create.”The team spent two years researching and developingwhat would become Workspring. The first site—the5,000-square-foot 12 East Ohio building in Chicago’sRiver North Neighborhood—opened in the fall of2008, focused primarily on the team collaborationand group meetings market.The much larger 30 W. Monroe location opened inJanuary 2013 with a broader array of work spaceoptions that Malnor says leverage “all the tools thatSteelcase has developed over the years.”WorkSpring’s “work hospitality” aspiresto fulfill every need—from whiteboards, paperand supplies to nutritional food andsnacks—thus nurturing quality results.Ultimately, that means heightening the work expe-rience: Workspring echoes the service of a five-starhotel for corporate coworking members and thoseusing suites for group sessions. It offers everythingfrom secure wireless Internet access, personallockers and favorite beverages to high-definitionvideoconferencing.“How can we be there to help you when you need us,but never bother you when you don’t?” Malnor says ofthe concierge-style service. “We want to help peopledo their best work.”“Customers are not focusing on the individual furniture.They see that as part of what created the compel-ling experience. Where we lead in the marketplaceis our knowledge of work. We know how to create agreat experience,” says mark Greiner, chief experi-ence officer for Steelcase.Steelcase has partnered with Marriott Hotels to developa Workspring within the Redmond Marriott TownCenter outside Seattle, Washington, a 6,000-square-foot facility designed for business travelers andthose seeking collaborative environments for smallmeetings.Frank Graziano, principal Steelcase researcher inBusiness Concept Development for WorkSpaceFutures, sees unlimited potential in hotel partner-ships. “We helped paint an opportunity landscapefor them,” he says. “Could they be the new workplace10 or 15 years from now? This is the first step in uscollectively trying to serve that market. It will take alittle while for that to develop.”
  13. 13. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com24 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 25It targets four distinct markets: corporate cowork-ing for individuals, group and collaborative meetings,extended projects and social events, all of whichbenefit from natural light amid a “free-flowing, feel-good organic space,” says Danielle Galmore, directorof New Business Development for Steelcase andmanaging director of Workspring. The site boasts a“forum” for coworking, a “library” for quiet personaltasks and “heads-down contemplative” work, focusbooths, seven styles of collaborative studios withseating at different postures, exchange spacesbetween studios for breakout sessions and privateareas for phone conversations.With the world rapidly “untethering people from theoffice,” Greiner says Workspring offers a dynamicnew alternative. “It’s all about groups working in avery mobile society.”And that work is happening in an economic climatethat has more companies eyeing collaborativeconsumption when it comes to real estate, a high-capital fixed asset. As Greiner puts it: “It’s allowingcompanies to say, ‘Why do I need to buy somethingwhen I can share it when I need it?’”Malnor says the prime Chicago location of the 30 W.Monroe Workspring—chosen for its vibrancy, historicstatus, structural beauty and access to transpor-tation, restaurants and other services—makes ithighly attractive.“In this place, for less money than you would rent thesmallest office possible in Chicago, you can sit inthe corner window office, you can go into a privateoffice, you can have a meeting with a team, you canhost 40 people for a day. You can sit quietly or youcan sit with a group,” he says. “You can choose yourlevel of engagement and you can choose the typeof work space you want. Very few small companiesor large companies offer you that kind of solution.”Sprawling conference rooms maintained by manycompanies, for instance, sit idle much of the time.Workspring allows employers to get access to “thebest technology, the best space, the best furnitureand the best location,” but only when necessary, saysGreiner, noting Workspring also has appeal as a greeninitiative. “It says the money they do spend for space-related expenses is optimized: I’m spending it whenI need it, where I need it.”And for off-site employees and independent pro-fessionals, Workspring offers high-performance,connected space away from the home or hotel room.At 30 W. Monroe, Workspring’s service menu forindividuals offers a monthly membership for unlimiteddailyaccess,alimitedplanforuptofivefulldaysamonth,or a day pass. Studios with flexible configurationscan be rented for group sessions for half-days or fulldays; groups can arrange exclusive use of secure,lockable project suites for long-term tasks lastingweeks or months. Workspring also hosts corporatesocial events, presentations and educational pro-grams, with arrangements for special catering asneeded.For off-site employees and independentprofessionals, Workspring offershigh-performance, connected spaceaway from the home or hotel room.Workspring provides access to the besttechnology, such as media:scape—integratedtechnologies designed to help peopleconnect and collaborate more effectively.The Workspring experience starts from the momentone arrives. Trained staff members greet visitors, whocan review the day’s latest news on a Workspring-provided iPad as they stroll in and enjoy a cup ofcoffee or a nutritional breakfast.“You notice when you walk in, you walk into the kitchen,”Malnor says. “Where does everybody gather whenthey come to your home? Everybody gathers in thekitchen. There’s a human thing about sharing breadtogether. It’s just a core human, social thing.“Someone looks up and smiles and says welcome.We’ll know if you have a peanut allergy or if you likecream with your coffee or you prefer a latte versusa cappuccino. We’ll know which window seat youlike. We’ll know more about you than probably mostof your co-workers ever knew because we’re look-ing at everything you do and thinking of how we canmake your day better.”That means offering healthy, light food, locker spacefor boots, backpacks and jackets, supplies as diverseas recyclable markers, disinfectant wipes, lint rollersand power cords. Security is paramount with card-key access and individual security cameras. Specialprecautions are taken for corporate clients seekingprivacy for meetings about product launches andconfidential matters.Workspring is mostly about ensuring workers’ well-being, a pillar of the brand. Consequently, Workspringpays attention to detail with subtle environmentaltouches. Designers of the window-rich spaceensured users would “always have a nice sightline ora nice view in the space,” Malnor says. “As you walkaround this space, you’ll notice that everywhere youlook, you’ll get an outside view where you get naturallight. And almost everywhere has something that’salive and green and beautiful. These are little touchesthat bring a kind of humanity to the space.”Graziano of WorkSpace Futures says the researchteam “worked hard to develop a very experientialoffering” for Workspring that focused on gracioushosting to serve clients with “a degree of presence,subtlety, humility and kindness without interfering withtheir work.” The inviting atmosphere ranges from apale blue “Workspring color” on some walls to induce“a nice respite for the mind” to felt-covered hangersthat don’t rattle in lockers. Graziano calls them “littlemicromoments” that add up: “It’s the set of elementsthat create an experience, a set of intangibles, thatcollectively are integrated into a very nice feeling forthose who come to visit.”“With the world rapidly untetheringpeople from the office, Workspringoffers a dynamic new alternative.It’s all about groups working in avery mobile society.”
  14. 14. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com26 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 27The proof is in clients’ reactions: surveys show customersatisfaction with Workspring is extraordinarily high,scoring an average of 5 out of 5 in recommendingWorkspring to others. “They come back because ofthat high hospitality,” says Galmore, who analyzedand helped develop Workspring’s brand and servicemodel. “As the world has gotten more do-it-yourself,people appreciate it when they’ve got a group thatwill do it for you. They gravitate toward the fact thatwe have this highly-hosted experience.”Workspring also gives cost-conscious clients accessto cutting-edge technological resources and toolssuch as media:scape, and high-definition video-conferenceing.With its holistic approach and contemporary design,the Workspring experience caters to a broad rangeof players in the marketplace. It lets small startupcompanies “elevate their game in terms of the spacethey have,” giving them an elegant environment to“make the pitch for their million-dollar proposal andthe client never sees the garage they’re workingout of,” Malnor says. It also fills a niche need when“the coffee shop is too loud and too public, and theoffice is too non-social, non-exciting, non-exhilarating.This is a middle ground. It’s more private and moreexciting than an office.”In the end, Greiner says, the appeal of Workspringis in the experience, one that clients find exhilaratingin a work environment that transcends the typical.“Customers are saying, ‘Don’t just give me the ingre-dients for a great cake or even the recipe.’ More andmore of them are saying,‘Why don’t you just bake thecake for me?’ That’s what Workspring is: the cake.”Malnor sees it as the next chapter in the company’shistory of enhancing and advancing the way we work.“We’re building on the shoulders of 100 years of workthat Steelcase has done,” he says. “It’s a logicalextension of the Steelcase vision.”°“In this place, for less moneythan you would rent the smallestoffice possible in Chicago, youcan sit in the corner windowoffice, you can go into a privateoffice, you can have a meetingwith a team, you can host 40people for a day.”Workspring is an attractive option for companiesthat don’t have the real estate—or the financialresources for expansion—to host group and teammeetings, as well as for off-site staff, satelliteemployees and independent professionals seekingpremium office space in which to work andmeet clients.Workspring transforms the traditionalview of the office by providing adiverse range of work settings that helpcompanies rethink their real estatefootprint and appeal to an increasinglymobile work force.That sort of experience piqued the interest of leadinginnovation and design consulting firm IDEO of PaloAlto, Calif., which has historic ties to Steelcase. Thecompany, instrumental in developing milestones suchas Apple’s first mouse and the Steelcase Leap chair,is partnering with Steelcase on a Workspring®pilotin a building on its California campus.Envisioned as a custom-suited facility that will “fitthe character” of Palo Alto, Malnor calls it an “in-market prototype” that will serve IDEO and its clients,along with other customers. “It’s going to be a veryinteresting space, informal and creative, a CaliforniaWorkspring,” Malnor offers.The Chicago and California sites spotlight anotherdire need satisfied by Workspring-enabled buildings:“Developers everywhere are struggling to fill theirbuildings,” Greiner says. “It’s another big opportunityto put in something like a Workspring as a benefit ofthe space.”Tenants of Chicago’s Inland Steel Building, for example,not only benefit from the convenience and proximity ofWorkspring, but from special pricing for membershipand use of the studios. It’s an enhancement of buildingspace that can induce tenants to stay longer andeven pay more for their leases.“I think we have a strong appetite to see how far thiscould go. I’d like to see a global footprint,” says Galmore,who sees potential for extending and evolvingthe Workspring service model across platforms,through franchises, affiliates and partnerships withbuilding owners and other businesses. “All the parts andpieces have come together in this really great puzzle.”
  15. 15. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com28 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 29What Workers WantTrends 360Basics ACCESSGet the Basics Rightnatural lightgreat viewsair qualityaccess to casual spaceslevel of lightingsustainability practicesright furniture and toolsadjustability of furnitureappropriate temperatureQuick and Easy Access torelevant informationright technologypeople who help me do my jobunplanned or impromptu meetingsscheduled/formal meetingsprivate, quiet placesability to display worksupport sharing andexchanging ideasdisplay work in progressinformal conversations3xEmployees who feel their workplace“basics” are done right and haveaccess to people and technology are3x more likely to feel their workplacehelps them to be engaged.My workplacehelps me engage tomake effective + informed decisionscreate new ideaslearn from my peers and leaderscommunicate with othersENGAGEMENTThe ONLY majordifference in work stylesacross age is thatGenY is twiceas likely to useheadphonesto achieve privacyor concentration.46%collaborators54%individualworkers80%of their time isspent withindividual workof their overalltime is spentcollaboratingwith one otherperson23%of their overalltime is spentcollaboratingwith threeto six people24%61%of their overalltime is spentcollaborating29,000respondantsAccess totechnology12%PhysicalDiscomfort13%Finding a placeto meet11%Distraction in ornear the work area25%Looking for orputting away files14%Finding the peopleto meet with12%Travel to andfrom buildings13%Time an averageemployeeloses every day86min91min92min98minIf not satisfied withphysical environmentIf not satisfied withaccess to tools andspacesIf not satisfied withability to engageSteelcase recently completed a study based onsurveys over a four-year period measuring employeesatisfaction, mobility and collaboration. Thesesurveys asked nearly 30,000 participants to measure30 workplace attributes. Their collective responsesprovide a telling snapshot of what workers want, needand expect from the workplace.30workplaceattributes30thousandparticipants08-12surveydurationWork is more mobile and global than ever before,and happens around the clock. While some organi-zations have wondered if they even need a physicalworkplace anymore, forward-thinking companieshave found that people need places that bring themtogether with other people and with their information.A recent synthesis of Steelcase Workplace Surveys,conducted with over 265 organizations, found keyinsights about what workers want from their offices.People want to do their best work, so how can weleverage the workplace to inspire and engageemployees?29%25%generativeactivitesinformal unstructuredcollaboration46%formalstructuredmeetings20%33%12%21%14%Workforcepopulationbreakdown bygenerationHow timeis spentcollaboratingPeople of diverse ages may have more similar workstylesthan you think. What’s important to employees iscross-generational. There are few differences in wherework occurs, or how time is lost or spent at work.Age doesnotmatterCollaboration +individual workEmployees who are dissatisfied with key workplace factorslose more time per day than the average.lost timeBoth individual and collaborative work need to be properlysupported in the workplace. Different types of collaborationrequire different enviornments and tools.Gen XGen YOver 65Under 20Boomers
  16. 16. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com30 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 31Innovate or die. In 1997 American business writerTom Peters coined this famous phrase. It was truethen and rings even more true now. For CEOs world-wide it’s obvious: Innovation is critically important toan organization’s success, and it is imperative that itremains a key corporate strategy.To move beyond survival and actually thrive, lead-ing organizations know that innovation is the way tosupercharge an organization and shift it to growth.In fact, 33% of global business leaders rank “theinnovation of new products and services” as theircompanies’ top focus in the next three years, accord-ing to a recent study by McKinsey. But the realitythese organizations confront, notes McKinsey, isthat innovation faces ongoing challenges, such asincreasing global competition, short-term priorities,and the need to integrate it into key organizationalobjectives. As a result it remains elusive, and leadingorganizations are looking to uncover every possibleway to boost their I.Q.—i.e., their innovation quotient.IBM’s recent Global CEO Study found that 69%of leaders believe they need to look outside theirown organizations to prime the innovation pump.“Companies in all sorts of industries and markets arestruggling to understand innovation, and looking forways to drive more disruptive thinking,” says SaraArmbruster, vice president, Steelcase WorkSpaceFutures and corporate strategy. “External partnerscan be a catalyst for new ideas, but organizationsalso need to build an internal culture of innovation.”AmplifyYourInnovationQuotient:The New i.q.
  17. 17. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com32As organizations seek to amp up their innovationquotient their biggest challenge is more likely infor-mation overload rather than a dearth of data on theprocess itself. There are over 55,000 books on thesubject listed on Amazon, written by innovation gurussuch as Clayton Christensen, Chip Heath, Tom Kelley,Larry Keeley and Roger Martin. Articles, speakers,consultants and workshops abound. Little wonderleaders feel daunted by the prospect of develop-ing the right strategy to increase theirinnovation.Despite the plethora of information aboutthe how, what and why of innovation,one topic that gets far less attention iswhere.“Many organizations overlook theconnection between the physicalenvironment and innovation,” notesArmbruster. “But space matters. It shapes thebehavior of people, and creates the ‘stage’ on whichinnovation can be propelled.”“Innovation is a physical activity,” notes James Ludwig,Steelcase vice president of global design. “It’s de-pendent on human interaction, exploration andexperimentation. That means the places that bringpeople together, physically and virtually, are criticalto innovation outcomes.”As a result of the synthesis of over 15 years of multi-disciplinary global studies, Steelcase has found thatthe physical environment has the power to augment–or undermine—the human interactions essential forsuccess.Sir Ken Robinson, an internationally recognizedleader in the development of creativity, innovation andhuman resources in education and business, agrees.He asserts that culture is a driving force of innova-tion and everyone in the organization needs to beinvolved. “If you want a culture of innovation, there arecertain conditions for it,” Robinson says. “The cultureof an organization is about habits and habitats—creating a habitat where people feel their ideas arewelcomed, empowered and rewarded, and creatinga physical environment that develops new ideas.”Steelcase researchers, designers and marketingprofessionals explored these habits and habitats ina series of in-depth explorations. They also collab-orated with leading think tanks to study innovationas the driving force of the 21st century from multipleperspectives. Partnering with the Berlage Institutein Rotterdam, they explored how physical environ-ments can augment creative thinking. The companyalso conducted primary research in its corporatedevelopment center by staging a range of behav-ioral prototypes in which real working spaces werebuilt out and employee behaviors were observed andevaluated using a variety of ethnographic techniques.Additionally, the team benchmarked six powerhouseorganizations—Apple, Nike, IDEO, Stanford d. school,Nokia and Gravity Tank—top brands known aroundthe world as leading innovators.The Steelcase team studied a variety of innovationmodels, from internally focused to external partner-ships. Throughout these diverse explorations theyobserved that most organizations approached inno-vation spaces with the bias that teams need to workin the same physical space. “That was a key takeawayfrom our studies—other organizations had defaultedto the position that innovation can happen in onlyone place, with co-located teams,” notes SteelcaseDirector of Design Cherie Johnson. “But our experi-ence at Steelcase has been quite different: We feelthat in a global economy, ideas get even better whenwe have a team that is not only diverse professionallyor ethnically, but also geographically. People whocome to the innovation process immersed in thesights and sounds of other cultures bring a deeperlayer of insight to the problem at hand.”The team went on to challenge the conventional beliefthat innovation happens almost exclusively amongteams working in the same location. Instead, theyembraced a belief that the physical environment canbe designed to bring global teams together, and withgreater results. “We think of our global teams asnodes on an innovation network,” observes SteelcaseVice President of Marketing Allan Smith. “The phys-ical environment can be designed to enhance thecapabilities of each node, regardless of location.”Ultimately, an intentionally designed workplace canamplify the performance of individuals, teams and theglobal enterprise, and lead to sustained innovation.“Space matters. Itshapes the behaviorof people andcreates the ‘stage’ onwhich innovationcan be propelled.”Sara Armbruster,Vice President,Steelcase WorkSpaceFutures andCorporate Strategy“IDEAS GET EVENBETTER WHEN WE HAVEA TEAM THAT IS NOTONLY DIVERSEPROFESSIONALLY ORETHNICALLY, BUT ALSOGEOGRAPHICALLY.”Innovation: A Physical Activity
  18. 18. 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 35In the synthesis of its research, the Steelcase teamidentified five overarching insights about the physicalnature of innovation and the human behaviors thatfoster it:Innovation is a direct result of creative collab-oration. Creative collaboration is about forgingsomething new—an innovation—and requires ateam with a wide range of professions, diverse back-grounds and experiences whose economic functionis to create new ideas, new technologies or creativecontent. Human interaction drives creative collabo-ration, and the physical environment has the powerto augment and enhance those interactions, mak-ing them more valuable.“Creative collaboration is a high-order process thathelps foster innovation, and collaboration is aboutcreating a shared mind,” says Frank Graziano, partof the Steelcase team exploring innovation.Innovation is ultimately about learning, and it’s pre-dominately a social process. People learn by workingwith others in a variety of capacities, and co-creatingnew things together is the highest form of learningand the highest form of collaboration.Innovation requires a connection between soci-ology and technology. Technology is a powerfulconfiguring force in the ways we work because weuse it to drive information and knowledge. When itbecomes unobtrusive and intuitive for users, tech-nology allows people to share information equallyand democratically, improve transparency and morerapidly gain a shared understanding and alignment.“In the past we thought of technology as a way to freeus up for more leisure time,” notes Ludwig. “Today,instead of it freeing us from work, it’s freeing us towork. It enables people to do more, and frees usup to think big.”Innovation is a team sport that, paradoxically,requires focused individual work to fuel collec-tive creativity. With so much focus on the socialaspects of innovation, organizations sometimes for-get about the power of individual, concentrated work.In order to be a strong contributor to a team, individ-uals need the time and place to think and let ideasgerminate. Physical environments that foster inno-vation provide a balance or both WE spaces thatsupport creative collaboration as well as I spacesthat support individual, focused work.“As we began to understand the rituals of collabora-tion, we saw that contemplation and collaborationare codependent,” explains Graziano.Collaboration today is both physical and virtual.To truly take advantage of the diverse backgroundsand experiences of a distributed team interactionsshould be real-time for the team to be most engagedand productive. It’s not just about passing work backand forth between time zones to take advantage oftime differences and speed up development. Creativecollaboration requires trust, which is built by team-mates working together in real-time. The challengeis to eliminate “presence disparity”—those momentsthat occur when communication and collaborationare drastically reduced during conference calls orin poorly designed videoconference experiences.Creative, generative collaboration happens insmall groups. It often takes place in one-on-one orthree-person subsets of the larger team. Even thelarger team size should be carefully managed. Thetrick is to get the right set of skills and inclusion onthe team, without weighing it down.“It’s important to balance diversity and scale. Whilea diverse set of experiences and skills is important,teams that are too large choke on their own com-plexities,” says Graziano. “We have a general ruleof thumb for the ideal team size—6-8 people—andwe’re also big believers in the power of dyads andthree-person teams. We say, go for the most diver-sity you can get with the smallest scale.”Insights on InnovationThe desire to innovate is universal across busi-ness and industries, and, in many ways it’s becomethe critical issue of our time. One important ideaSteelcase has embraced is that innovation is a sys-tem, not a linear process. You can’t just come upwith a good idea and pass it over to another teamto keep it moving forward. Innovation is more likea complex adaptive system that’s based on rela-tionships, patterns and iteration. All of the piecesof this system interact and connect with one an-other, sometimes in unpredictable ways, and webelieve that the physical environment is one nodeon a global innovation system.A really important attribute of innovation spacesis to encourage cross-pollination, sharing of ideasand making thinking visible across different disci-plines in the system. Sometimes people get reallypassionate about an insight or project and they’reso focused on their content that it’s hard to stepback and say, “How do I share this? How do I makethis visible? How do I get other people equally pas-sionate and excited about these rich insights?”Because, no matter how important the idea mightbe, if we can’t interact within the system, commu-nicate and help other people engage around thoseinsights, then innovation can’t happen.For an innovation system to flourish, people needto live in their content and be immersed in it. So weintentionally create spaces that that make it easyfor people to swim and play in their own content,as well as content that may be evolving aroundthem. Because a system can be unpredictable,An Innovation Systemyou never know where connections may occur,or where there’s a really interesting question thatone person is working on that might spark anidea in someone from a different discipline who’sworking on a totally different issue. It may seemlike a paradox, but we want to be very intentionalabout designing spaces that create serendipity—unplanned interactions, so people will understandtheir own content but also have a larger sense ofthe whole.Many organizations struggle to figure out how tobring the right people together in their innovationprocess. Our bias is that a system is healthier whenit is diverse, and so we are committed to bringingglobal teams together in spaces that are enabledwith human-centered technologies, that minimizedistance. Gender, ethnic and professional diversityare all important. But geographic diversity allowsa team to connect with an even greater range ofexperiences and insights. That ultimately makesthe innovation system stronger and better able torespond and adapt to a changing world.Sara Armbruster.Vice President SteelcaseWorkSpace Futuresand Corporate Strategy
  19. 19. After years of extensive research Steelcase em-barked on creating its own innovation center.Armbruster, along with co-sponsors Ludwig andSmith welcomed their teams to a former man-ufacturing facility, which was reimagined andredesigned to reflect the insights gleaned fromtheir research.The adaptive reuse of an underutilized manufactur-ing space is a metaphor for the changes Steelcaseand other legacy industries have faced. “In the in-dustrial revolution, one of the signs of corporatepride was the number of smokestacks rising fromits buildings. Today it’s the number of new ideas,”notes Ludwig. “It’s ironic that innovation in man-ufacturing enabled us to free up this space for adifferent kind of innovation.”The creation of a new innovation center was drivenby the organization’s need to effectively compete inan interconnected and interdepen-dent world. “Like every other matureindustry we have a business needto accelerate innovation,” explainsSmith. “We need to generate morecreative ideas faster and bring themto market quickly. We decided weneeded a physical destination thatwould foster the behaviors of an innovation cultureand engage top talent in the process.”“It was very intentional that we had just celebratedour 100 year anniversary,” explains Ludwig, “andwe asked ourselves, what will be the parametersfor innovation in the next 100 years? ”“Innovation is a core business strategy for us,”addsArmbruster. “We are asking people to embracebehaviors that lead to innovation, and that is hardwork, especially in a globally integrated enterprisewhen teams who need to work together are not all“we needed a physicaldestination thatwould foster thebehaviors of aninnovation culture.”located in the same place. Its important to balancethe social aspects of innovation with the spatialand informational. The 325,000-square-foot/30 200 meters squared space is home to 267 peopleat the company’s Global Headquarters in GrandRapids, Mich., and also serves teams who are dis-tributed around the globe. “Another key businessstrategy is to become a more globally integrat-ed enterprise which means we have to leverageour talent around the world. We need our spacesto enable distributed teams to collaborate in realtime, adds Smith.| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com36 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 37FromSmokestacksto Ideas
  20. 20. 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 39Creatingan innovationcenterResearch and SynthesisDesign CriteriaAn Innovation Center Typology1. Has your space been designed tohelp employees better understandthe organization’s strategy, brandand culture?2. Have you identified the key behaviorsemployees need to adopt to propelinnovation?3. Have you designated a specific areafor your innovation projects andteams?4. Have you developed a global ecosys-tem of spaces that teams can use topromote innovation?5. Do you have a feedback mechanismthat signals the need for modificationand adaptation?6. Does your space intentionally pro-mote cross-pollination of diversepeople and ideas?7. Does your space help build trustamong global teams by allowingthem to connect quickly and easily?8. Are your collaboration spacesequipped with intuitive technologythat makes it easy to display andshare information with others?9. Does your space make it easy andcomfortable for remote team mem-bers to participate fully in worksessions?10. Do your video conferencing configu-rations allow remote team membersto see content in the room and onthe walls, and to hear everyone in theroom equally?11. Are there informal areas to videochat with 1-2 team mates from otherlocations?12. Do you have the right balance ofspaces for concentration and spacesfor creative collaboration?13. Do you have a range of spacesfrom which people can chooseto work based on their preferredwork style or the tasks they need toaccomplish?14. Does your workplace offer projectrooms that teams can configurefor their own needs and own for theduration of the project?15. Are there a sufficient number of col-laboration spaces for small groupsof 2-3 people?16. Do you offer a wide range of postureoptions so employees can sit, stand,perch or walk throughout the day?17. Are you fully leveraging your verticalreal estate as a vehicle for commu-nication, both analog and digital?18. Can your vertical real estate adapt tothe cycle of your innovation projects?19. Do your collaboration spaces offera balance of acoustical privacy withvisual transparency?20. Do your collaboration spaces mini-mize presence ‘disparity’ for remoteparticipants?21. Do your informal areas allow em-ployees to toggle between work,socialization or respite?What is Your Organization’sInnovation Quotient?21 key questions you needto ask.
  21. 21. Open/SecureHow could the new space support the need fortransparency while balancing the need to incubatevery fragile ideas in their infancy?Work/SocializeCould the space create an atmosphere that is bothhighly productive and active in the pursuit of inno-vation while fostering social interactions that helpdevelop trust?Content/ObjectsDoes the space help concepts and ideas becomevisible and tangible to others? How can it also sup-port three-dimensional prototypes and artifacts?My home /Our homeHow can space enable a shift from thinking about“home bases” assigned to individuals to the idea of“homes for projects”?Team work/My workWhat’s the best way to bring people together andhelp them connect, and balance that with the needsof individuals to contemplate and concentrate ontheir focused work? How can the space supportindividuals to transition easily between team andprivate zones?See me/Hear meHow can we create a positive experience for bothphysical and virtual presence in the space? Canwe allow people to see and be seen, hear and beheard regardless of where they are working? Canwe provide contextual awareness for remote par-ticipants and equal access to technology controls?Human /TechnologyHow can the environment leverage technology toaugment and enhance human interactions?Design CriteriaThe team identified a number of tensions and com-plexities the space needed to address. They askedthemselves a series of strategic questions that wouldsteer their design direction:Research and SynthesisSteelcase researchers studied the processand the role space plays in innovation that led tothe development of design criteria.An Innovation Center TypologyAs a result a new typology focusing on individualand collaborative work was developed which clearlycommunicated the expected behaviors.Technical Professional HubBenching workstations provide a shared home forengineers, many of whom are assigned to multi-ple project teams. Having a setting where it’s easyto exchange technical information and knowledgewith others in the same profession allow workersto drill deep into each other’s expertise, increasingthe likelihood that specialized insights get appliedbroadly across multiple projects in different prod-uct categories.Strategy RoomsThe design and marketing teams each have a strate-gy room that functions a lot like a clubhouse or den.It’s an intimate, shared place to meet and keep in-formation that’s particular to each discipline. Theserooms are well equipped for whiteboarding, informa-tion displays and videoconferencing.Mobile Neighborhoods EnclavesOpen-plan neighborhoods and 16 enclosed enclaves,all conveniently adjacent to project studios, provideindividual or small group spaces for workers awayfrom the activity of the project studios. Each enclaveis equipped for collaboration via videoconferencing,online chats and digital file sharing. The behavioralprototype proved that enclaves without these toolssimply don’t get used.Exploration Shop Prototype StudioBecause rapid iteration of ideas is fundamental toinnovation, product prototyping areas are directlyadjacent to the product studios and visible throughglass walls. This is where early concepts can bequickly roughed out from scratch. In the adjacentprototyping studio, ideas are turned into models.Transparency and proximity help teams develop trustand early alignment.Guest Interaction RoomsSeparate, closed rooms, right outside the innova-tion center, allow teams to host external partners,customers and designers and engage them in the in-novation process. This allows ideas to incubate insidethe innovation center, and then be shared externallywhen appropriate. These spaces can be adapted tosupport a range of experiences. These rooms alsohave videoconferencing capabilities to support vir-tual presence of remote teammates.Front PorchJust outside the project studios , front porches serveas touchdown spots where small groups or individu-als can step away for focused work, while still beingvisually accessible to the team. A technology screenintegrated in each front porch provides constantly-streaming data about the project, so anyone can getacclimated quickly before entering the studio.Neighborhood CaféSocialization and respite are the priorities of this largecommunal zone for refreshment and informal engage-ment. Whether coming here to chat with a coworkeror relax and think, this place recognizes the humanside of work, including the importance of building thesocial trust that’s the currency of successful collabo-ration. Workers can enjoy the seasons, either in frontof the fireplace or on the adjacent outdoor patio in thesummer. Distributed teammates can join the conver-sation with telepresence at the media bar.LabsWhile project studio ownership rotates after a proj-ect ends, three specialized areas within the spaceare permanently assigned to teams who serve asconsultants to the project teams, but typically aren’tassigned to one. A variety of furniture applicationswithin each area supports a range of work process-es and postures.designcriteriafoundationalresearchprocessinternalresearch/programmingHow doesSteelcaseinnovate?benchmarkingspace modellinginterviewsobservationvisual narrativesjourney mapstypologiesbigquestionA new approach for thinkingabout innovation spacesHow can the collabo-rative activities andteam cohesion ofglobally distributedproduct developmentteams be supported?experienceprototypes40%projectzones17%labs2%links21%communalressources20%neighborhoodsHow canwe makeourselvesbetterthroughspace?secondaryresearchinterviewsobservationbench-marking1324Prototype1Prototype2rapiditerationrapiditerationdefiningwork groupModel spaces testhow environmentand technologyconcepts interplaywith day-to-dayinteractionsTeam work/My workHuman/TechnologyMy home/Our homeOpen/SecureSee me/Hear meWork/SocializeContent/Objects123456detailed informationLab GuestInteractionRoomProjectStudiosFrontPorchExplorationShopStrategyRoomProjectStudiosFrontPorchMobileNeighborhoodEnclavesLabPrototypeStudiosLab TechnicalProfessionalHubMobileNeighborhoodEnclavesInnovationTheaterNeighborhoodCafeSHAREDOWNEDWEIResourceCenterGuestInteractionRooms
  22. 22. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com44 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 45To drive growth and leverage the strength of a glob-ally integrated organization, it was critical that theteam solved for new ways of working, Steelcaseknew it could develop more innovative ideas if iteffectively engaged a diverse group of thinkers,located around the world. The new innovation cen-ter needed to consider the needs of employees whowere joining the team virtually and try to minimize oreliminate any disparity they might experience. All ofthe key ingredients of global creative collaborationneeded to be thought through, from ITsystems to organizational culture.“We approached the project from auser-centered perspective on what weneed as an organization that will helpus innovate,” explains Patricia Kammer, one of theresearchers on the project. “A big question was howdo we design space in a way that will encouragecross-pollination, sharing of ideas and makingthinking visible across different disciplines?”“From the start, this project was about connectingour global network. The new space would be justone node on a larger network,” says Kammer. “Weneeded to make distance evaporate.”Today 75% of Steelcase’s product developmentprojects are global, with design studios in Europe,Asia and North America, plus external partners.John Small, Steelcase’s director of design in Europe,and John Hamilton, Steelcase’s design director forAsia Pacific, lead multi-national teams—French,Global Collaboration:Erasing Distance.Members from Steelcase’sglobally distributed WorkSpaceFutures team use telepresencein the Insights Lab daily tocollaborate with colleaguesglobally.“We neededto make distanceevaporate.”German, Spanish, American and Chinese teammembers work in collaboration with each otheras well as the research and marketing teams . It’simportant to put everyone on a project team “inthe same room” virtually whenever needed, notesSmall. Team interactions also increase the likeli-hood that individuals will reach out to each otherdirectly to solve problems. Teams are in touch dailyvia telepresence as well as through other technol-ogy tools to collaborate. “Distance shouldn’t beconsidered a barrier,” Hamilton says.
  23. 23. | Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com46 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 47The new innovation center offers a range of spacesthat people can choose from, depending on the typeof work they need to do throughout the day, and en-courages them to move throughout the space ratherthan stay in one place. Everything is transparent: glasswalls allow workers to see their ideas progress fromconcept to reality. Walls have become the new work-surface, and information lives on vertical planes whereeveryone can see it. Areas for respite, both indoorsand outdoors, allow employees to get away with-out going away. The space tells workers that it is okto stand, lean, perch, lounge or work in any posturethat is comfortable and helps them to stay energizedand focused. The environment encourages people toexperiment and try new things.“We wanted to have a place where we could makeand break things,” says Ludwig, not entirely tongue-in-cheek. “We wanted to help move ideas from thecomputer screen to prototypes as quickly as possi-ble. Design is a very physical process.”“The space is not overly prescribed,” says Johnson,whose design team partnered with Shimoda Designgroup for the interior architecture. “Forces of changehappen over time. This is a simple architecture thatgives humans access to natural light, daylight views,the simplicity of a raised floor that has modular powerand under-floor air delivery. It’s a simple floor platedesigned for evolution, so we can adapt it and allowthe building to ‘learn’ with the people who use it.”A Palette of Place,Posture and PresenceOpen plan collaboration areas (adjacentto the Professional Hub) are wellequipped with whiteboards and technologytools, such as media:scape, allow theindustrial design team to easily connectand collaborate.
  24. 24. The Mobile Neighborhood providesboth individual and small groupspaces for workers away from theactivity of the Project Studios.| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com48 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 49A total of 16 Enclaves are adjacentto the Project Studios andequiped for collaboration via videoconference equipment,online chats and digital file sharing.Workstations in theProfessional Hub allowthe easy exchangeof technical informationand knowledge.Benching workstations in theProfessional Hub providehome bases for the engineersand industrial design team.
  25. 25. As the team considered how to best support a cul-ture of innovation, one of the paradigms they neededto shift was to move from thinking about home basesfor individuals to homes for project teams. This meantthey focused on spaces that would support team-based work, flanked by front porches to supportindividuals and small groups and backalleys where work moves from con-cept to reality. The project studios, atthe heart of the center, were allocated40% of the overall footprint and are theplaces that product development teamscall home.The studios have been carefully plannedto support remote team members aswell as those who are physically pres-ent. “During the behavioral prototype stage, wesaw that people tend to behave in a very forced andformal way during telepresence meetings. They sit upvery straight, as if they’re TV news anchors, and arereluctant to move,” explains Ritu Bajaj, a Steelcaseresearcher. “Having a variety of applications in theroom, such as café tables and lounge settings,enhances informality, which makes for much bettercollaborative experiences.”Every studio features videoconferencing in a multi-screen format, which assures people can see eachother and their content. The room supports differ-ent configurations and views, including close-up andone-on-one exchanges where gestures and facialexpressions transmit clearly, improving understand-ing and contextual awareness. The studio layoutassures everyone can be on camera during video-conferences, and ceiling-mounted speakers ensureaudio clarity. There are zones in the studios whereworkers can break away from active collaborationbut stay nearby to rejoin as needed.Homes for Project Teams| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com50 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 51“In the past, ifpeople were at theirdesk working, theywere consideredPRODUCTIVE. NOW THEPROJECT STUDIOIS WHERE MOST OF THEWORK HAPPENs.”The Front Porch area outside eachProject Studio serves as a touchdownspace for these members of theIntegrated Technology team. Screensprovide constantly streaming dataabout the project.
  26. 26. Project studios are configured in a variety of sizes—small, medium and large. The research confirmedthat small teams don’t work well in large rooms:There’s too much distance between people andwalls. This is an issue because the vertical planeis important for communicating and displayinginformation. Information persistence—analog anddigital—facilitates understanding and creates all-important team memory.As team members carry more of their information onsmall, mobile devices, the vertical planes neededto become zones that host technology to supportlarge-scale display so teams can gather around thecontent, understand it together and build on it. Whenteams are working this close to these vertical planes,acoustical privacy becomes critical. And as projectsare completed and new teams form, it was importantthat the vertical planes could be easily reconfiguredfor different size spaces.All of the spaces offer a palette of posture—standing,lounging, perching and walking. This is particularlyimportant during very long telepresence sessions,which can be energy-draining. Steelcase research-ers observed “video fatigue” as a common maladyamong distributed teams and found spaces thatencourage movement and a variety of postures couldhelp ease the pain.Because different teams work in different ways, eachhas the opportunity to select from a variety of furni-ture applications when they move into a studio. In thisway, they can configure the space to their activities,preferences and tools, celebrating their processesand claiming the spaces as theirs for the duration.Because the studios are elastic and continuouslyevolving spaces, when the next team moves in, theycan choose what’s best for them.Designers like to think with their hands, so prototypespopulate the entire innovation center. Prototypes giveideas physicality, so each project studio has amplespace to stage, debate and store pieces, parts andeven whole models. Teams can literally put thingstogether and pull them apart to move ideas forward.“We’ve seen project spaces that are so pristine thatthey discourage the ad hoc nature of creativity,” saysKammer. “Innovation through creative collaboration,if done authentically, is a visually and even sociallymessy process.”| Issue 66 | 360.steelcase.com52 360.steelcase.com | Issue 66 | 53The innovation center includes 13 ProjectStudios of varying sizes. Each Project Studio isa smart space which seamlessly integratesarchitecture, furniture and technology to supportboth physical and remote participants. Thevertical plane hosts technology tools to supportlarge scale display so all teams members caneasily see and access content.The Back Alley provides aspace where work moves fromconcept to reality.

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