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Advanced biofuel feedstocks and conversion technologies
 

Advanced biofuel feedstocks and conversion technologies

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Judith Bates (Ricardo-AEA) joined the New Energy Forum Event to provide an expert overview of advanced feedstocks and production technologies for both road transport and aviation biofuels.

Judith Bates (Ricardo-AEA) joined the New Energy Forum Event to provide an expert overview of advanced feedstocks and production technologies for both road transport and aviation biofuels.
Overview of technologies
–Production of biofuels from oils
–Biochemical routes
–Thermochemical routes
•Lignocellulosic feedstocks
•Microalgae

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    Advanced biofuel feedstocks and conversion technologies Advanced biofuel feedstocks and conversion technologies Presentation Transcript

    • Ricardo-AEA © Ricardo-AEA Ltd www.ricardo-aea.com Judith Bates Presentation to New Energy Forum Event Biofuels, where next? London, 10th July, 2013 Biofuels – feedstocks and conversion technology overview
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence2 •Overview of technologies –Production of biofuels from oils –Biochemical routes –Thermochemical routes •Lignocellulosic feedstocks •Microalgae Biofuels feedstocks and conversion technologies
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence3 Feedstock Conversion Fuel Overview of conversion technologies Transesterification FAME biodiesel Hydrotreatment HVO biodiesel Sugar extraction Fermentation distillation Bioethanol, biobutanol, ETBE Sugar extraction Microbial fermentation Diesel (via farnesene) Sugar extraction with advanced pre-treatment Fermentation and distillation Bioethanol, biobutanol, ETBE Gasification Fischer Tropsch BtL diesel, kerosene, SNG, DME Other catalytic processes Bioethanol biobutanol Pyrolysis Upgrading Liquid biofuels Anaerobic digestion Upgrading Biomethane Vegetable oils and animal fats Sugar and starch crops Lignocellulosic biomass, including residues and wastes Wastes and residues
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence4 Production of biofuels from vegetable oils http://www.biofuelstp.eu/fuelproduction.html © Copyright CPL Press
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence5 • Well established, mature technology • Current production capacity: UK 0.6 Mt/yr, Europe 23.5 Mt/yr, US 7.1 Mt/yr • Significant capacity in Indonesia/Malaysia and South America (Brazil, Argentina) FAME biodiesel – production capacity
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence6 • Chemical reaction of oils with hydrogen to produce diesel type hydrocarbon – HVO or renewable diesel – drop in fuel • Can be tailored to meet aviation fuel requirements • First commercial plants now in operation – Neste Oil have four commercial plants world wide (Finland, Nls and Singapore); total output of 1.9 Mt/yr – Dynamic Fuels one commercial plant in US (0.2 Mt/yr) – AliphaJet planning pilot plant based on catalytic decarboxylation of crude fats (230 t/yr) Hydrotreatment of Oils
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence7 • Current feedstocks • Vegetable oils from food crops – oil seed rape, soy, palm, sunflower • Waste oil/used cooking oil • Animal fats – tallow • Future feedstocks under consideration – non-food crops suitable for less favourable conditions, e.g. less productive land, lower rainfall • Jatropha Camelina • • Sustainability issues for vegetable oils: – lower GHG savings for many vegetable oils will not meet EU’s GHG saving criteria in 2017 – ILUC factor may be higher for oil based crops Feedstocks for FAME
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence8 UK Biodiesel – feedstocks and origins 3% 1% 26% 4% 25% 19% 16% 7% Origin of UK biodiesel 2011/12 S. America ROW Other EU Canada Netherlands United Kingdom United States Unknown 2010/2011 Used cooking oil 87% Oilseed rape 7% Soy 3% Palm 1% Tallow 1% Unknown 1% 2011/12 Currently increased use of UCO (mainly from Europe) due to incentives – double counting towards RED targets
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence9 Potential future locations of FAME biodiesel feedstocks (2030) •Potential location of ‘sustainable’ feedstocks i.e. those meeting EU GHG saving requirements (excludes UCO) •Based on forecasts of ‘spare’ agricultural land •Modelling forecast that supplies of ‘sustainable’ biodiesel might be limited Source: Based on modelling work carried out for DECC by Ricardo-AEA on global bioenergy supply
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence10 Biochemical routes for biofuels production http://www.biofuelstp.eu/fuelproduction.html © Copyright CPL Press Established technology Advanced biofuels
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence11 • Fermentation to bioethanol - commercial technology • Fermentation to biobutanol - subject of research • Global production dominated by US (corn) and Brazil (sugar cane) Bioethanol – sugar and starch crops - 5 10 15 20 25 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 BillionGallons GlobalEthanol Productionby Country/Region and Year Africa Australia Mexico& Central America Other South America(minus Brazil) Asia(minus China) Canada China Europe Brazil USA www.afdc.energy.gov/data/ US 77% UK 4% Spain 6% France 6% Other 7% Corn 87% Wheat 5% Sweet sorghum 3% Sugar beet 2% Other 3% Origin of UK bioethanol 2011/12
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence12 Potential future locations of sugar and starch feedstocks for bioethanol (2030) •Potential location of ‘sustainable’ feedstocks i.e. those meeting EU GHG saving requirements •Based on forecasts of ‘spare’ agricultural land •Supply heavily dominated by North and Latin America Source: Based on modelling work carried out for DECC by Ricardo-AEA on global bioenergy supply
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence13 Bioethanol production – lignocellulosic materials Requires additional steps Milling/chopping Challenge is to overcome inhibition of fermentation and low conversion rates for C5 sugars. Can be combined with hydrolysis step Chemical Acids Physical Steam explosion Ammonia fibre explosion Biological Fungi and bacteria Breakdown shell of material and increase reactivity Cellulose Enzymatic hydrolysis Hemi- cellulose Diluted acids or bases Enzymatic hydrolysis Can happen as part of pretreatment Split polymers in cellulose into sugar monomers
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence14 • Over 50 demonstration and pilot plant operational in Europe, US, Japan, and Brazil • Commercial plant listed below – several more planned for 2013 and 2014/ 2015 • Biorefinery concept being explored – e.g. uses for lignin Status of biochemical lignocellulosic routes Company Location Feedstock Output Start-up Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas US Corn stover, straw, switch grass 75,000 2013 (under construction) Beta Renewables Italy Straw, giant reed grass 60,000 2012 Ineos Bio US Vegetative waste, waste wood, garden waste 24,000 2013 (under construction) POET-DSM US Agricultural residues 75,000 2013 (under construction)
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence15 Thermochemical routes for biofuels production http://www.biofuelstp.eu/fuelproduction.html © Copyright CPL Press Two key routes – gasification and pyrolysis Pyrolysis = thermal decomposition at high temperature in absence of oxygen Syngas from gasification process is mainly CO and H2. It can be methanated to produce synthetic natural gas. Catalysts (iron and cobalt in FT process) are used to produce alkanes Product conditioning: distillation, hydration, isomerization, reforming and cracking Bio-oil – can be of poor quality particularly if from feedstocks with high ash content. Requires upgrading for use in diesel engines in road transport Potential products include diesel and gasoline type liquids and DME (Dimethyl Ether) a gas with similar properties to propane
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence16 • Several pilot and some demonstration plant operational in Europe, North America and Australia • No commercial plant currently operational • Enerkem have commercial (30,000 t/yr) plant under construction in Canada producing ethanol, methanol and various chemicals from sorted MSW, and plans for two further plant. • Solena planning plant operating on waste to produce aviation fuel in UK for 2014/15 • CHOREN industries who were planning 200,000 FT plant in Germany operating on wood chips are now insolvent; plans for plant utilising forest residues to produce FT liquids in Finland have also been stopped • Gasification plants typically need to be large scale to achieve the economies of scale needed to produce biofuels cost-effectively, and could require large quantities of feedstock to be transported. • Pyrolysis technologies could be developed at smaller scale with bio-oil then transported to central facility for upgrading Status of thermo-chemical conversion routes
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence17 • Wide variety of wastes, agricultural residues and woody biomass potentially suitable – Wastes: Organic component of municipal solid waste, food waste, wood waste – Agricultural residues: Corn stover, cereal straw, bagasse – Energy crops: perennial grasses such as switchgrass, giant reed grass short rotation coppice e.g. poplar, willow – Short rotation forestry • Biochemical routes mainly using agricultural residues and organic waste • Potential competitions for woody biomass with heat and power sector • Waste feedstocks have large cost advantage, and use of wastes (and residues) also avoids the food vs fuel debate • Some R&D on tailoring energy crops to improve properties for conversion to biofuels Lignocellulosic feedstocks
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence18 Comparative costs of biofuels (2020) Petrol type fuelsDiesel type fuels Source: Based on work carried out by Ricardo-AEA for DfT
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence19 Potential location of future resources (2030) Source: Based on modelling work carried out for DECC by Ricardo-AEA on global bioenergy supply Forestry resource Energy crops
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence20 • Currently much interest but long term prospect • Several cultivation/conversion routes: – Open pond on land – Floating bags in inland seas and bays – Biofilms – Photobioreactors: closed vessel; higher productivity, higher costs – Heterotrophic (“dark fermentation”), requires sugar or cellulose substrate • Main R&D emphasis is on feedstock development • Can use waste water as a cultivation medium • Extract oils for conversion to FAME/HVO Microalgae
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence21 Assessment of algae potential Source: Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group Report, Feb 2012
    • © Ricardo-AEA LtdRicardo-AEA in Confidence22 • Source: Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group Report, Feb 2012 Timescales for commercialisation of algal products
    • © Ricardo-AEA Ltd www.ricardo-aea.com T: E: W: Ricardo-AEA Ltd The Gemini Building Fermi Avenue Harwell, Didcot, OX11 0QR Judith Bates 01235 753524 Judith.bates@ricardo-aea.com www.ricardo-aea.com