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Informations Technology



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  • 1.
            • Unit – I:
    • Information Systems for Business
    • Need for Information Systems – Business in the Information age, Information systems Concepts,
    • Computer Based Information Systems – Categories of Information Systems- Operational Support
    • Systems- Management Support Systems- Strategic Information Systems. Functional Information
    • Systems – IS support to Business Functions – Accounting & Finance, Marketing & Sales, Production
    • & Logistics, and Human Resources Management Systems
    1.7.1 : Information Technology Applications for Business
  • 2. Information's
    • A Collections of Facts ( data) organized in some way so that they are meaning full to recipient.
    • Examples : if we include Customer Names with bank balances or employees wages with hours worked, we would have useful information's.
  • 3. Data
    • Data are raw facts or elementary of things , events, activities and transactions that are captured , recorded , stored and classified , but not organized to convey any specific meaning.
    • Examples : of Data would include grade , point average , bank balance or the number of hours employees worked in a pay period
  • 4. Information System
    • Information's system refers to a system of persons , data records and activities the data and information's in an organizations and it includes the organizations manual and automated process .
    • Computer-based Information's System are fields of study for information's Technology , elements of which are some time called an ‘information's System’
    • Information system it is important to know data, information and knowledge.
  • 5. What is Knowledge ?
    • Knowledge consist of information's that has been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning or expertise as it applied to current business problems or process.
    • Information's that is process
    • Knowledge.  Understanding.  Wisdom.
    • Which is best to have?  What is the difference between them, anyway?
    • Knowledge  is simple.  It is about facts and information, just observing what they are.
    • Understanding  is a little deeper – it is about realizing what the information (the knowledge) means.
    • Wisdom  is deeper still.  It is like understanding the understanding – how you should react to or feel about the information, now that you understand it.
  • 6. Information's Technology
    • A particulars Components of Compute – based information's System.
  • 7. Computer – Based Information System ( CBIS)
    • Computer- Based Information's System.: A computer – Based Information's System, (CBIS) consists of
    • Hardware ,
    • Software,
    • Database ,
    • Telecommunications ,
    • Peoples and
    • Procedures
    • Examples : A company payroll system ,
    • order entry system or
    • inventory control system,
    • are examples of CBIS.
  • 8.
    • Hardware: Input devices , System Unit , Output Devices and Memory Devices are collectively known as Hardware of a Computer.
    • Any thing you can see and touch in your computer system is known as hardware.
    • Input Devices: A computer system consists of various input devices . As a user requirement a computer system, may have different types of input devices .
  • 9.
    • Keyboard: A computer keyboard looks like a typewriter.
    • The numeric key pad configured like 10 key calculator, which allows the operator to enter number rapidly .
    • The key board that we use is also known as QWERTY key board.
    • The name QWERTY comes from the first six letters in the top –left alphbets row
    • its also called as Universal Keyboard.
    • key board is available in two types
    • The standard model with key 83-89
    • the enhanced model with 104 key or more
    • Types of keys
    • TYPE Writer key
    • Functional key from f1 to f12
    • Numeric keys
    • Page up and page Down keys
    • Home key and End keys
    • Cap lock keys
    • Shift key
    • Control Keys
    • Alt key
    • Enter Key
  • 10.
    • Tab key
    • Esc Key
    • Delete Key and Back Space keys
    • Mouse : A mouse is a hand held device which allows you to your computer without having to type instructions from the key board,
    • It helps you to move up yours computer screens , select the object and activate commands.
    • Types of Computer Mouse:
    • Three Button Mouse –This type of mouse has a
    • Primary button , a secondary button and middle button.
  • 11.
    • Scroll Mouse: This type of mouse replace the middle buttom of the three –button mouse with a smaller roller . When the user moves the roller forward and backward the screens moves in downwards and upwards directions.
    • Cordless Mouse : Cordless mouse isn't physically connected with the computer , Instead it relies on infrared or radio waves to communicate with the computer .
    • A cordless mouse is more expensive than both the three- button and scroll mouse , but it does eliminate the cord, which can sometimes get in the way
  • 12.
    • Track ball : Track ball is an alternative to a mouse.
    • it operates in the same way as a mouse excepts that the ball is on the top.
    • It is less complicated
    • Joystick: While playing a racing video games
    • the users need to move the vehicle quickly across the
    • screen.
  • 13.
    • Scanners : Scanners is a device that can transfer typed or handwritten text , graphs , diagrams and photographs to the computers .
    • They are two types of Scanners
    • Desktop Scanner
    • Handheld Scanner
    • Desktop Scanner: are used for scanning important documentations or images etc.
    • Handheld Scanners: are used in medical science and departmental stores for reading the codes pertaining to product information's like data of manufacturing , expire data price etc.
    • Light Pen : light pen is an input devices that utilizes a light – sensitive detector to the object on a display screen . Light pen is similar to a mouse excepts that you can directly move the pen pointer to the objects on the display screen to select them.
  • 14. Out Put Devices
    • Monitor
    • Printer.
    • Monitor: A pc monitor works like a television screen, . It displays text character and graphics in color or in shades of grey.
    • The monitor is sometimes also know as screen, display or a CRT( Cathode Ray tube).
    • Printer: A device that prints images ( numbers, alphabets, graphs etc) on paper is known as Printer.
    • Types of Printer
    • Dot Matrix Printer
    • Line Printer
    • Inkjet Printer
    • Laser Printer,
  • 15.
    • System Units : The system units is the important part of a PC. its a brain of the computer behind every action of a PC , since it control and executes all the operations performance by the PC.
    • The system units hold the windows operating system through cables , the keyboard, monitor , mouse and printer are linked to System units thought cables.
    • The system units are divided into three sections
    • Front side of the system Unit
    • Back side of the system Unit
    • Inside the system Units
    • Front side of the system unit
    • Power Switch
    • Reset Button
    • Lights: The front portion may display some colored indicator lights, these lights indicates whether the hard disks, the floppy disk or the CD-ROM is being read or written ,
    • Floppy disk Drive: The floppy disk drive is used to read information's stored in floppy disks.
    • It contains a slit in which the floppy disk can be inserted..
  • 16.
    • CD-ROM Drive: CD- ROM Drive is a device that reads the information's stored on CD-ROM disks and displays on monitor.
    • CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk-Read Only Memory
    • The information's stored in a CD-ROM can neither be changed nor new information's be added to it . That's why it is called as Read Only Memory ( ROM).
    • The speed of the CD-ROM drive is indicated by a number followed by the alphabet X.
    • The greater the number , the faster the disk will be spin. And the Faster the spin , the faster is the transfer of information's from the disk to the computer.
    • 56X CD –ROM is currently most popular drive specification. For recording information's on CD a Special CD drive known as CD-RW is used.
    • CD-Writer : CD-Rom Technique was further refined to enables the user to write data on a CD . To make your own CD-ROMS you use a drive which can write on special CD-ROM disks.
  • 17.
    • Back Side of the Computer-
    • Serial Port : A serial Port is a general –purpoose interface that can be used for almost any type of device, including modems , mouse and keyboards. Most PC are fitted with two serials ports. The connector used for serial port
    • Parallel Port: The parallel port is usually used for connecting the computer to a printer very often it is referred to as the printer port.
    • Mouse Port
    • Keyport
    • USB Port
    • Cooling Fans
    • SMPS Fan
  • 18.
    • Inside the Computers :
    • Mother Board
    • CPU
    • Switch Mode Power Supply
    • Ram and ROM
    • Hard disk
    • Cards
    • Storages Devices
    • Floppy Disk
    • Optical Disk
  • 19.
    • Storages Devices
    • Floppy Disk
    • Optical Disk
    • Memory Sticks.
  • 20. Software
    • Software: Software consists of computer programs that govern the operations of the computer .
    • These programs allow a computer to process payroll, to send bills to customers, and to provide managers with information to increase profits, to reduce costs and to provide better customer services.
    • There are two types of software
    • System Software
    • Applications Software
  • 21.
    • System Software such as Windows XP which controls basic computer operations such as start –up and printing and
  • 22.
    • Applications Software : Applications software such as Office XP, Which allows specific tasks to be accomplished such as word processing or tabulating numbers.
  • 23.
    • Database: an Organizations collects of related files or records that store data and the associations among them.
    • .
    • ,
  • 24.
    • Network : A connecting system that permits the sharing of resources among different computers
  • 25.
    • Procedures: The strategies , policies , methods and rules for using information's system
  • 26.
    • People: the most important elements in information's system includes those persons who works with the information's system or uses its output .
  • 27. Need For Information Systems.
    • Banking : Customer information's, Accounts loans, and Banking transactions.
  • 28.
    • Airlines : For reservations and schedule information's, Airlines were among the first to use database in a geographically distributed manner .
  • 29.
    • Credit Card Transactions: For Purchases on credit cards and generation of monthly statements
  • 30.
    • Telecommunications:
    • Keeping the records of calls made.
    • Generating monthly bills,
    • Maintaining balance on prepaid calling cards
    • Storing information's about the communications networks
  • 31.
    • Finance : For storing the information's about the Holdings, Sales Purchases of financial information's Such as Stocks, Bonds, Share and also storing real – time market data to enable on line trading by customer and automated trading by the firm.
  • 32.
    • University : For students information's , course registrations and grades.
    • Enrollments of Student registrations forms
    • Student Information's Systems
    • Library information's systems
    • Results
    • Issues of Certifications etc
  • 33.
    • Sales : For customer , Products and Purchase Information's
  • 34.
    • ON- line Retailers: For sales data noted above plus on-line order tracking , generation of recommendations list, and maintenance of on –line products evaluations .
  • 35.
    • Manufacturing : For Management of the supply chain and for tracking Products of Items in Factories, Inventories , of items in warehouses and stores and orders items.
  • 36.
    • Human Resources : Information about employees , Salaries , Payroll , taxes, benefits and for generations of paychecks etc.
  • 37. Business in the Information Age
    • Pressures and Responses
    • P ressures : The Business environment in the information Age Places many Pressures on Companies . Organizations may respond reactively to a Pressures already in existence or Proactively to an anticipated Pressure.
    • Company responses are typically facilitated by Information's Technology which in a Board sense is a collections of the individual technology components that are typically organized into computer – based information's system,
    • Global Competitions for trade and labour: In a global trade is much less constrained by traditional barriers such as borders, language , currency, or politics, Goods and Services are Produced Profitably as dictated by competitive advantages that any nations might hold. Advanced telecommunication networks helped facilitated the creations of a global economy.
    • labour costs differ widely form one country to another . While the hourly industrual wages rate is over 15 $ in Western Countries , it is 1$ to 2$ in Many Developing Countries.
  • 38.
    • Need for Real Time Operations: In olden days , in order to transfer information's form one Place to another, it would take months because of communications was done through post , telegram etc. In today's modern age everyone wants things to happen very fast , so by the introductions of Interne, information's can be transferred very quickly and also business transactions between companies can be done very fast.
    • Changing Workforce : The workforce particularly in the developing countries, is changing rapidly and becoming more diversify, An increase number of females , single parents, minorities and physically challenged persons work today in all types of positions. More employees than ever before prefer to retirement . IT is easing the integrations of these various employees into the traditional workforce. In additional as more organizations become transnational , managerial complexity accompanies growing cultural complexity.
    • Customer Orientations: Customer Sophistications and expectations increase as customer becomes more Knowledgeable about the availability of the quality of the products and services . they are also more knowledgeable about competing the products. These expectations translate into the need for organizations to demonstrate a customer orientations.
    • Technological Innovations : Pressure to produced the goods and services efficiently cause organizations to look for technological brake thought that will give then an advantages over the competitors.
  • 39.
    • Information Overload: The internet and other telecommunication networks increase the amount of information's available to organizations and individuals .
    • The amount of information's available on the internet more than the doubles every year , the most of its is free. The information's and knowledge Generated and stored inside organizations are also increasing exponentially.