Informations Technology


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Informations Technology

  1. 1. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unit – I: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Systems for Business </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Information Systems – Business in the Information age, Information systems Concepts, </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Based Information Systems – Categories of Information Systems- Operational Support </li></ul><ul><li>Systems- Management Support Systems- Strategic Information Systems. Functional Information </li></ul><ul><li>Systems – IS support to Business Functions – Accounting & Finance, Marketing & Sales, Production </li></ul><ul><li>& Logistics, and Human Resources Management Systems </li></ul>1.7.1 : Information Technology Applications for Business
  2. 2. Information's <ul><li>A Collections of Facts ( data) organized in some way so that they are meaning full to recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : if we include Customer Names with bank balances or employees wages with hours worked, we would have useful information's. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Data <ul><li>Data are raw facts or elementary of things , events, activities and transactions that are captured , recorded , stored and classified , but not organized to convey any specific meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : of Data would include grade , point average , bank balance or the number of hours employees worked in a pay period </li></ul>
  4. 4. Information System <ul><li>Information's system refers to a system of persons , data records and activities the data and information's in an organizations and it includes the organizations manual and automated process . </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-based Information's System are fields of study for information's Technology , elements of which are some time called an ‘information's System’ </li></ul><ul><li>Information system it is important to know data, information and knowledge. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Knowledge ? <ul><li>Knowledge consist of information's that has been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning or expertise as it applied to current business problems or process. </li></ul><ul><li>Information's that is process </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge.  Understanding.  Wisdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Which is best to have?  What is the difference between them, anyway? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge  is simple.  It is about facts and information, just observing what they are. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding  is a little deeper – it is about realizing what the information (the knowledge) means. </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom  is deeper still.  It is like understanding the understanding – how you should react to or feel about the information, now that you understand it. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information's Technology <ul><li>A particulars Components of Compute – based information's System. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Computer – Based Information System ( CBIS) <ul><li>Computer- Based Information's System.: A computer – Based Information's System, (CBIS) consists of </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware , </li></ul><ul><li>Software, </li></ul><ul><li>Database , </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications , </li></ul><ul><li>Peoples and </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : A company payroll system , </li></ul><ul><li>order entry system or </li></ul><ul><li>inventory control system, </li></ul><ul><li>are examples of CBIS. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Hardware: Input devices , System Unit , Output Devices and Memory Devices are collectively known as Hardware of a Computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Any thing you can see and touch in your computer system is known as hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Input Devices: A computer system consists of various input devices . As a user requirement a computer system, may have different types of input devices . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Keyboard: A computer keyboard looks like a typewriter. </li></ul><ul><li>The numeric key pad configured like 10 key calculator, which allows the operator to enter number rapidly . </li></ul><ul><li>The key board that we use is also known as QWERTY key board. </li></ul><ul><li>The name QWERTY comes from the first six letters in the top –left alphbets row </li></ul><ul><li>its also called as Universal Keyboard. </li></ul><ul><li>key board is available in two types </li></ul><ul><li>The standard model with key 83-89 </li></ul><ul><li>the enhanced model with 104 key or more </li></ul><ul><li>Types of keys </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE Writer key </li></ul><ul><li>Functional key from f1 to f12 </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric keys </li></ul><ul><li>Page up and page Down keys </li></ul><ul><li>Home key and End keys </li></ul><ul><li>Cap lock keys </li></ul><ul><li>Shift key </li></ul><ul><li>Control Keys </li></ul><ul><li>Alt key </li></ul><ul><li>Enter Key </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Tab key </li></ul><ul><li>Esc Key </li></ul><ul><li>Delete Key and Back Space keys </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse : A mouse is a hand held device which allows you to your computer without having to type instructions from the key board, </li></ul><ul><li>It helps you to move up yours computer screens , select the object and activate commands. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Computer Mouse: </li></ul><ul><li>Three Button Mouse –This type of mouse has a </li></ul><ul><li>Primary button , a secondary button and middle button. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Scroll Mouse: This type of mouse replace the middle buttom of the three –button mouse with a smaller roller . When the user moves the roller forward and backward the screens moves in downwards and upwards directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Cordless Mouse : Cordless mouse isn't physically connected with the computer , Instead it relies on infrared or radio waves to communicate with the computer . </li></ul><ul><li>A cordless mouse is more expensive than both the three- button and scroll mouse , but it does eliminate the cord, which can sometimes get in the way </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Track ball : Track ball is an alternative to a mouse. </li></ul><ul><li>it operates in the same way as a mouse excepts that the ball is on the top. </li></ul><ul><li>It is less complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Joystick: While playing a racing video games </li></ul><ul><li>the users need to move the vehicle quickly across the </li></ul><ul><li>screen. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Scanners : Scanners is a device that can transfer typed or handwritten text , graphs , diagrams and photographs to the computers . </li></ul><ul><li>They are two types of Scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop Scanner: are used for scanning important documentations or images etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld Scanners: are used in medical science and departmental stores for reading the codes pertaining to product information's like data of manufacturing , expire data price etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Light Pen : light pen is an input devices that utilizes a light – sensitive detector to the object on a display screen . Light pen is similar to a mouse excepts that you can directly move the pen pointer to the objects on the display screen to select them. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Out Put Devices <ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Printer. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor: A pc monitor works like a television screen, . It displays text character and graphics in color or in shades of grey. </li></ul><ul><li>The monitor is sometimes also know as screen, display or a CRT( Cathode Ray tube). </li></ul><ul><li>Printer: A device that prints images ( numbers, alphabets, graphs etc) on paper is known as Printer. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Dot Matrix Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Line Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Inkjet Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Laser Printer, </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>System Units : The system units is the important part of a PC. its a brain of the computer behind every action of a PC , since it control and executes all the operations performance by the PC. </li></ul><ul><li>The system units hold the windows operating system through cables , the keyboard, monitor , mouse and printer are linked to System units thought cables. </li></ul><ul><li>The system units are divided into three sections </li></ul><ul><li>Front side of the system Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Back side of the system Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Inside the system Units </li></ul><ul><li>Front side of the system unit </li></ul><ul><li>Power Switch </li></ul><ul><li>Reset Button </li></ul><ul><li>Lights: The front portion may display some colored indicator lights, these lights indicates whether the hard disks, the floppy disk or the CD-ROM is being read or written , </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disk Drive: The floppy disk drive is used to read information's stored in floppy disks. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains a slit in which the floppy disk can be inserted.. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>CD-ROM Drive: CD- ROM Drive is a device that reads the information's stored on CD-ROM disks and displays on monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk-Read Only Memory </li></ul><ul><li>The information's stored in a CD-ROM can neither be changed nor new information's be added to it . That's why it is called as Read Only Memory ( ROM). </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of the CD-ROM drive is indicated by a number followed by the alphabet X. </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the number , the faster the disk will be spin. And the Faster the spin , the faster is the transfer of information's from the disk to the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>56X CD –ROM is currently most popular drive specification. For recording information's on CD a Special CD drive known as CD-RW is used. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-Writer : CD-Rom Technique was further refined to enables the user to write data on a CD . To make your own CD-ROMS you use a drive which can write on special CD-ROM disks. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Back Side of the Computer- </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Port : A serial Port is a general –purpoose interface that can be used for almost any type of device, including modems , mouse and keyboards. Most PC are fitted with two serials ports. The connector used for serial port </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Port: The parallel port is usually used for connecting the computer to a printer very often it is referred to as the printer port. </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse Port </li></ul><ul><li>Keyport </li></ul><ul><li>USB Port </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling Fans </li></ul><ul><li>SMPS Fan </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Inside the Computers : </li></ul><ul><li>Mother Board </li></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Switch Mode Power Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Ram and ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Storages Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Disk </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Storages Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Sticks. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Software <ul><li>Software: Software consists of computer programs that govern the operations of the computer . </li></ul><ul><li>These programs allow a computer to process payroll, to send bills to customers, and to provide managers with information to increase profits, to reduce costs and to provide better customer services. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of software </li></ul><ul><li>System Software </li></ul><ul><li>Applications Software </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>System Software such as Windows XP which controls basic computer operations such as start –up and printing and </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Applications Software : Applications software such as Office XP, Which allows specific tasks to be accomplished such as word processing or tabulating numbers. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Database: an Organizations collects of related files or records that store data and the associations among them. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>, </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Network : A connecting system that permits the sharing of resources among different computers </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Procedures: The strategies , policies , methods and rules for using information's system </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>People: the most important elements in information's system includes those persons who works with the information's system or uses its output . </li></ul>
  27. 27. Need For Information Systems. <ul><li>Banking : Customer information's, Accounts loans, and Banking transactions. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Airlines : For reservations and schedule information's, Airlines were among the first to use database in a geographically distributed manner . </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Credit Card Transactions: For Purchases on credit cards and generation of monthly statements </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Telecommunications: </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping the records of calls made. </li></ul><ul><li>Generating monthly bills, </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining balance on prepaid calling cards </li></ul><ul><li>Storing information's about the communications networks </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Finance : For storing the information's about the Holdings, Sales Purchases of financial information's Such as Stocks, Bonds, Share and also storing real – time market data to enable on line trading by customer and automated trading by the firm. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>University : For students information's , course registrations and grades. </li></ul><ul><li>Enrollments of Student registrations forms </li></ul><ul><li>Student Information's Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Library information's systems </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Issues of Certifications etc </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Sales : For customer , Products and Purchase Information's </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>ON- line Retailers: For sales data noted above plus on-line order tracking , generation of recommendations list, and maintenance of on –line products evaluations . </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Manufacturing : For Management of the supply chain and for tracking Products of Items in Factories, Inventories , of items in warehouses and stores and orders items. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Human Resources : Information about employees , Salaries , Payroll , taxes, benefits and for generations of paychecks etc. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Business in the Information Age <ul><li>Pressures and Responses </li></ul><ul><li>P ressures : The Business environment in the information Age Places many Pressures on Companies . Organizations may respond reactively to a Pressures already in existence or Proactively to an anticipated Pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Company responses are typically facilitated by Information's Technology which in a Board sense is a collections of the individual technology components that are typically organized into computer – based information's system, </li></ul><ul><li>Global Competitions for trade and labour: In a global trade is much less constrained by traditional barriers such as borders, language , currency, or politics, Goods and Services are Produced Profitably as dictated by competitive advantages that any nations might hold. Advanced telecommunication networks helped facilitated the creations of a global economy. </li></ul><ul><li>labour costs differ widely form one country to another . While the hourly industrual wages rate is over 15 $ in Western Countries , it is 1$ to 2$ in Many Developing Countries. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Need for Real Time Operations: In olden days , in order to transfer information's form one Place to another, it would take months because of communications was done through post , telegram etc. In today's modern age everyone wants things to happen very fast , so by the introductions of Interne, information's can be transferred very quickly and also business transactions between companies can be done very fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Workforce : The workforce particularly in the developing countries, is changing rapidly and becoming more diversify, An increase number of females , single parents, minorities and physically challenged persons work today in all types of positions. More employees than ever before prefer to retirement . IT is easing the integrations of these various employees into the traditional workforce. In additional as more organizations become transnational , managerial complexity accompanies growing cultural complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Orientations: Customer Sophistications and expectations increase as customer becomes more Knowledgeable about the availability of the quality of the products and services . they are also more knowledgeable about competing the products. These expectations translate into the need for organizations to demonstrate a customer orientations. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Innovations : Pressure to produced the goods and services efficiently cause organizations to look for technological brake thought that will give then an advantages over the competitors. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Information Overload: The internet and other telecommunication networks increase the amount of information's available to organizations and individuals . </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of information's available on the internet more than the doubles every year , the most of its is free. The information's and knowledge Generated and stored inside organizations are also increasing exponentially. </li></ul>