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  • 1.
    • Our responsibility is to provide as accurate a picture of learning as possible.
    • Requires that we answer 3 important questions:
      • What is our purpose for grading?
      • What factors should we include in the grade?
      • How do we combine those factors to give the truest picture possible of student achievement?
  • 2.
    • Principle 1 : The purpose of grading is to COMMUNICATE
    • Principle 2: Grades Communicate about ACHIEVEMENT
      • Include effort, aptitude and other factors?
      • Principle 3: Grades Reflect CURRENT LEVELS of Achievement
  • 3.
    • Organizing the Gradebook
      • Keep grades for target skills
    • Including Factors in the Final Grade
      • Keep actual achievement separate fro other factors
    • Considering Assessment Purpose
      • Differentiate between assessment FOR learning and OF learning
    • Considering the Most Recent Information
      • Use current evidence of student achievement on the intended learning targets.
  • 4.
    • Summarizing Information and Determining the Final Grade
      • Grades and records should reflect student attainment of established targets, rather than a rank in the class.
      • Combining Rubrics with Percentage Scores
    • Verifying Assessment Quality
      • When assigning grades, use the most accurate body of evidence available
    • Involving Students
      • Be sure students know how their current level of achievement compares to the standards they are expected to master
  • 5.
    • A portfolio’s contents, and the collection of student work as a whole, can be assessed, but we do not advocate using the term portfolio assessment because, as we hope we can make clear, portfolios are collecting and communicating devices.
    • Different Kinds of Portfolios:
      • Project
      • Growth
      • Achievement
      • Competence
      • Celebration
      • Working
  • 6.
    • Think about portfolio as process , not a product or object
    • Work sample annotations are whatever comments students and teachers make about each piece of evidence selected for the portfolio.
    • Students can show and “I can do it” mindset with a portfolio if it shows that they are accomplishing their goals.
  • 7.
    • How the Type of Portfolio Affects Design
      • Keys to Successful Use:
      • Portfolios are a means to an end, not an end in themselves.
      • They are a means to help students learn more deeply and embed learning into long-term memory.
      • They are a means to help students take responsibility for their own learning.
  • 8.
    • A conference occurs when two or more people meet to discuss a predetermines topic to satisfy an informational need.
    • Purposes for conferences
    • The formats to meet those purposes
    • How to conduct successful conferences to meet the information needs of students, teachers and parents.
  • 9.
    • Conferences can be used to communicate assessment FOR learning and assessment OF learning
    • Five Categories:
      • Offering Feedback
      • Setting Goals
      • Planning an Intervention
      • Demonstrating Growth
      • Communicating Achievement
      • It’s Important to do a Follow-up after any conference to see what went well and what might be improved for the future.
  • 10.
    • Standardized tests represent ONE WAY to gather and communicate information about student achievement
    • These meet the information needs of policy makers and program/ curriculum planners
    • These are assessments OF learning
  • 11.
    • All teachers need to know the basics of testing reports.
    • The more we know, the better we can use these results to make modifications to instruction.
    • How well did you do on this?
  • 12.
    • Standardized means that all students take the same test under the same conditions with the same instructions and scoring.
    • Norm-referenced means that scores are referenced to a “norm group” of similar students.
    • Criterion-referenced shows how learning compares to a preset criterion of acceptable performance on specified learning targets, rather than to compare students to one another.
    • Large-scale assessment is one that is given to a large number of students across classrooms and schools at more or less the same time.
  • 13.
    • Only multiple choice, norm-referenced tests can be standardized . It is possible to standardize a writing sample when students receive the same prompt. Many now have extended responses.
    • The same tests can’t yield both norm-referenced and criterion-referenced scores. Most indicate mastery as well as how student performance compares to others.
    • Multiple-choice standardized tests can assess only content mastery, and not reasoning or problem-solving. Some kinds of reasoning and problem-solving can be assessed in selective response format.
  • 14.
    • Same developmental steps as in Chapter 4:
      • Clarify targets
      • Clarify purpose
      • Decide on number of questions and assessment methods
      • Develop a test plan
      • Write questions and exercises
      • Assemble the test
      • Try it out
      • Revise to improve the test
      • Establishing NORMS: the drafted test is given to a large number of students across a range of achievement levels, called the norm group.
  • 15.
    • Raw Scores
    • Percent Correct
    • Percentile Score
    • Stanines
    • Grade Equivalent Score
    • Competency and Mastery Scores
  • 16.
    • The goal of test preparation training for students is to ensure that test scores are accurate, that nothing in the testing situation will cause the results to be mismeasured
  • 17.
    • They want to know test information
      • Contest, assessment method and scoring method
    • How to prepare their children for the tests
    • Communication with parents is then based on ACCURATE information and how it will be used in the classroom and in the school