Our responsibility is to provide as accurate a picture of learning as possible.
Requires that we answer 3 important questions:
What is our purpose for grading?
What factors should we include in the grade?
How do we combine those factors to give the truest picture possible of student achievement?
Principle 1 : The purpose of grading is to COMMUNICATE
Principle 2: Grades Communicate about ACHIEVEMENT
Include effort, aptitude and other factors?
Principle 3: Grades Reflect CURRENT LEVELS of Achievement
Organizing the Gradebook
Keep grades for target skills
Including Factors in the Final Grade
Keep actual achievement separate fro other factors
Considering Assessment Purpose
Differentiate between assessment FOR learning and OF learning
Considering the Most Recent Information
Use current evidence of student achievement on the intended learning targets.
Summarizing Information and Determining the Final Grade
Grades and records should reflect student attainment of established targets, rather than a rank in the class.
Combining Rubrics with Percentage Scores
Verifying Assessment Quality
When assigning grades, use the most accurate body of evidence available
Be sure students know how their current level of achievement compares to the standards they are expected to master
A portfolio’s contents, and the collection of student work as a whole, can be assessed, but we do not advocate using the term portfolio assessment because, as we hope we can make clear, portfolios are collecting and communicating devices.
Different Kinds of Portfolios:
Think about portfolio as process , not a product or object
Work sample annotations are whatever comments students and teachers make about each piece of evidence selected for the portfolio.
Students can show and “I can do it” mindset with a portfolio if it shows that they are accomplishing their goals.
How the Type of Portfolio Affects Design
Keys to Successful Use:
Portfolios are a means to an end, not an end in themselves.
They are a means to help students learn more deeply and embed learning into long-term memory.
They are a means to help students take responsibility for their own learning.
A conference occurs when two or more people meet to discuss a predetermines topic to satisfy an informational need.
Purposes for conferences
The formats to meet those purposes
How to conduct successful conferences to meet the information needs of students, teachers and parents.
Conferences can be used to communicate assessment FOR learning and assessment OF learning
Planning an Intervention
It’s Important to do a Follow-up after any conference to see what went well and what might be improved for the future.
Standardized tests represent ONE WAY to gather and communicate information about student achievement
These meet the information needs of policy makers and program/ curriculum planners
These are assessments OF learning
All teachers need to know the basics of testing reports.
The more we know, the better we can use these results to make modifications to instruction.
How well did you do on this?
Standardized means that all students take the same test under the same conditions with the same instructions and scoring.
Norm-referenced means that scores are referenced to a “norm group” of similar students.
Criterion-referenced shows how learning compares to a preset criterion of acceptable performance on specified learning targets, rather than to compare students to one another.
Large-scale assessment is one that is given to a large number of students across classrooms and schools at more or less the same time.
Only multiple choice, norm-referenced tests can be standardized . It is possible to standardize a writing sample when students receive the same prompt. Many now have extended responses.
The same tests can’t yield both norm-referenced and criterion-referenced scores. Most indicate mastery as well as how student performance compares to others.
Multiple-choice standardized tests can assess only content mastery, and not reasoning or problem-solving. Some kinds of reasoning and problem-solving can be assessed in selective response format.
Same developmental steps as in Chapter 4:
Decide on number of questions and assessment methods
Develop a test plan
Write questions and exercises
Assemble the test
Try it out
Revise to improve the test
Establishing NORMS: the drafted test is given to a large number of students across a range of achievement levels, called the norm group.
Grade Equivalent Score
Competency and Mastery Scores
The goal of test preparation training for students is to ensure that test scores are accurate, that nothing in the testing situation will cause the results to be mismeasured
They want to know test information
Contest, assessment method and scoring method
How to prepare their children for the tests
Communication with parents is then based on ACCURATE information and how it will be used in the classroom and in the school