▪ Students will demonstrate the following enduring understanding▪ Population growth can have both short- term and long-term economic and environmental effects on a place.▪ People choose to settle in areas that meet their basic needs.▪ Migration takes place when people decide that their needs can be better met in a different location.
Today, the world’s population is around 7 billion. When people first began farming around 12,000 years ago, it was fewer than 10 million. Since then, better food production and healthcare have caused a population boom.
Demographers are scientist who study human populations. They measure the rate at which population is growing. They compare birth rates to death rates. The birth rate is the number of live births per 1,000 people in a year. The death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.
The Industrial Revolution brought many changes to the population growth. Medical Care Improvements in food production Living conditions
Population growth has positive and negative effects. ▪ For example, a growing population can produce more goods and services. However a rapid growth can also cause problems. The population can grow faster than the supply of food, water, medicine and other resources.
Population distribution is the spreading of people over an area of land. The world’s population is distributed unevenly on Earth’s surface. People try to live in places that meet their basic needs. Population density is the number of people per unit of land area.
For thousands of years, people have migrated to new places. Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.
People often migrate within a country. When you migrate from one place of the country to another place in the country it is known as internal migration. Moving from one country to another country is known as external migration.
When people leave their country, they emigrate, which means to migrate out of a place. To enter a new country is to immigrate, or to migrate into a place.
People who migrate are often looking for a better life. They may move to escape poverty, a lack of jobs, or a harsh climate. In some countries, war or other conflicts forces people to migrate. These reasons for migration are known as push factors. Push factors are causes of migration that push people to leave their home country. Other reasons are known as Pull factors. Freedom, supply of jobs are pull factors.
In many parts of the world people are migrating from rural areas to urban areas. Urban areas are cities. Rural areas are settlements in the country. Urbanization is the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas.
Rapid urbanization has created challenges for growing cities, especially those in poor countries. These cities cannot provide the housing, school, jobs and other services. ▪ Resulting in slums, or poor overcrowded urban areas. Wealthier countries deal with Suburban sprawl. Suburban sprawl is the spread of suburbs away fro the core city.