Jean Piaget (1896-1980) – was the first to suggest children’s understanding of the world is profoundly different from adults
Erik Erikson (1902-1994), Organized life into eight stages that extend from birth to death (many developmental theories only cover childhood). Since adulthood covers a span of many years, Erikson divided the stages of adulthood into the experiences of young adults, middle aged adults and older adults.
Kohlberg (1927-1987) Borrowing from Piagets' theory of cognitive development, Kohlberg believes that children classify behavior as acceptable or unacceptable based for their gender and based on what they perceive to be related or unrelated to their schema for their gender.
Distinct educational curricula have been developed
Maria Montessori (100 years ago) developed structured, individualized projects for poor children
Montessori approach is basis for one of the finest Christian spirituality programs: Godly Play (Jerome Berryman)
Considerations for Libraries 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-7 7-11 Simple stories, shape and picture identification, puzzles, activities with others, baby signing Environment, shapes and colors, “tell me why or how” Word work, Parental programs on fears and fantasy Logic of conservation, Character driven stories General education, Thinking and explaining www.storyplace.org/storyplace.asp
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development describe
eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood.
In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges.
Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages.
The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future.
Middle Adulthood (35-60 Years ) (Erickson con’t)
Psychosocial Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Generativity is the concern of establishing and guiding the next generation. Simply having or wanting children doesn’t achieve generativity. Socially-valued work and disciplines are also expressions of generativity.
Main questions asked :
Will I ever accomplish anything useful?
Central Task: Creativity
Positive Outcome: Nurturing children or helping the next generation in other ways
Ego Quality: Care
Definition: Commitment to and concern for family and community Developmental Task: Nurture close relationships; Management of career and household; Parenting
Significant Relations: Workplace - community & family....
By now the individual has lived long enough to evaluate the life he or she has lived while there is still time to make major changes if necessary.
With a sense of generativity, the person feels concerns for what he or she generates, what he/she contributes to the world.
Individuals with very narrow generative concerns might only care that they make certain their offspring do well but without caring what happens to the rest of the world.
The unhealthy outcome stagnation could also be called self-absorption . The psychologically stagnant person's concerns are so narrow that he or she has little or no concern for contributing anything to anyone else.
Factors that Influence Aging Gender Race Ethnic group Education Occupation Income Lifestyle
Different ways of aging: Chronological : “mere passage of time does not cause development” (Papalia et al, p 10) ex: not all 16 year olds ready to drive Functional age : how well person functions in physical & social settings with others of same chronological age Ex: … old before their time young at heart…
Library Services for Seniors utilize seniors as volunteers serve older adults who are visually impaired and blind large print books talking books books-on-tape
Provide intergenerational activities homebound book deliveries Provide access to technology instruction introduce seniors to online catalogs
Papalia, D.E., & Camp, C.J. & Feldman, R.D. (1996). Adult development and aging. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kleiman, A.M. (Sept 15, 1997) Global greying: Successful strategies for bridging information gaps with the elderly population . International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla63/63klea.htm accessed March 28, 2007.
Gender and the Information Search Process By Rhonda Altonen
Learning is a product of one's cognitive development.
Piaget concluded from his work that schools should emphasize cooperative decision-making and problem solving, nurturing moral development by requiring students to work out common rules based on fairness.
believed that American schools were too focused on individual achievement and failed to offer students an opportunity to become attached to a group that could offer them a rich social and moral experience.
concluded that children should not be rushed in their development; that each developmental phase was vastly important and should be allowed time to fully unfold.
Social learning theorists believe that one's gender is learned by observing parents and other role models. Supposedly, children observe the behavior of the same sex parent, and they imitate this parent's behavior. Children receive reinforcement for displaying behaviors that deemed socially appropriate and punishment for behaviors deemed inappropriate.
This theory of gender development is still embraced by many psychologists. However, it has been challenged on the grounds that it does not fully explain how gender is learned, especially since some children do not imitate the behavior of the same sex parent. Also, research has demonstrated that personality and other social behaviors are not necessarily learned in this way.
According to Bem, children learn their gender by developing cognitive schemes about what is means to be male or female in a given culture. This theory is based on elements of Piaget's theory of cognitive development and tenets of social learning theory. Bem believes that children develop these schemes by observing the behavior of males and females in a given culture and by interacting with people. She also notes that these schemes are not fixed and can be altered by the child receiving additional cultural information.
This theory of gender development receives the greatest amount of acceptance from psychologists because of its inclusiveness. It offers a balanced view of gender development that examines social and cognitive views.
The ETS Gender Study is the result of four years of work by several researchers using data from more than 400 different tests and other measures from more than 1,500 data sets involving millions of students. It focuses on nationally representative samples that cut across grades (ages), academic subjects, and years in order to control factors that may have introduced confusion and contradictory results in previous studies.
Armed with an understanding of Kuhlthau's work, the librarian can anticipate and diagnose the information seeker’s problems and determine the most effective level and type of intervention for the particular stage of research.