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Human Development


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    • 1. Human Development: Cognitive and Social Growth Presentation To Learning Group LI802 By Rhonda Altonen David Dymek Loran Lattes Kristin Mammel John McMahon Mary Morgan Brian Mosbey Arlene Purdy
    • 2. Theorists
      • Jean Piaget (1896-1980) – was the first to suggest children’s understanding of the world is profoundly different from adults
      • Erik Erikson (1902-1994), Organized life into eight stages that extend from birth to death (many developmental theories only cover childhood). Since adulthood covers a span of many years, Erikson divided the stages of adulthood into the experiences of young adults, middle aged adults and older adults.
    • 3.
      • Kohlberg (1927-1987) Borrowing from Piagets' theory of cognitive development, Kohlberg believes that children classify behavior as acceptable or unacceptable based for their gender and based on what they perceive to be related or unrelated to their schema for their gender.
    • 4. Infants
      • By Kristin Mammel
    • 5. Birth-6 Month Development
      • Physical
          • Most movements are reflexes
          • Nervous system not fully developed
          • Can clearly see objects 10 inches from face
      • Social/Emotional
          • Develops trust as basic needs are met
          • Cries as way of communicating anger, pain, and hunger
          • May smile in response to pleasant sound or someone familiar
          • May laugh by 4 months
      • Intellectual/Cognitive
          • Babbles, coos, and turns to locate source of sounds
          • Studies hands and feet
          • Explores objects with mouth
          • Follows moving objects with eyes
          • No “object permanence” ability
    • 6. 6-12 Month Development
      • Physical
          • Sleeps and eats at more regular times
          • Most can sit unassisted
          • Most begin crawling
          • Can pick up objects with thumb and forefinger
          • Pulls up to standing position; may walk
      • Social/Emotional
          • Responds to name
          • Begins to fear strangers and being left by parents
          • Shows anger when needs not met in timely manner
          • Begins learning what is and what is not allowed
      • Intellectual/Cognitive
          • Responds to simple directions
          • Looks for things not in sight
          • Engages in pretend play
    • 7. 1 Year-18 Month Development
      • Physical
          • Walks alone; may run
          • Pushes/pulls objects
          • Moves to music
      • Social/Emotional
          • Enjoys looking at books
          • Laughs at funny things
          • Responds to verbal requests
      • Intellectual/Cognitive
          • Understands words in context
          • Understands cause and effect
          • Remembers caregivers when out of sight
    • 8. Library Programs for Infants and Children
        • American Library Association
          • Association of Library Service to Children
            • Born to Read project
            • Every Child Ready to Read @ your library project
            • “ Drop Everything and Read” Day
            • El dia de los ninos/El dia de los libros
            • Jumpstart’s Read For the Record project
            • Reading Rockets project
    • 9. References
      • Ames, L. (1982). Your one-year-old . New York, New York: Dell Publishing.
      • Brunton, M. (2007). What do babies know?. Time South Pacific , Retrieved March 13, 2007, from
      • Mayes, L. , & Cohen, D. (2002). The yale child study center guide to understanding your child .Yale University.
      • Shelov, S.P. (2005). Your baby's first year . New York, New York: Bantam Dell.
      • Shore, P. (2002). How your baby & child learns . Toronto, Ontario: The Parent Kit Corporation.
      • Silberg, J. (2000). Brain games for toddlers and twos . Beltsville, MD: Gryphon House, Inc..
      • Wingert, Pat. Reading your baby's mind. Newsweek , Retrieved March 16, 2007, from
      • The Partnership for Reading
      • National Institute for Literacy
      • March of Dimes
      • Kids Health
    • 10. Children By Brian Mosbey
    • 11. Physical Development of Preschoolers
      • Brain development allows for greater coordination and impulse control
      • Physical maturation can make a child more vulnerable to injury
    • 12. Fine Motor Skills
      • Small body movements are difficult to master
      • pouring, cutting, holding crayon, tying
      • lacking the muscular control, patience, and judgment needed
      • fingers short and fat
      • confusion over which is dominant hand
    • 13. Ready for Formal Education?
      • Not until about age 6 are most children ready for formal instruction
        • (age 2 for one girl—she was reading!
        • Can be late—even 8 years of age
      • Need to be able to
        • sit still for more than an hour
        • scan a page of print
        • draw and write with one hand
        • listen and think before talking
        • remember important facts
        • control emotions
    • 14.
      • Please adults
      • Objects have feelings
      • Understanding time
      • Who, what, when, where, and why
      • Start reading, writing, math
      • Eager
      • Names colors
      • Artistic
      • Story telling
      • More awareness
      • Wordplay
      • Right from wrong
      • Fears
      4-5 7-11 3-4 2-3
      • Lose egocentrism
      • Start playing with other children
      • Imagination develops
      • Group and match
      • Identify parts of a whole
      • 15 min. activities
      • Awareness
      • Simple directions
      • Name pictured objects
      • Group by category
      • Problem solving
      • Ideas
      • Regulated thinking
      • Observation
      • Adult Explanation
      • Exploration
      • Imitation
      • Rules through praise and reward
    • 15. Piaget
      • Pre-Operational Thought (2-7)
        • Preconceptual(2-4)
          • Muddled categories
          • Ex. All men are “daddy”
          • Ex. All animals are “doggie”
          • Ex. All toys are his
      • Initiative Thinking (4-7)
        • Logical
        • Dominant question “why?”
      • Concrete Operational (7-11/12)
        • Ideas in head
        • Problem solving
        • Rule regulated thinking
          • “ logic of conservation”
          • Ex. Two beakers that look different (tall and thin vs. short and fat) can hold the same amount of liquid
    • 16. Erikson
      • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3)
        • Assert independence, make choices about what they wear, eat, play with- learning survival skills, autonomy
      • Initiative vs. Guilt(3-6)
        • Plan activities
        • Make up games
        • Initiate activities with others
        • Becoming secure about abilities to lead and make decisions
      • Industry vs. Inferiority (6-puberty)
        • Pride in accomplishment
        • Initiate projects and complete them
        • Goal is to be confident in achieving goals
    • 17. Many Types of Early Childhood Programs
      • Distinct educational curricula have been developed
      • Maria Montessori (100 years ago) developed structured, individualized projects for poor children
      • Montessori approach is basis for one of the finest Christian spirituality programs: Godly Play (Jerome Berryman)
    • 18. Considerations for Libraries 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-7 7-11 Simple stories, shape and picture identification, puzzles, activities with others, baby signing Environment, shapes and colors, “tell me why or how” Word work, Parental programs on fears and fantasy Logic of conservation, Character driven stories General education, Thinking and explaining
    • 19. References
      • http://
    • 20. Adolescents By Loran Lattes
    • 21. Adolescents
      • Physical Milestones:
        • Dramatic physical changes
          • Rapid growth in height, weight and secondary sexual characteristics
        • Emotional rollercoaster
        • Brain continues to mature and develop until age 25
    • 22. Adolescents
      • Typical behaviors:
        • Self conscious
        • Awkward
        • Separation from parents
        • Seek peer approval
        • Friendships grow to include romantic friendships
      • (Medline, 2007)
    • 23. Adolescents
      • Information Needs:
        • Piaget (1958):
          • Cognitive development dependent on physical maturity
          • After age 11, people are able to think critically and abstractly
    • 24. Adolescents
      • Information Needs:
        • Harmon and Bradburn (1988)
          • 3 categories of adolescent information needs
            • 1. Research needs for academic and personal intellectual growth
            • 2. Recreational needs in all media formats
            • 3. Information needs for life and coping skills (sex and mental health information needs)
    • 25. Adolescents
      • Barriers – decisions on access
        • Telephone reference policies
        • Librarians preference for hard covered books vs. youth preference for paper back books.
        • Library setting – youth need a place to sprawl out, talk quietly and socialize.
        • Restrictions on borrowing audiovisual materials.
        • Restricted access to interlibrary loan.
      • (McDonald, 1988)
    • 26. Adolescents
      • What is being done?
        • American Association of School Librarians (AASL) – landmark document “Access to Resources and Services in the School Library Media Program: An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights
          • School library clients should have access, free of contraints from personal, partisan, or doctrinal disapproval.
          • Librarians should resist efforts to define what is appropriate for their clients by others.
        • (Harmon & Bradburn, 1988)
    • 27. Adolescents
      • What is being done?
        • Programs to encourage kids and parents to join book groups together with teen literature .
          • Promotes an understanding of teen issues among the adults.
    • 28. Adolescents
      • Programs:
        • Jefferson County Library
          • Teen zone on website
          • Good reads
          • Movies, music and more
          • ‘ Zines
          • Homework help
          • Real life
          • High schools, colleges and careers
      • Boulder Public Library
          • Teen Space
          • Game nights
          • Teen literature conference 4/14/07
          • Just Write
    • 29. References
      • Harmon, C. & Bradburn, F. (1988). Realizing the reading and information needs of youth. Library Trends, 37, 19-27.
      • McDonald, Frances M. (1988). Information access for youth: Issues and concerns. Library Trends , 37, 28-42.
      • Medline Plus (2007). Adolescent development . Retrieved March, 28, 2007 from
      • Thomas, Nancy P. (1999). Information literacy and information skills instruction . Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited.
    • 30. Cognitive and Social Growth of Young Adults By Dave Dymek
    • 31. Cognitive and Intellectual Growth:
      • Young adults perform better on cognitive skills tests than older adults.
      • Younger Adults have more recent education.
      • Younger adults have more technological learning advantages. i.e. Internet, television, computers.
    • 32. Short Term Memory
      • slowly declines as people age
      • younger adults can retrieve information stored better than older adults. i.e. remembering telephone numbers
    • 33. Reasoning and Problem Solving
      • Adults apply past knowledge to solve problems with uncertain outcomes
      • Young adults in their 20’s and 30’s are beginning to develop these skills as they age
      • However, younger adults are better at problem solving by forming concepts, searching for stimuli and reasoning verbally
    • 34. Social and Emotional Changes
      • Erickson’s Theory of Emotional Development: Entering young adulthood one faces the conflict of intimacy vs. isolation.
      • Young adults learn to merge their identities and personalities with others which leads to intimate relationships with others.
      • By successfully resolving this dilemma, young adults can learn to sacrifice and compromise which is key in successful long term relationships.
    • 35. Sources
      • Sugarman, Leonie. (1986) Life-Span Development: Concepts, Theories and Interventions. London, England: Methuen & Co. Ltd.
      • Clarke-Stewart, Alison, Perlmutter, Marion and Friedman, Susan. (1988) Lifelong Human Development. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
      • Werner, Emily E. & Smith, Ruth S. (2001) Journeys From Childhood To Midlife: Risk, Resilience and Recovery. USA: Cornell University Press.
    • 36. Human Development Adults 40’s and 50’s Arlene Purdy
    • 37.
      • People today are taking longer to grow up and much longer to grow old
      • Adolescence is now prolonged until age 30
      • People don't feel fully grown up until they are in their 40's
      • The fact that we are taking much longer to grow up and much longer to grow old shifts all the stages of adult life ahead by about 10 years:
        • 40 is what 30 used to be
        • 50 is what 40 used to be
        • 60 is what 50 used to be
      • (Gail Sheehy)
      There's a revolution in the life cycle.
    • 38.
      • Adult Development
      • Mystical Lifespan Tour
      • We now have, not one, but several adult lives to be prepared for and mapped out.
      • (Gail Sheehy)
      • Take the tour now! (highlight link on link below, right click, then click on open hyperlink) it’s fun!
      • Take the “My Passages Tour on Gail Sheehy’s website
          • Provisional Adulthood -- Age 18 to 30
          • First Adulthood -- 30 to 45
          • Second Adulthood -- mid 40's to 70's.
          • Third Adulthood - 75 and beyond.
    • 39.
      • Stages of psychosocial development (Adults)
      • Erikson's stages of psychosocial development describe
      • eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood.
      • In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges.
      • Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages.
      • The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future.
    • 40. Middle Adulthood (35-60 Years ) (Erickson con’t)
      • Psychosocial Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation
      • Generativity is the concern of establishing and guiding the next generation. Simply having or wanting children doesn’t achieve generativity. Socially-valued work and disciplines are also expressions of generativity.
      • Main questions asked :
      • Will I ever accomplish anything useful?
      • Central Task: Creativity
      • Positive Outcome: Nurturing children or helping the next generation in other ways
      • Ego Quality: Care
      • Definition: Commitment to and concern for family and community Developmental Task: Nurture close relationships; Management of career and household; Parenting
      • Significant Relations: Workplace - community & family....
    • 41. In middle adulthood, the forties and fifties.
      • By now the individual has lived long enough to evaluate the life he or she has lived while there is still time to make major changes if necessary.
      • With a sense of generativity, the person feels concerns for what he or she generates, what he/she contributes to the world.
      • Individuals with very narrow generative concerns might only care that they make certain their offspring do well but without caring what happens to the rest of the world.
      • The unhealthy outcome stagnation could also be called self-absorption . The psychologically stagnant person's concerns are so narrow that he or she has little or no concern for contributing anything to anyone else.
    • 42. Relevance to the Information Professional.
      • Information Behavior is largely a question of training and tradition, but it is important to have an:
      • awareness that: social and cognitive factors can greatly influence how we learn.
      • Awareness of these factors, as well as similar human growth stages can help in understanding why different persons approach the information seeking process.
      • It is important to take these differences into account in meeting the user information needs; there will always be differences in the way people seek information.
      • It is important to customize or tweak our information strategies to meet the diverse needs of users. .
    • 43.
      • references
      • Erikson, E.H. (1959). Identity and the Life Cycle. NY: W.W.Norton
      • Erikson, E.H. (1982). The Life Cycle Completed. NY: W.W. Norton
      • Lieb, S. Principals of Adult Learning. (Vision 1991). Retrieved on March 15, 2007 from
      • Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.
      • Merriam, S., and Caffaretta, R. S. (1991) Learning in Adulthood . San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
      • Sheehy, G. (1994). New Passages: Mapping your life across time. NY: Random House.
      • Gail Sheehy’s website:
    • 44. Older Adults: Cognitive and Social Development and Implications for Librarians Mary Morgan
    • 45. Mature adults Elderly aged Older adults Senior citizens Golden-agers “ chronologically gifted” - Huh?!!! Many names and…
    • 46. … lots of them! (2003)
    • 47.
      • General Characteristics of Older Adults (65+)
      • More women than men
      • Better educated than in the past
      • Most are:
        • physically active
        • mentally alert
        • past childrearing responsibilities
        • past fulltime employment
    • 48.
      • Different views on aging:
      • Unidirectional : traditional view of adulthood - continuous physical and intellectual decline
      • Multidirectional : aging involves both growth and decline
    • 49.
      • Examples of Multidirectional view of aging:
      • Increase in vocabulary
      • Decrease in ability to solve unfamiliar problems
      • New attributes emerge as a result of aging such as… wisdom
    • 50.
      • Erik Erikson on older adults:
      • personality not frozen at puberty; people grow and change throughout adult life.
      • 8th and final stage of life called “integrity vs despair
      • “ older adults need to accept the way they have lived in order to accept their approaching death” (Papalia et al p 420).
      • struggle to achieve sense of integrity, coherence and wholeness instead of despair over impossibility of going back and changing the past
      • Wisdom is achieved: “accepting life one has lived without major regrets” (Papalia et al p 258).
      • criticism of model: based on white males
    • 51. Beyond Piaget
      • Adult thinking
      • - may be richer and more complex than Piaget’s formal operation stage
      • - often appears to be flexible, open, adaptive, individualistic
      • - relies on intuition as well as logic
      • Sometimes called postformal thought : ability to deal with uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, imperfection and compromise
    • 52.
      • Postformal Thought
      • Awareness that most problems have more than one solution
      • Ability to choose best of several solutions using
      • varied criteria: (for fastest route… for most scenic route…)
      • Recognizing that a problem or solution involves inherent conflict (Moving will give you a nicer house, but you might not be as happy in the new neighborhood)
      • Ability to shift between abstract to practical real world situations (“this might work on paper but in real life…”)
      • Sinnott, 1984 in Parnalli et al, 1996, p 253)
    • 53.
    • 54. Factors that Influence Aging Gender Race Ethnic group Education Occupation Income Lifestyle
    • 55. Different ways of aging: Chronological : “mere passage of time does not cause development” (Papalia et al, p 10) ex: not all 16 year olds ready to drive Functional age : how well person functions in physical & social settings with others of same chronological age Ex: … old before their time young at heart…
    • 56. Library Services for Seniors utilize seniors as volunteers serve older adults who are visually impaired and blind large print books talking books books-on-tape
    • 57. Provide intergenerational activities homebound book deliveries Provide access to technology instruction introduce seniors to online catalogs
    • 58. Internet Resources
      • Gerontology and the Aging Population
      • Heathy Brain Initiative - Centers for Disease Control
      • American Society on Aging - Maintaining Cognitive Health
      • American Library Association - Library Services to Older Adults Guidelines
      • Resource Manual for Missouri Libraries - Serving Seniors
      • American Library Association - Services to Older Adults
    • 59. Book Resources
      • Honnold, R. & Mesaros, S.A. (2004). Serving seniors: A how-to-do-it manual for librarians. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
      • Mates, B.T. (2003). 5-star programming and services for your 55+ library customers . Chicago: American Library Association.
    • 60. References
      • Papalia, D.E., & Camp, C.J. & Feldman, R.D. (1996). Adult development and aging. New York: McGraw-Hill.
      • Kleiman, A.M. (Sept 15, 1997) Global greying: Successful strategies for bridging information gaps with the elderly population . International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. accessed March 28, 2007.
    • 61. Gender and the Information Search Process By Rhonda Altonen
    • 62. Theorists on Gender
      • Jean Piaget
      • Lawrence Kohlberg
      • Erik Erikson
      • Gail Sheehy
      • Bradley Levinson
      • Carol Gilligan
    • 63.  
    • 64.  
    • 65.  
    • 66. Theorists on Learning
      • Piaget
        • Learning is a product of one's cognitive development.
        • Piaget concluded from his work that schools should emphasize cooperative decision-making and problem solving, nurturing moral development by requiring students to work out common rules based on fairness.
      • Kohlberg
        • believed that American schools were too focused on individual achievement and failed to offer students an opportunity to become attached to a group that could offer them a rich social and moral experience.
      • Erikson
        • concluded that children should not be rushed in their development; that each developmental phase was vastly important and should be allowed time to fully unfold.
    • 67. Titus, Bergandi, Shyrock & Chelton
      • Work primarily focuses on young adult services
      • Use of technology in research process
        • (boolean search errors)
      • Call for additional research
    • 68. Social Learning Theory
      • Social learning theorists believe that one's gender is learned by observing parents and other role models. Supposedly, children observe the behavior of the same sex parent, and they imitate this parent's behavior. Children receive reinforcement for displaying behaviors that deemed socially appropriate and punishment for behaviors deemed inappropriate.
      • This theory of gender development is still embraced by many psychologists. However, it has been challenged on the grounds that it does not fully explain how gender is learned, especially since some children do not imitate the behavior of the same sex parent. Also, research has demonstrated that personality and other social behaviors are not necessarily learned in this way.
    • 69. Gender Schema Theory
      • According to Bem, children learn their gender by developing cognitive schemes about what is means to be male or female in a given culture. This theory is based on elements of Piaget's theory of cognitive development and tenets of social learning theory. Bem believes that children develop these schemes by observing the behavior of males and females in a given culture and by interacting with people. She also notes that these schemes are not fixed and can be altered by the child receiving additional cultural information.
      • This theory of gender development receives the greatest amount of acceptance from psychologists because of its inclusiveness. It offers a balanced view of gender development that examines social and cognitive views.
    • 70.
      • Relationship to learning, information seeking and information needs
    • 71. ETS Gender Study, 1997
      • The ETS Gender Study is the result of four years of work by several researchers using data from more than 400 different tests and other measures from more than 1,500 data sets involving millions of students. It focuses on nationally representative samples that cut across grades (ages), academic subjects, and years in order to control factors that may have introduced confusion and contradictory results in previous studies.
    • 72. Tracey Burdick, Ph.D.
      • Ph.D. Florida State University, Graduate School of Information Studies
      • M.L.S. University of Denver, Library and Information Science
      • B.A. University of Oklahoma, English summa cum laude
      • Currently Reference Librarian at Chipola College Library in Marianna, Florida
    • 73. Burdick’s Gender-Related Differences in the ISP (Burdick, 1996)
      • Grades 10-12
      • 1992 report that models “might favor males”
      • used Kuhlthau’s Model
      • Cognitive and affective information seeking
    • 74.  
    • 75. Girls were:
      • More likely to seek assistance
      • More likely to work together
      • More likely to be optimistic at task initiation and doubtful and uncertain at completion
      • More reflective
      • More interested in exploring and focusing topics
      • Less confident overall in their abilities
    • 76.
      • Less likely to ask for help
      • More likely to express confidence
      • More active
      • More emphatic in collecting data and completing assignments
      • More comfortable in expressing personal opinions
      Boys were:
    • 77. Both Girls and Boys:
      • Showed higher degrees of involvement for tasks in which their interest was high
      • Placed more emphasis on project completion than on focus formulation
      • Expressed feelings of confidence not necessarily related to the formulation of a personal perspective
      • Exhibited choice behaviors for topics related to gender
    • 78. Carol Collier Kuhlthau
      • Professor II Emeritus Library and Information Science School of Communication, Information and Library Studies Rutgers University Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries (CISSL)
    • 79.  
    • 80. Application to Information Literacy  
      • support risk-taking to encourage girls to move beyond rule-bound strategies and to promote new learning for every student. 
      • recognize that the same gender-based inclinations to follow rules could result in your teaching information literacy as a step-by-step routine rather than an information inquiry process
      • during library research all students need the librarian's mediation
      • Since boys and quiet students are less likely to ask for help, approach them with offers of assistance even if they don't request it
      • Extensive scaffolding in the initial stages of task definition
    • 81. Conclusion
        • Armed with an understanding of Kuhlthau's work, the librarian can anticipate and diagnose the information seeker’s problems and determine the most effective level and type of intervention for the particular stage of research.
    • 82. Bibliography for Gender Issues
      • Thomas, Nancy Pickering. (2004). Information Literacy and Information Skills Instruction. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
      • Farmer, L., S.J. (1996). Informing young women: gender equity through literacy skills . Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.
      • Girls Tech ( http:// / )
      • Dr. Tracey Burdick ( http:// )
      • Kuhlthau's Model of the Stages of the Information Process ( http:// )
      • Carol Collier Kuhlthau ( http:// )
      • Engendering Equity: Apply the research on Gender to your school library. ( http://