Human Development: Cognitive and Social Growth Presentation To Learning Group LI802 By Rhonda Altonen David Dymek Loran Lattes Kristin Mammel John McMahon Mary Morgan Brian Mosbey Arlene Purdy
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) – was the first to suggest children’s understanding of the world is profoundly different from adults
Erik Erikson (1902-1994), Organized life into eight stages that extend from birth to death (many developmental theories only cover childhood). Since adulthood covers a span of many years, Erikson divided the stages of adulthood into the experiences of young adults, middle aged adults and older adults.
Kohlberg (1927-1987) Borrowing from Piagets' theory of cognitive development, Kohlberg believes that children classify behavior as acceptable or unacceptable based for their gender and based on what they perceive to be related or unrelated to their schema for their gender.
By Kristin Mammel
Birth-6 Month Development
Most movements are reflexes
Nervous system not fully developed
Can clearly see objects 10 inches from face
Develops trust as basic needs are met
Cries as way of communicating anger, pain, and hunger
May smile in response to pleasant sound or someone familiar
May laugh by 4 months
Babbles, coos, and turns to locate source of sounds
Studies hands and feet
Explores objects with mouth
Follows moving objects with eyes
No “object permanence” ability
6-12 Month Development
Sleeps and eats at more regular times
Most can sit unassisted
Most begin crawling
Can pick up objects with thumb and forefinger
Pulls up to standing position; may walk
Responds to name
Begins to fear strangers and being left by parents
Shows anger when needs not met in timely manner
Begins learning what is and what is not allowed
Responds to simple directions
Looks for things not in sight
Engages in pretend play
1 Year-18 Month Development
Walks alone; may run
Moves to music
Enjoys looking at books
Laughs at funny things
Responds to verbal requests
Understands words in context
Understands cause and effect
Remembers caregivers when out of sight
Library Programs for Infants and Children
American Library Association
Association of Library Service to Children
Born to Read project
Every Child Ready to Read @ your library project
“ Drop Everything and Read” Day
El dia de los ninos/El dia de los libros
Jumpstart’s Read For the Record project
Reading Rockets project
Ames, L. (1982). Your one-year-old . New York, New York: Dell Publishing.
Brunton, M. (2007). What do babies know?. Time South Pacific , Retrieved March 13, 2007, from http://wf2la4.webfeat.org:80
Mayes, L. , & Cohen, D. (2002). The yale child study center guide to understanding your child .Yale University.
Shelov, S.P. (2005). Your baby's first year . New York, New York: Bantam Dell.
Shore, P. (2002). How your baby & child learns . Toronto, Ontario: The Parent Kit Corporation.
Silberg, J. (2000). Brain games for toddlers and twos . Beltsville, MD: Gryphon House, Inc..
Wingert, Pat. Reading your baby's mind. Newsweek , Retrieved March 16, 2007, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id8852928/site/newsweek/
The Partnership for Reading www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading
National Institute for Literacy www.nifl.gov
March of Dimes www.marchofdimes.com/pnhec/298_10203.asp
Kids Health www.kidshealth.org/parent/growth/
Children By Brian Mosbey
Physical Development of Preschoolers
Brain development allows for greater coordination and impulse control
Physical maturation can make a child more vulnerable to injury
Fine Motor Skills
Small body movements are difficult to master
pouring, cutting, holding crayon, tying
lacking the muscular control, patience, and judgment needed
fingers short and fat
confusion over which is dominant hand
Ready for Formal Education?
Not until about age 6 are most children ready for formal instruction
(age 2 for one girl—she was reading!
Can be late—even 8 years of age
Need to be able to
sit still for more than an hour
scan a page of print
draw and write with one hand
listen and think before talking
remember important facts
Objects have feelings
Who, what, when, where, and why
Start reading, writing, math
Right from wrong
4-5 7-11 3-4 2-3
Start playing with other children
Group and match
Identify parts of a whole
15 min. activities
Name pictured objects
Group by category
Rules through praise and reward
Pre-Operational Thought (2-7)
Ex. All men are “daddy”
Ex. All animals are “doggie”
Ex. All toys are his
Initiative Thinking (4-7)
Dominant question “why?”
Concrete Operational (7-11/12)
Ideas in head
Rule regulated thinking
“ logic of conservation”
Ex. Two beakers that look different (tall and thin vs. short and fat) can hold the same amount of liquid
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3)
Assert independence, make choices about what they wear, eat, play with- learning survival skills, autonomy
Initiative vs. Guilt(3-6)
Make up games
Initiate activities with others
Becoming secure about abilities to lead and make decisions
Industry vs. Inferiority (6-puberty)
Pride in accomplishment
Initiate projects and complete them
Goal is to be confident in achieving goals
Many Types of Early Childhood Programs
Distinct educational curricula have been developed
Maria Montessori (100 years ago) developed structured, individualized projects for poor children
Montessori approach is basis for one of the finest Christian spirituality programs: Godly Play (Jerome Berryman)
Considerations for Libraries 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-7 7-11 Simple stories, shape and picture identification, puzzles, activities with others, baby signing Environment, shapes and colors, “tell me why or how” Word work, Parental programs on fears and fantasy Logic of conservation, Character driven stories General education, Thinking and explaining www.storyplace.org/storyplace.asp
Clarke-Stewart, Alison, Perlmutter, Marion and Friedman, Susan. (1988) Lifelong Human Development. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Werner, Emily E. & Smith, Ruth S. (2001) Journeys From Childhood To Midlife: Risk, Resilience and Recovery. USA: Cornell University Press.
Human Development Adults 40’s and 50’s Arlene Purdy
People today are taking longer to grow up and much longer to grow old
Adolescence is now prolonged until age 30
People don't feel fully grown up until they are in their 40's
The fact that we are taking much longer to grow up and much longer to grow old shifts all the stages of adult life ahead by about 10 years:
40 is what 30 used to be
50 is what 40 used to be
60 is what 50 used to be
There's a revolution in the life cycle.
Mystical Lifespan Tour
We now have, not one, but several adult lives to be prepared for and mapped out.
Take the tour now! (highlight link on link below, right click, then click on open hyperlink) it’s fun!
Take the “My Passages Tour on Gail Sheehy’s website
Provisional Adulthood -- Age 18 to 30
First Adulthood -- 30 to 45
Second Adulthood -- mid 40's to 70's.
Third Adulthood - 75 and beyond.
Stages of psychosocial development (Adults)
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development describe
eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood.
In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges.
Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages.
The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future.
Middle Adulthood (35-60 Years ) (Erickson con’t)
Psychosocial Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Generativity is the concern of establishing and guiding the next generation. Simply having or wanting children doesn’t achieve generativity. Socially-valued work and disciplines are also expressions of generativity.
Main questions asked :
Will I ever accomplish anything useful?
Central Task: Creativity
Positive Outcome: Nurturing children or helping the next generation in other ways
Ego Quality: Care
Definition: Commitment to and concern for family and community Developmental Task: Nurture close relationships; Management of career and household; Parenting
Significant Relations: Workplace - community & family....
In middle adulthood, the forties and fifties.
By now the individual has lived long enough to evaluate the life he or she has lived while there is still time to make major changes if necessary.
With a sense of generativity, the person feels concerns for what he or she generates, what he/she contributes to the world.
Individuals with very narrow generative concerns might only care that they make certain their offspring do well but without caring what happens to the rest of the world.
The unhealthy outcome stagnation could also be called self-absorption . The psychologically stagnant person's concerns are so narrow that he or she has little or no concern for contributing anything to anyone else.
Relevance to the Information Professional.
Information Behavior is largely a question of training and tradition, but it is important to have an:
awareness that: social and cognitive factors can greatly influence how we learn.
Awareness of these factors, as well as similar human growth stages can help in understanding why different persons approach the information seeking process.
It is important to take these differences into account in meeting the user information needs; there will always be differences in the way people seek information.
It is important to customize or tweak our information strategies to meet the diverse needs of users. .
Erikson, E.H. (1959). Identity and the Life Cycle. NY: W.W.Norton
Erikson, E.H. (1982). The Life Cycle Completed. NY: W.W. Norton
Lieb, S. Principals of Adult Learning. (Vision 1991). Retrieved on March 15, 2007 from
http://www.aoa.gov/prof/Statistics/profile/2003/4.asp#figure1 … lots of them! (2003)
General Characteristics of Older Adults (65+)
More women than men
Better educated than in the past
past childrearing responsibilities
past fulltime employment
Different views on aging:
Unidirectional : traditional view of adulthood - continuous physical and intellectual decline
Multidirectional : aging involves both growth and decline
Examples of Multidirectional view of aging:
Increase in vocabulary
Decrease in ability to solve unfamiliar problems
New attributes emerge as a result of aging such as… wisdom
Erik Erikson on older adults:
personality not frozen at puberty; people grow and change throughout adult life.
8th and final stage of life called “integrity vs despair
“ older adults need to accept the way they have lived in order to accept their approaching death” (Papalia et al p 420).
struggle to achieve sense of integrity, coherence and wholeness instead of despair over impossibility of going back and changing the past
Wisdom is achieved: “accepting life one has lived without major regrets” (Papalia et al p 258).
criticism of model: based on white males
- may be richer and more complex than Piaget’s formal operation stage
- often appears to be flexible, open, adaptive, individualistic
- relies on intuition as well as logic
Sometimes called postformal thought : ability to deal with uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, imperfection and compromise
Awareness that most problems have more than one solution
Ability to choose best of several solutions using
varied criteria: (for fastest route… for most scenic route…)
Recognizing that a problem or solution involves inherent conflict (Moving will give you a nicer house, but you might not be as happy in the new neighborhood)
Ability to shift between abstract to practical real world situations (“this might work on paper but in real life…”)
Sinnott, 1984 in Parnalli et al, 1996, p 253)
Factors that Influence Aging Gender Race Ethnic group Education Occupation Income Lifestyle
Different ways of aging: Chronological : “mere passage of time does not cause development” (Papalia et al, p 10) ex: not all 16 year olds ready to drive Functional age : how well person functions in physical & social settings with others of same chronological age Ex: … old before their time young at heart…
Library Services for Seniors utilize seniors as volunteers serve older adults who are visually impaired and blind large print books talking books books-on-tape
Provide intergenerational activities homebound book deliveries Provide access to technology instruction introduce seniors to online catalogs
Honnold, R. & Mesaros, S.A. (2004). Serving seniors: A how-to-do-it manual for librarians. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
Mates, B.T. (2003). 5-star programming and services for your 55+ library customers . Chicago: American Library Association.
Papalia, D.E., & Camp, C.J. & Feldman, R.D. (1996). Adult development and aging. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kleiman, A.M. (Sept 15, 1997) Global greying: Successful strategies for bridging information gaps with the elderly population . International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla63/63klea.htm accessed March 28, 2007.
Gender and the Information Search Process By Rhonda Altonen
Theorists on Gender
Theorists on Learning
Learning is a product of one's cognitive development.
Piaget concluded from his work that schools should emphasize cooperative decision-making and problem solving, nurturing moral development by requiring students to work out common rules based on fairness.
believed that American schools were too focused on individual achievement and failed to offer students an opportunity to become attached to a group that could offer them a rich social and moral experience.
concluded that children should not be rushed in their development; that each developmental phase was vastly important and should be allowed time to fully unfold.
Titus, Bergandi, Shyrock & Chelton
Work primarily focuses on young adult services
Use of technology in research process
(boolean search errors)
Call for additional research
Social Learning Theory
Social learning theorists believe that one's gender is learned by observing parents and other role models. Supposedly, children observe the behavior of the same sex parent, and they imitate this parent's behavior. Children receive reinforcement for displaying behaviors that deemed socially appropriate and punishment for behaviors deemed inappropriate.
This theory of gender development is still embraced by many psychologists. However, it has been challenged on the grounds that it does not fully explain how gender is learned, especially since some children do not imitate the behavior of the same sex parent. Also, research has demonstrated that personality and other social behaviors are not necessarily learned in this way.
Gender Schema Theory
According to Bem, children learn their gender by developing cognitive schemes about what is means to be male or female in a given culture. This theory is based on elements of Piaget's theory of cognitive development and tenets of social learning theory. Bem believes that children develop these schemes by observing the behavior of males and females in a given culture and by interacting with people. She also notes that these schemes are not fixed and can be altered by the child receiving additional cultural information.
This theory of gender development receives the greatest amount of acceptance from psychologists because of its inclusiveness. It offers a balanced view of gender development that examines social and cognitive views.
Relationship to learning, information seeking and information needs
ETS Gender Study, 1997
The ETS Gender Study is the result of four years of work by several researchers using data from more than 400 different tests and other measures from more than 1,500 data sets involving millions of students. It focuses on nationally representative samples that cut across grades (ages), academic subjects, and years in order to control factors that may have introduced confusion and contradictory results in previous studies.
Tracey Burdick, Ph.D.
Ph.D. Florida State University, Graduate School of Information Studies
M.L.S. University of Denver, Library and Information Science
B.A. University of Oklahoma, English summa cum laude
Currently Reference Librarian at Chipola College Library in Marianna, Florida
Burdick’s Gender-Related Differences in the ISP (Burdick, 1996)
1992 report that models “might favor males”
used Kuhlthau’s Model
Cognitive and affective information seeking
More likely to seek assistance
More likely to work together
More likely to be optimistic at task initiation and doubtful and uncertain at completion
More interested in exploring and focusing topics
Less confident overall in their abilities
Less likely to ask for help
More likely to express confidence
More emphatic in collecting data and completing assignments
More comfortable in expressing personal opinions
Both Girls and Boys:
Showed higher degrees of involvement for tasks in which their interest was high
Placed more emphasis on project completion than on focus formulation
Expressed feelings of confidence not necessarily related to the formulation of a personal perspective
Exhibited choice behaviors for topics related to gender
Carol Collier Kuhlthau
Professor II Emeritus Library and Information Science School of Communication, Information and Library Studies Rutgers University Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries (CISSL)
Application to Information Literacy
support risk-taking to encourage girls to move beyond rule-bound strategies and to promote new learning for every student.
recognize that the same gender-based inclinations to follow rules could result in your teaching information literacy as a step-by-step routine rather than an information inquiry process
during library research all students need the librarian's mediation
Since boys and quiet students are less likely to ask for help, approach them with offers of assistance even if they don't request it
Extensive scaffolding in the initial stages of task definition
Armed with an understanding of Kuhlthau's work, the librarian can anticipate and diagnose the information seeker’s problems and determine the most effective level and type of intervention for the particular stage of research.
Bibliography for Gender Issues
Thomas, Nancy Pickering. (2004). Information Literacy and Information Skills Instruction. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
Farmer, L., S.J. (1996). Informing young women: gender equity through literacy skills . Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.