1. Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha- Discussed in great details in the class so many times. Difference between lok sabha and rajya sabha in terms of total number of seats, election of members of both the houses, powers and functions of both the houses. Lok sabha having special powers in terms of Money Bill. Important persons in both the houses of the parliament. 2. Legislative assembly and Legislative Council- Again discussed in great details in the class. Difference between assembly and council, number of states having legislative council. Election of members of legislative assembly and council, powers and their important functions in terms of passing the bill. 3. Election Commission of India- The Election Commission of India is an autonomous, quasi-judiciary constitutional body of India. Its mission is to conduct free and fair elections in India. It was established on 25 January 1950 under Article 324 of the Constitution of India.Structure The commission presently consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners, appointed by the president. Until October 1989, there was just one Chief Election Commissioner. In 1989, two Election Commissioners were appointed, but were removed again in January 1990. In 1991, however, the Parliament of India passed a law providing for the appointment of two Election Commissioners. This law was amended and renamed in 1993 as the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (Conditions of Service) Amendment Act 1993. As of Thursday, 7 April 2011, the CEC is Shahabuddin Yaqoob Quraishi. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from his office by Parliament with two-thirds majority in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha on the ground of proved misbehavior or incapacity. The Election Commission shall consist of a Chief Election Commissioner and such other Commissioners as the President may, from time to time, fix. Other Election Commissioner can be removed by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner. Salary of chief election commissioner is same as justice of Supreme Court of India. All three commissioners have same right of taking a decision. Tenure of commissioners is 6 years or up to age of 65, whichever
is earlier. The Election Commission of India has completed more than 300 elections. The Election Commission shall have the power of superintendence, direction and control of all elections to parliament and the state legislatures and of elections to the office of the President and Vice-President.Powers and dutiesThe Election Commission enjoys complete autonomy and is insulated from anykind of executive interference. The body also functions as a quasi-judiciarybody in matters of electoral disputes and other matters involving the conduct ofelections. Its recommendations and opinions are binding on the President ofIndia. However, the decisions of the body are liable for independent judiciaryreviews by courts acting on electoral petitions.The Election Commission is responsible for planning and executing a wholeamount of complex operations that go into the conduct of elections. During theelections, the entire Central (Federal) and State government machineryincluding para-military forces and the Police is deemed to be on deputation tothe Election Commission which takes effective control of personnel, movableand immovable Government Properties it deems necessary for successfulcompletion of the electoral process. The Apart from conducting elections torepresentative bodies, the Election Commission has been on many occasions,called upon by the Courts to oversee and execute elections to various governingbodies of other autonomous organisations, such as Syndicates of Universities,statutory professional bodies, etc.The following are the principle functions of the Election Commission of India: 1. Demarcation of Constituencies. 2. Preparation of Electoral Rolls. 3. Recognition of Political parties and allotment of symbols. 4. Scrutiny of nomination papers. 5. Conduct of polls. 6. Scrutiny of election expenses of candidates.
General Elections & Midterm ElectionsGeneral Elections- In a parliamentary political system, a generalelection is an election in which all or most members of a given politicalbody are chosen. The term is usually used to refer to elections held for anations primary legislative body, as distinguished from by-elections and local elections.General elections in India are the largest exercise of democracy in theWorld. In 2004, Indian elections covered an electorate larger than 670million people—over twice that of the next largest, the EuropeanParliament elections—and declared expenditure has trebled since 1989to almost $300 million, using more than 1 million electronic votingmachines. The Election Commission of India coordinates the elections,which owing to the huge size of the electorate is conducted in a phasedmanner. In General Elections, the candidates are elected for the LokSabha and they are called MPs (Member of Parliament). They are heldevery 5 years.Midterm Elections-Mid term elections are the elections which are held before the completionof the term of the govt. of five years due to some problems. When thecentral govt. fails to prove majority in the lok sabha during vote ofconfidence, the election held for the new govt. will be termed as mid termelections. It may be of state govt .or of the central govt. for eg. IfManmohan Singh the prime minister of India had failed to provemajority during vote of confidence on nuclear deal the election wouldhave been held (mid term elections) before the completion of his term.The PM and his council of ministers had to resign.