Module 2- ConstitutionThe Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down theframework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure,procedures, powers and duties, government and spells out the fundamentalrights, directive principles and duties of citizens. It is the longest writtenconstitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing more than 395articles in 24 parts, 12 schedules and 110 amendments, for a total of 117,369words in the English language version. Besides the English version, there is anofficial Hindi translation.It was passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949; it came intoeffect on 26 January 1950. 26 January was chosen to commemoratethe declaration of independence of 1930. It declares the Union of India to bea sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizensof justice, equality, and liberty and, endeavors to promote among themall, fraternity. The words "socialist", "secular", and "integrity" were added to thedefinition in 1976 by constitutional amendment. India celebrates the adoptionof the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day. After coming intoeffect, the Constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as thegoverning document of India.Constituent AssemblyThe Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was electedby the elected members of the provincial assemblies. Jawaharlal Nehru, C.Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel,SandipkumarPatel Dr Ambedkar, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama PrasadMukherjee and Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, Balwant Singh Mehta were someimportant figures in the Assembly. There were more than 30 membersof scheduled classes. Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community,and the Parsis were represented by H. P. Modi. The Chairman of the MinoritiesCommittee was Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a distinguished Christian whorepresented all Christians other than Anglo-Indians. Ari Bahadur Gururngrepresented the Gorkha Community. Prominent jurists like AlladiKrishnaswamy Iyer, B. R. Ambedkar, Benegal Narsing Rau and K. M.
Munshi, Ganesh Mavlankarwere also members of the Assembly. SarojiniNaidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh and Rajkumari Amrit Kaur wereimportant women members. The first president of the Constituent Assemblywas Dr Sachidanand Sinha. Later, Rajendra Prasad was elected president ofthe Constituent Assembly. The members of the Constituent Assembly met forthe first time in 1946 on 9 December.DraftingIn the 14 August 1947 meeting of the Assembly, a proposal for forming variouscommittees was presented. Such committees included a Committee onFundamental Rights, the Union Powers Committee and Union ConstitutionCommittee. On 29 August 1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed,with Dr Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members. A DraftConstitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on4 November 1947.The architects of India’s constitution, though drawing on many externalsources, were most heavily influenced by the British model of parliamentarydemocracy. In addition, a number of principles were adopted fromthe Constitution of the United States of America, including the separation ofpowers among the major branches of government, the establishment of asupreme court, and the adoption, albeit in modified form, of a federal structure(a constitutional division of power between the Union (central) government andstate governments)The Assembly met in sessions open to the public, for 166 days, spread over aperiod of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. After many deliberations and some modifications, the 308 members of theAssembly signed two copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English)on 24 January 1950. The original Constitution of India is hand-written withbeautiful calligraphy, each page beautified and decorated by artists fromSantiniketan including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and others. Two days later,on 26 January 1950, the Constitution of India became the law of all the Statesand territories of India.The Constitution has undergone many amendments since its enactment.List of amendments of the Constitution of India
NOTE-Though I am sending you the list of all the amendments done so far, but you just have to remember 4-5 important ones to substantiate your answer about the flexible nature of Indian Constitution. EnforcedNo. Amendments Objectives since To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place Amend articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called and 376. 18 June1 Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally Insert articles 31A and 31B. 1951 guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom Insert schedule 9. of speech and equality before law A technincal amendment to fix the size of each parliamentary constituency between2 Amend article 81. 1 May 1953 650,000 and 850,000 voters. Limits maximum no of seats in lok sabha up to 500.States would be divided into 22 February3 Amend schedule 7. constituencies such that one member of a constituency will represent not less than 1955 every 750000 people but not more than every 500000 people. Amend articles 31, 31A and 305. 27 April Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the4 Amend schedule 9. 1955 constitution 24 Provide for a consultation mechanism with concerned states in matters relating to5 Amend article 3. December the amendments to the territorial matters and in the re-naming of the state 1955 11 Amend articles 269 and 286.6 September Amend the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes Amend schedule 7. 1956 Amend articles 1, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232. 1 Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, Reorganization of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and7 November 372A and 378A. introduction of Union Territories 1956 Amend part 8. Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7. 5 January Clarify states power of compulsory acquisition and requisitioning of private8 Amend article 334. 1960 property and include Zamindari abolishion laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution 28 Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with9 Amend schedule 1. December Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc. 1960 Amend article 240. 11 August Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to10 Amend schedule 1. 1961 acquisition from Portugal Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both 19  Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify11 Amend articles 66 and 71. December the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of 1961 existence of any vacancies in the electoral college 20 Amend article 240. Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to12 December Amend schedule 1. acquisition from Portugal 1961
1 December13 Amend part 21. Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A 1963 Amend articles 81 and 240. 28 Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative14 Insert article 239A. December Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa Amend schedules 1 and 4. 1962 Amend articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316. 5 October Raise retirement age of judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for15 Insert article 224A. 1963 rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc. Amend schedule 7. Amend articles 19, 84 and 173. 5 October Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian16 Amend schedule 3. 1963 Republic and prescribe the various obligtory templates Amend article 31A. 20 June To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land17 Amend schedule 9. 1964 acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution 27 August Technical Amendment to include Unior Territories in Article 3 and hence permit18 Amend article 3. 1966 reorganisation of Union Territories 11 Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High19 Amend article 324. December Courts 1966 Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges 22 and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a20 Insert article 233A. December few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to 1966 overcome the effect of judgement invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh 10 April21 Amend schedule 8. Include Sindhi as a National Language 1967 25 Amend article 275.22 September Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam Insert articles 244A and 371B. 1969 23 January Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in23 Amend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334. 1970 Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1980 5 Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the24 Amend articles 13 and 368. November constitution 1971 Amend article 31. 20 April Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private25 Insert article 31C. 1972 property Amend article 366. 28 Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were26 Insert article 363A. December incorporated into the Indian Republic Remove articles 291 and 362. 1971 Amend articles 239A and 240. 15 February Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of27 Insert articles 239B and 371C. 1972 ministers Insert article 312A. 29 August Rationalize Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to28 Remove article 314. 1972 Independence and post independence Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the29 Amend schedule 9. 9 June 1972 constitution
27 February Change the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from30 Amend article 133. 1973 value criteria to one involving substantial question of law31 Amend articles 81, 330 and 332. Increase size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the new 17 October states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 1973 Delimitation exercise32 Amend article 371. 1 July 1974 Protection of regional rights in Telengana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Insert articles 371D and 371E. Pradesh Amend schedule 7. 19 May Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures33 Amend articles 101 and 190. 1974 and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker34 Amend schedule 9. 7 Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the September constitution 197435 Amend articles 80 and 81. Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India 1 March Insert article 2A. 1975 Insert schedule 10. Amend articles 80 and 81. Insert article 371F. 26 April36 Remove article 2A. Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union 1975 Amend schedules 1 and 4. Remove schedule 10.37 Amend articles 239A and 240. 3 May 1975 Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly Amend articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359 and 360. 1 August38  Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances 197539 Amend articles 71 and 329. Amendment designed to negate the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating 10 August Insert article 329A. Prime Minister Indira Gandhis election to parliament. Amendment placed 1975 Amend schedule 9. restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India Amend article 297. 27 May40 Amend schedule 9. 1976 Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution41 Amend article 316. 7 Raise Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Union and State Public September Commissions from sixty to sixty two. 1976 Amend articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi. Provides for 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368 and 371F. 1 April42 curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the Insert articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 1977 basic structure of the constitution by making India a "Socialist Secular" Republic 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A. Insert parts 4A and 14A. Amend schedule 7.43 Amend articles 145, 226, 228 and 366. 13 April Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals Remove articles 31D, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 1978 some of the more Anti-Freedom amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42 228A.
Amend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 6 Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides 356, 358, 359, 360 and 371F.44 September for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and Insert articles 134A and 361A. 1979 legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42 Remove articles 31, 257A and 329A. Amend part 12. Amend schedule 9. 25 January Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in45 Amend article 334. 1980 Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990 Amend articles 269, 286 and 366. 2 February Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales46 Amend schedule 7. 1983 Tax 26 August Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the47 Amend schedule 9. 1984 constitution 1 April48 Amend article 356. Article 356 amended to permit Presidents rule up to two years in the state of Punjab 198549 11 Amend article 244. Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal September Amend schedules 5 and 6. Areas Autonomous District Council 198450 Amend article 33. 11 Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as September prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and 1984 communication infrastructure 16 June Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and51 Amend articles 330 and 332. 1986 Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies Amend articles 101, 102, 190 and 191. 1 March Anti Defection Law - Provide disqualification of members from parliament and52 Insert schedule 10. 1985 assembly in case of defection from one party to other 20 February53 Insert article 371G. Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram. 1987 Amend articles 125 and 221. 1 April Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges and to provide for54 Amend schedule 2. 1986 determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment 20 February55 Insert article 371H. Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh 1987 30 May56 Insert article 371I. Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa 198757 Amend article 332. 21 Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and September Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies 1987 Insert article 394A. 9 December Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution as on date and58 Amend part 22. 1987 provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments59 Article 356 amended to permit Presidents rule up to three years in the state of Amend article 356. 30 March Punjab, Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in Insert article 359A. 1988 state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab60 Amend article 276. 20 Profession Tax increased from a maximum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/- December 1988
28 March61 Amend article 326. Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18 1989 20 Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in62 Amend article 334. December Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000 1989 Amend article 356. 6 January Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per63 Remove article 359A. 1990 amendment 59 repealed 16 April Article 356 amended to permit Presidents rule up to three years and six months in64 Amend article 356. 1990 the state of Punjab 12 March National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its65 Amend article 338. 1992 stututory powers specifed in The Constitution. Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the66 Amend schedule 9. 7 June 1990 constitution 4 October67 Amend article 356. Article 356 amended to permit Presidents rule up to four years in the state of Punjab 1990 12 March68 Amend article 356. Article 356 amended to permit Presidents rule up to five years in the state of Punjab 1991 1 February To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National69 Insert articles 239AA and 239AB. 1992 Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory 21 Include National Capital of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral70 Amend articles 54 and 239AA. December college for Presidential Election 1991 31 August71 Amend schedule 8. Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as National Languages 1992 5 December72 Amend article 332. Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly 1992 24 April73 Insert part 9. Statutory provisions for Panchyat Raj as third level of administration in villages 1993 Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration74 Insert part 9A. 1 June 1993 in urban areas such as towns and cities 15 May75 Amend article 323B. Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals 1994 31 August Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant76 Amend schedule 9. 1994 Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution 17 June77 Amend article 16. A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions 1995 30 August Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the78 Amend schedule 9. 1995 constitution 25 January Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in79 Amend article 334. 2000 Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010 Amend articles 269 and 270. Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax80 9 June 2000 Remove article 272. structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre
81 Amend article 16. 9 June 2000 Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies 8 Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion82 Amend article 335. September for SC / ST candidates 2000 8 Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj83 Amend article 243M. September institutions 2000 21 February Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise84 Amend articles 55, 81, 82, 170, 330 and 332. 2002 distribution of parliamentary seats 4 January A technical amendment to protect seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST85 Amend article 16. 2002 Employees 12 Amend articles 45 and 51A. Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until86 December Insert article 21A. the age of six 2002 22 June Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise87 Amend articles 81, 82, 170 and 330. 2003 distribution of parliamentary seats Amend article 270. 15 January88 Insert article 268A. To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax 2004 Amend schedule 7. 28 The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was Amend article 338.89 September bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Insert article 338A. 2003 Commission for Scheduled Tribes 2890 Amend article 332. September Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area 2003 Amend articles 75 and 164. 1 January Restrict Cabinet size to 15 % of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection91 Insert article 361B. 2004 laws Amend schedule 10. Amend article 270. 7 January Enable Levy of Service Tax & Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithali as92 Insert article 268A. 2004 National Languages Amend schedules 7 and 8. 20 January To enable provision of reservation for other backward classes (O.B.C.) in93 Amend article 15. 2006 government as well as private educational institutions 12 June To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkand and94 Amend article 164. 2006 Chattisgarh States