Canada is the second largest country in the World located in North America. It
has ten provinces and three territories. There are six time zones in Canada. Ottawa is
the capital city which is located in the province on Ontario. Canada is neighboring with
USA and share the largest land border in the World. The population of Canada is 34
million which is mostly contributed by foreigners settled in Canada. Canada has a
diverse makeup of nationalities and cultures, and has constitutional protection for
policies that promote multiculturalism. Canada has high slandered of living and it has
been ranked at no 4 in the World. Vancouver, Toronto, Calgary, Montreal and
Edmonton are the main cities.
The main languages are English and French and these are official languages at
Federal level making it a bilingual nation most native French speakers in Canada live in
the province of Quebec and interpretation may be required for business meetings. With
a very high per-capita income, excellent infrastructure and living standers Canada is
one of the world's most highly developed countries. It is a member of the G7, G8, G20,
NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth of Nations, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.
Canada is a federal state that is governed as a parliamentary democracy.
Many people believe that Canada’s climate is same and cold throughout the year
but this is not the case. In winter temperature falls below freezing point in most parts of
the country. South-western coast has a relatively mild climate. Along the Arctic Circle,
mean temperatures are below freezing for seven months a year. In summer southern
provinces have high level of humidity in air and temperature surpasses 30 degrees
Celsius regularly similarly Western and south eastern Canada have high rainfall but the
Prairies are dry experience just 250 mm to 500 mm of rain every year.
The name Canada comes from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning
"village" or "settlement".
Canada is the second largest country in the world, smaller only to Russia.
Culture Name - Canadian
Population: 28 million people
Geographic size: 3.9 million square miles
Capital: Ottawa (has the coldest average temperature of any capital city in the
Major cities and population: Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary,
Edmonton, Winnipeg, Halifax
Area: 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi), 91.08% land 8.92% water Type of
government: Federal Parliamentary Democracy and Constitutional Monarchy.
Canada is a federation, which means powers are shared between federal and
Head of Government: Prime Minister. Queen Elizabeth II is Canada's official
head of state, and is represented in Canada by the Governor General.
There are more than 100 national parks and historic sites in Canada.
Mountain Ranges include: Torngats, Appalachians, Laurentians, Rocky, Costal,
Mackenzie, Mt.St. Elias and the Pelly Mountairs.
The longest river is the Mackenzie River flowing 4241 km through the NWT.
Canada is well-known as a champion of peace, human rights, equality and
democracy. It is active in many international organizations, such as the United
Nations, the Commonwealth and La Francophonie
The National emblem is the maple leaf and has been associated with Canada
since the 1700's.
The flag of Canada has two red bars and a white center - within there being a
maple leaf. It was adopted as the National Flag in 1965. (Before hand Canada
used the Union Jack - the British Flag for its flag.)
The National Anthem for Canada is "O Canada" - proclaimed on July 1st 1980 - a
century after being sung for the first time. (Before hand Canadians sang God
Save the Queen/King)
Canada is the world’s second-largest country (9,976,140 km2), surpassed only
by the Russian Federation. The country is encased by the world’s longest coastline.
Distances in Canada can be vast. Consider the Trans-Canada Highway, which at 7,821
km long is longer than the distance from London to Bombay. More than 50 percent of
Canada’s land is blanketed with rich forest ranges, accounting for 10 percent of the
world’s remaining forests and 20 percent of the world’s remaining wilderness areas.
Canada is made up of ten provinces and three territories. The provinces from
west to east are: British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec,
New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and furthest east, the province of
Newfoundland and Labrador. The territories are the Yukon, the Northwest Territories
(NWT), and Nunavut, Canada’s newest territory, formed in 1999 out of the eastern part
of the NWT and the homeland of the native Inuit.
There are some two million lakes in Canada, covering about 7.6% of the
Canadian landmass. Canada shares four of the five Great Lakes, the largest sources of
fresh water in the world, with the United States. The largest lake situated entirely in
Canada is Great Bear Lake (31,326 km2) in the Northwest Territories.
At 3,058 km long, the St. Lawrence is Canada’s most important river, providing a
seaway for ships from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. The longest Canadian
river is the Mackenzie, which flows 4,241 km through the Northwest Territories.
Canada has six time zones. The easternmost, in Newfoundland, is three hours
and 30 minutes behind Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The other time zones are the
Atlantic, the Eastern, the Central, the Rocky Mountain and, farthest west, the Pacific,
which is eight hours behind GMT.
Despite the enormous size of this country, approximately 80 percent of all the
people in Canada live in a concentrated area of cities and towns within 100 kilometres
of the U.S. border.
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island
Top 10 Canadian Landmarks" Canada is the northern-most country in North America
and is surrounded by three oceans (Pacific to the west, Arctic to the north and Atlantic
to the east). With ten provinces and three territories, Canada is the world’s second
largest country by total area (Russia is by far the largest). Canada’s border with the
United States to their northwest (Alaska) and to the south is the world’s longest border.
Here’s my list of the top 10 landmarks in the beautiful country of Canada:
10. Confederation Bridge Read
With its official opening on May 31, 1997, the
Confederation Bridge is located in the Abegweit
Passage of the Northumberland Strait and links
together the provinces of Prince Edward Island
and New Brunswick. The two-lane highway toll
bridge is eight miles long and it is the longest
bridge in the world that crosses ice-covered
water. The majority of the bridge is 40 meters
above water, with a 60 meter high navigation
span for traveling ships. The speed limit on the
bridge is 50 miles per hour (80 km/h) and takes
approximately ten minutes to cross. Prior to the
construction of the Confederation Bridge, people
wanting to visit Prince Edward Island had to
travel by ferries.
9. West Edmonton Mall
Located in Edmonton, Alberta, the West
Edmonton Mall is the largest shopping
mall in North America and the fifth largest
in the entire world. It was previously the
world’s largest mall from 1981 until 2004.
With an area of over six million square
feet, the mall contains over 800 stores
and services, along with over 23,000
employees. There is also parking for more
than 20,000 vehicles. With over 28 million
visitors each year, the mall offers many
theme parks and attractions, such as
Galaxyland, World Waterpark, Marine
Life, Ice Palace, Putt n’ Glow and Deep
Sea Derby, just to name a few. They also
have numerous nightlife and dining
options, such as the Cactus Club, Edmonton Event Centre, Empire Ballroom, Jubilations
Dinner Theatre, Palace Casino and other lounges. We also can’t forget about their three
theatres, along with endless other attractions, like the Caesar’s Bingo, Centre of Gravity,
Skateboard Park and the Fun House & Haunted House.
8. Hopewell Rocks
The Hopewell Rocks are rock formations
caused by tidal erosions located on the
upper shores of the Bay of Fundy.
Specifically, they are located at Hopewell
Cape, which is near Moncton, New
Brunswick. The base formations of the
rocks are covered with water twice daily,
but can also be seen from ground level at
low tide. With tides sometimes as high as
52 feet, the Hopewell Rocks are home to
one of the highest average tides in the
world. Also in the area is Fundy National
Park, which has approximately 110
kilometers of hiking trails, 40 kilometers
of mountain biking trails, along with numerous camping areas.
7. Saint Joseph’s Oratory
Saint Joseph’s Oratory is a Roman Catholic basilica
located on the west slope of Mount Royal in
Montreal, Quebec. Construction began in
1904 by Saint Andre Bessette, but later had
to be enlarged due to the number of visitors.
The Oratory’s dome is the third-largest in the
world, next to the Basilica of Our Lady of
Peace of Yamoussoukro, which is located in
the Ivory Coast, and Saint Peter’s Basilica,
which is located in Rome. Saint Joseph’s
Oratory is the largest church in Canada.
Brother Andre has reportedly healed many
visitors who came to the Oratory. Thousands
of crutches are on display in the basilica by
visitors who were healed. The Oratory also
contains Brother Andre’s heart, which he
requested to remain in there as protection of
the basilica. With a seating capacity of 1,000,
Saint Joseph’s Oratory receives over two
million visitors and pilgrims each year. The
Oratory was featured in the 1989 film “Jesus
de Montreal” and is also used as the picture
representing the city of Montreal in the game
“Monopoly: Here and New: The World Edition”.
6. Chateau Lake Louise
Located on the eastern shore of Lake Louise,
near Banff, Alberta, Chateau Lake
Louise was originally built in 1890. Built
by the Canadian Pacific Railway,
Chateau Lake Louise is “kin” to the
Banff Springs Hotel and the Chateau
Frontenac. With a lake located in front
of the hotel and a mountain glacier
behind it, the view is absolutely
breathtaking. The area around the
hotel is part of Banff National Park,
which is also declared a World
Heritage Site by UNESCO. Since 1982,
the hotel is opened year-round and
offers endless activities for nature
lovers, including hiking, canoeing,
skiing, snowboarding, ice skating, ice
excursions and sleigh rides, just to
name a few. This top Canadian tourist
destination has been visited by Christopher Reeve and Marilyn Monroe.
5. Parliament Hill
Located in Ottawa, Ontario, Parliament Hill
receives approximately three million
visitors every year. The Hill was
originally used by First Nations people,
followed by adventurers and traders
who would congregate there during
their travel. The site was also used as
a location for a military base, called
Barrack Hill. With an area of 88,480
square meters, Parliament Hill rests
between the Ottawa River (north), the
Rideau Canal (east) Wellington Street
(south) and Kent Street near the Supreme Court (west). Parliament Hill has some
incredible architecture, including the Centre Block and the Peace Tower.
4. The Canadian Rockies
Known as a major mountain range in western
North America, The Rocky Mountains
extend more than 3,000 miles between
the state of New Mexico in the United
States and the province of British
Columbia in Canada. The Canadian
Rocky Mountains range from British
Columbia to Alberta. Unlike the
American Rockies, the Canadian
Rockies are made up of shale and
limestone. The Canadian Rockies are
also known for their high peaks, such as
Mount Columbia, which is 3,747 meters
high and Mount Robson, which has an
elevation of 3,954 meters. Four national
parks that are located in the Canadian
Rockies are part of the World Heritage
Site. These parks are Banff, Kootenay,
Yoho and Jasper. There is another park,
called Waterton, which is not part of the
World Heritage Site
3. CN Tower
Located in Toronto, Ontario, the CN Tower is a
communications and observation tower,
which is used by radio and television
stations. Built in 1976, it is an astonishing
1,815 feet tall. For 34 years, it held the
record for the world’s tallest tower and
tallest free-standing structure until Burj
Khalifa in Dubai and Canton Tower in
Guangzhou were built. It is still, however, the tallest free-standing structure in the Western
Hemisphere. With the tower being so incredibly tall, it attracts lightning and gets hit up to
fifty times a year. The CN Tower attracts more than two million visitors each year. Many
tourists take the elevator up to the SkyPod, which is the world’s largest observation deck,
for a breathtaking view.
2. Chateau Frontenac
The Chateau Frontenac is a grand hotel
located in Quebec City overlooking
the St. Lawrence River. The hotel
was named after Louis de Baude,
Count of Frontenac. He was the
governor of the colony of New France
from 1672 to 1682 and again from
1689 until 1698. The Chateau
Frontenac first opened in 1893, five
years after its sister-hotel, the Banff
Springs Hotel, opened in Banff
Hitchcock’s drama film “I Confess”
was filmed at the hotel in 1953.
Princess Grace, Winston Churchill
and Theodore Roosevelt also visited
the hotel. With over 600 rooms and
suites, the Chateau Frontenac holds
the Guinness World Record as “the
most photographed hotel in the world”.
1. Niagara Falls
The Niagara Falls are situated on the
Niagara River which lies on the
border of the province of Ontario and
the state of New York. The
Horseshoe Falls are located on the
Canadian side of the border. The
Niagara Falls are the most powerful
waterfall in North America with an
average of 4 million cubic feet of
water falling over the crest line every
dispense 90% of the water from the
Niagara River and are also a valuable
source of hydroelectric power. The
Niagara Falls are a huge tourist
attraction with approximately 30 million visitors each year. In the evenings, there are
floodlights which light up both sides of the falls until midnight. Many tourists also take a
boat cruise, named Maid of the Mist, which carries passengers below the falls.
The Canadian System of Government
Current prime minister Stephen Harper,
Canada's head of government
Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, wearing
the Sovereign's insignia of the Order of
Canada and the Order of Military Merit
Canada is a democratic constitutional monarchy, with a Sovereign as head of State and
an elected Prime Minister as head of Government.
Canada has a federal system of parliamentary government: Government responsibilities
and functions are shared between federal, provincial and territorial governments.
Federal responsibilities are carried out by the Monarchy and the Executive, Legislative
and Judicial branches of Government.
Sovereign- Queen Elizabeth II: Monarch, Leader of Commonwealth, Canada's
formal Head of State, Head of both the Executive and Legislative branches
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
Monarchy in Canada
Governor General- Viceroy - represents the Queen in Canada and carries out
the duties of head of state
His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston
Governors General Since Confederation
Canada has one of the world's highest living standards. In 1991: 83 percent of
households had 1 car, 97.5 had color televisions and 1 out of 5 had a
computer. (surely that has increased by now)
All Canadian have free access to health care with the exception of dental
services. Most people over 65 receive their prescriptions for free.
Canada has an extensive social safety network with old age pensions, family
allowance, unemployment insurance and welfare.
Canada is often symbolically connected with three key images: the hockey, the
beaver, and the dress uniform of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Hockey - described as Canada's national sport is a vigorous, often violently
competitive team sport and, as such, it carries the same kind of symbolic weight
as baseball does for many Americans.
The beaver - which appears often on Canadian souvenirs, might seem to be an
odd animal to have as a national symbol.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) - represented in their dress
uniform which includes a tight-fitting red coat, riding pants, high black boots, and
broad-brimmed felt hat, also represent this Canadian concern with diligence and
The core values that inform these symbols are cooperation, industriousness, and
patience that is, a kind of national politeness. The Canadian symbolic order is
dominated by a concern for order and stability, which marks Canadian identity as
something communal rather than individualistic.
Culture of Canada: Race
Canada is a country of immigrants. The vast majority of Canadian families can trace
their family roots back to European, Asian or other origins. Some families have
members that have come to Canada in the past 10-20 years, while others have been in
Canada for several generations. On the West Coast, common family backgrounds may
include: German, Croatian, Italian, Serbian, Romanian, Polish, Trinidadian/Tobagonian,
Brazilian, Peruvian, Filipino, Chinese, Taiwanese, Japanese, as well as other regions of
the world. Please do not expect all host families to be Caucasian. The primary language
at home should be English.
Culture of Canada: Religion
About 77 percent of Canadians are Christians, but the beliefs of the different
denominations are diverse, and society is highly secularized. The majority of the people
are either Catholic (43.6 percent) or Protestant (29.2 percent). In urban centers, Islam
(1.9 percent), Judaism (1.1 percent), Buddhism (1 percent), Hinduism (1 percent), and
Sikhism (1 percent) are growing because of immigrant populations. Vancouver has the
largest Sikh community outside of the Punjab province of India. A growing portion of the
population (16.5 percent) claims no religion.
Culture of Canada: General Attitudes
Most Canadians are proud of their shared cultural heritage. They are also proud
of their multiculturalism; ethnic groups and immigrants are encouraged to maintain their
distinct cultures. Atlantic Canadians are considered conservative and traditional. To the
west, the people of Ontario are considered fairly reserved and formal, while those in the
Western Provinces are thought of as more open and friendly. Life in large urban areas
is fast-paced, whereas the pace of life in the rest of Canada is more relaxed. Canadians
take great pride in their nationality.
Despite close ties and many similarities between their nation and the United
States, Canadians emphasize that they are not just U.S.-type people living in Canada.
Indeed, Canadians often dislike U.S. foreign policy and the prevalence of U.S. culture.
Despite a close relationship with the United States, Canadians often see people from
the United States as more aggressive and materialistic than themselves. Canadians
also feel they are more tolerant, community-oriented, and polite.In general, Canadians
admire people who are educated, skilled, modest, and polite. In relation to the rest of
the world, Canadians see themselves as associated with humanitarianism and fairness.
ECONOMY OF CANADA
Canada has the eleventh-largest economy in the world (measured in US dollars
at market exchange rates), is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of
the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of
Eight (G8). As with other developed nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by
the service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians. Canada is
unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the
logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important. Canada also has a
sizable manufacturing sector, centred in Central Canada, with the automobile
industry and aircraft industry especially important. With a long coastal line, Canada has
the 8th largest commercial fishing and seafood industry in the world. The economy of
Canada is one of the global leaders of the Entertainment Software Industry
Penny $0.01 CND
Nickel $0.05 CND
Quarter $0.25 CND
Currency is not shown in
proportion. Click on the
pictures for a close-up of
50 Cent Piece $0.50 CND
Dollar Coin (aka "loonie"
Two Dollar Coin (aka
"twoonie" $2.00 CND
The Canadian dollar is divided into 100 cents (like the American dollar)
In Canada $1 and $2 are represented by coins. Nicknamed the "loonie"
(because there is a loon on it) and the Twonie (I guess because it rhymes with
Principle Natural Resources are: natural gas, oil, gold, coal, copper, iron ore,
nickel, potash, uranium, and zinc along with wood and water.
The GDP for Canada in 1992 (recession year) was (in Canadian Dollars)
HISTORICAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF CANADA
Saskatchewan Archives Board)
Painting by Robert Harris, oil on canvas. This scene
illustrates a Prince Edward Island one-room
schoolhouse in the early 1900s, where children of
various ages sat together and were instructed by one
School promoters such as Egerton Ryerson, the
founder of Canadian curriculum development, saw
state-controlled schooling as the primary means of
assimilating "alien" elements (courtesy PAO/S2641).
Prairie Classroom, 1915
Prairie classroom at Bruderheim, Alberta.
Prairie schools were to be the vehicles by which
immigrants would be assimilated (courtesy
In the 17th century education was usually an informal process in which skills and
values were passed from one generation to the next by parents, relatives and older
siblings. Four hundred years later, informal learning has become secondary to
extensive systems of formal schooling under the jurisdiction of provincial governments.
Education in New France (17th and 18th century)
During the French regime in Canada, the process of learning was integrated into
everyday life. While the French government supported the responsibility of the Catholic
Church for teaching religion, mathematics, history, natural science, and French,
the FAMILY was the basic unit of social organization and the main context within which
almost all learning took place. In the labour-intensive economy of the 17th and 18th
centuries, families relied on the economic contributions of their children, who were
actively engaged in productive activity. Children learned skills such as gardening,
spinning and land clearing from other family members. Young males were trained for
various trades through an APPRENTICESHIP system.
Schooling in Rural New France
Similarly, because the population was small and dispersed, it was usually the family that
provided religious instruction and, in some cases, instruction in reading and writing. In
certain areas, parish priests established petites écoles in which they taught catechism
and other subjects. However, the majority of the population in New France, particularly
in the rural areas, could not read and write. In the early 17th century, about one-quarter
of the settlers were literate, but by the turn of the 18th century, the preoccupation of
survival had taken its toll on the literacy rate and only one person in seven could sign
his or her name. Formal instruction for females was quite limited and usually did not
extend beyond religious instruction and skills such as needlework. However, girls who
lived in the countryside may have been better educated than boys as a result of the
efforts of the sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame, who established schools in
rural areas as well as in towns, and travelled as itinerant teachers.
Schooling after the British Conquest of 1759-60
In the years after the Conquest of 1759-60, the British authorities were
exceedingly concerned about the strong French Canadian presence in the colony, and
they tried repeatedly to assist in the establishment of schools that were outside the
control of religious authorities. These efforts were undermined by the Catholic Church
and, more importantly, by the disinterest of local communities, in which education was
associated more with households than classrooms.However, the concept of schooling
became more widespread among social leaders during the early 19th century. In these
years, politicians, churchmen and educators debated questions of educational
financing, control and participation, and by the 1840s the structure of the
modern SCHOOL SYSTEMS can clearly be discerned in an emerging official
The leading figure in Ontario, EGERTON RYERSON, worked in collaboration
with Jean-Baptiste Meilleur in Québec, as well as John Jessop in British Columbia. In
turn, these school promoters operated in an international context. For example, Egerton
Ryerson visited more than 20 countries during 1844 and 1845 when he was developing
his proposals for a public school system. School promoters such as Egerton Ryerson,
the founder of Canadian curriculum development, saw state-controlled schooling as the
primary means of assimilating "alien" elements. Leading educators, or school
promoters, argued that mass schooling could instill appropriate modes of thought and
behaviour into children. In their minds, the purpose of mass schooling did not primarily
involve the acquisition of academic knowledge. School systems were designed to solve
a wide variety of problems ranging from crime to poverty, and from idleness to
Educators related these potential and actual problems to 3 main causes: the
impact of constant and substantial immigration; the transition from agricultural to
industrial capitalism; and the process of state formation in which citizens came to
exercise political power. While all 3 of these causes played key roles in the minds of
school promoters across Canada, the relative importance that each educator attributed
to them depended on the regional and cultural context in which the school promoter
The Mid-19th Century
In mid-19th century Ontario, the predominantly rural population (with only smaller
commercial cities) meant that fears about the impact of massive economic change were
based on developments elsewhere rather than immediate experience. However,
massive immigration and the importance of state formation were very visible at the local
During the REBELLIONS OF 1837, rural and village leaders in a variety of
communities in central British North America took up arms in pursuit of political change.
To many community leaders, the various uprisings supported the argument that school
systems were needed to form the rising generation of citizens.
School promoters in Ontario often opposed the employment of teachers or
textbooks from the United States. Instead, they imported certain components of Irish
schools; most notably, the Irish readers which had been written to accommodate a
Protestant and Catholic population. This strategy also made sense in that Irish
immigrants formed the majority in mid-19th century Ontario.
Religion and Minority-Language Education
A great deal of educational conflict and controversy has involved religion and
language. The establishment of schools brought local practice under official scrutiny
and forced communities to conform to prescribed standards of formal instruction which
did not accord with the reality of a diverse society. For example, religious groups did not
always agree on the desirability of nondenominational Christian curricula, and their
protests led to the growth of parallel Catholic and Protestant school systems in Québec,
the provision for SEPARATE SCHOOLS in provinces such as Ontario, and a completely
denominationally based school system in Newfoundland. These developments were
legally guaranteed by the Constitution Act, 1867, which not only assigned education to
the provinces but also enshrined the continued legitimacy of denominational schools
that were in place in the provinces at the time that they joined Confederation.
In the context of higher levels of Asian immigration and rising prejudice,
schooling developed somewhat differently on the West Coast than in the rest of
Canada. One noteworthy difference was the emergence of a trend for examinations,
especially the first standardized "intelligence tests" during the early 20th century.
Somewhat more than provinces such as Ontario, and considerably more than Québec,
educators in British Columbia seized upon "scientific" testing as an appropriate way to
The British Columbian leaders focused considerable attention on Asian students
and were careful to examine test results in light of each student's ancestry. The
consistent finding that Asian-origin students scored very well astounded educational
officials and inspired them not only to concoct explanations based on the selective
nature of immigration, but also to continue testing in the pursuit of educational
"progress" for the British-origin population of the province.
Growing acceptance of public education (late 19th century)
Changing parental strategies help explain why children were sent to school in
increasing numbers and for longer periods during the course of the 19th century. The
development of agrarian, merchant and industrial capitalism heightened perceptions of
economic insecurity. Everyone became aware that while great fortunes could be made,
they could also be lost just as quickly. The obvious insecurity of even well-paying jobs
or successful businesses came to loom increasingly large in the minds of parents
planning for their children. One response was to have fewer children and to invest more
in their education. By the mid-19th century, many parents across English Canada were
practising contraception in an attempt to raise a smaller number of children with a better
quality of life. By the time compulsory attendance legislation was passed in the
Canadian provinces (except Québec) during the late 19th century, only a minority of
parents were not already enrolling their children in class.
Some resistance to schooling did develop, particularly from those reluctant to pay
extra taxes, from those who did not approve of the local teacher, and from those who
wished to maintain the connection between formal religious instruction and mass
schooling. In cities, truant officers rounded up children (particularly from working-class
and immigrant backgrounds) and sent them to residential "industrial" schools. However,
this resistance was generally focused on the form and cost rather than the need for
mass schooling; thus, compromises such as the acceptance of parochial schools (those
funded by religious bodies) resolved some of the conflicts. For the most part, the
attendance requirements of the compulsory laws were met well before the actual
legislation was introduced.
The Quiet Revolution (1960’s)
By the beginning of the 1960s, the Department of Public Instruction in Québec
managed over 1,500 school boards, each with its own programs, textbooks and criteria
for graduation. In many rural areas, children of different grade levels shared a single
one-room schoolhouse. The Liberal government of Jean Lesage saw the need for
change and appointed a major commission of inquiry of inquiry on education, which was
chaired by Msgr.Alphonse-Marie Parent, at the start of what came to be called
the QUIET REVOLUTION. In response to the resulting report's recommendations the
Québec government revamped the school system in an attempt to enhance the
francophone population's general educational level and to produce a better-qualified
labor force. Catholic Church leadership was rejected in favor of government
administration and vastly increased budgets were given to school boards across the
In keeping with the aspirations of the Quiet Revolution, the value of schooling for
the Québécois was described in two ways. First, leaders emphasized that a legacy of
high illiteracy and low attendance rates had to be rejected in order to achieve an
appropriate societal level of modernity. Education was promoted as an inherently
valuable possession required in contemporary civilization.
Secondly, the revamped school system was designed to produce a modern
Québec society by ensuring economic competitiveness. Better skills in mathematics and
science were particularly seen as an important strategy for overcoming British-origin
oppression dating from the Conquest of 1763. The long-established emphasis on
religion and the humanities in the francophone schools was not immediately
abandoned, but their importance steadily eroded after the early 1960s.
Parents also began embracing the ambition to raise a smaller number of children
in whom greater educational investment could be made. During the course of the 1950s
and early 1960s, the birth rate in Québec dropped sharply, moving the provincial
average from its traditional place at the highest level in Canada and the United States to
a position at the lowest level. Interestingly, both religious and secular leaders in Québec
opposed this trend — it threatened to decrease the relative importance of the
francophone population. Despite this opposition, parents continued to limit family size to
an unprecedented extent as part of their changing strategies of family reproduction.
By the late 20th century, schooling had become part of an institutional network which
included hospitals, businesses, prisons, and welfare agencies. Various groups
experienced this development in different ways, sometimes by official design and
sometimes by their own choice. As a result, there are many histories of Canadian
education and important distinctions within the general trends.
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AT PRESENT
Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by
federal, provincial, and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and
the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is generally divided
into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the
provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering
the educational programs. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every
province in Canada, except for Manitoba, Ontario and New Brunswick, where the
compulsory age is 18, or as soon as a high school diploma has been achieved. In some
provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14.
Canada generally has 190 (180 in Quebec) school days in the year, officially starting
from September (after Labour Day) to the end of June (usually the last Friday of the
month, except in Quebec when it is just before June 24 – the provincial holiday).
Elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education in Canada is a provincial
responsibility and there are many variations between the provinces. Some educational
fields are supported at various levels by federal departments. For example, the
Department of National Defence includes the Royal Military College of Canada, while
the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada is responsible for the education
of First Nations. Vocational training can be subsidized by the Learning branch of Human
Resources and Skills Development Canada (a federal department).
Junior Kindergarten (or equivalent) as an official program exists only in Ontario
currently. Kindergarten (or its equivalent) is available in every province, but provincial
funding, and the number of hours provided varies widely. Starting at grade one, at age
six or seven, there is universal publicly funded access up to grade twelve (or
equivalent). Dependent on the province the age of mandatory entry is at 4–7 years.
Children are required to attend school until the age of sixteen (eighteen in Manitoba,
Ontario, and New Brunswick). About one out of ten Canadians does not have a high
school diploma – one in seven has a university degree – the adult population that is
without a high school diploma is a combination of both immigrant and Canadian-born. In
many places, publicly funded high school courses are offered to the adult population.
The ratio of high school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing rapidly,
partly due to changes in the labour market that require people to have a high school
diploma and, in many cases, a university degree. Majority of Schools 67% percent are
Canada spends about 7% of its GDP on education. Since the adoption of section 23 of
the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in
most places across Canada (if the population of children speaking the minority
language justifies it), although French Second Language education/French Immersion
is available to anglophone students across Canada.
According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and Immigration,
Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates
with Canadian work experience become permanent eligible residents in Canada.
Most schools have introduced one or more initiatives such as programs in Native
studies, antiracism, Aboriginal cultures and crafts; visits by elders and other community
members; and content in areas like indigenous languages, Aboriginal spirituality,
indigenous knowledge of nature, and tours to indigenous heritage sites. Although these
classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students
reside. "The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of people's
cognition through the guiding of accommodations of individuals to their natural
environment and their changing social order"  Finally, "some scholars view academics
as a form of "soft power" helping to educate and to create positive attitudes.", although
there is criticism that educators are merely telling students what to think, instead of how
to think for themselves. Furthermore, "subjects that typically get assessed (i.e.,
language arts, mathematics, and science) assume greater importance than nonassessed subjects (i.e., music, visual arts, and physical education) or facets of the
curriculum (i.e., reading and writing versus speaking and listening)." The students in the
Canadian school system receive a variety of classes that are offered to them. The
system is set up to meet the diverse needs of the individual student.
Length of study
Most Canadian education systems continue up to grade twelve (age seventeen to
eighteen). In Quebec, the typical high school term ends after Secondary V/Grade
eleven (age sixteen to seventeen); following this, students who wish to pursue their
studies to the university level have to attend college. Grade 11 was also the end of
secondary education in Newfoundland and Labrador prior to the introduction of grade
12 in 1983.
Normally, for each type of publicly funded school (such as Public English or Public
French), the province is divided into districts (or divisions). For each district, board
members (trustees) are elected only by its supporters within the district (voters receive a
ballot for just one of the boards in their area). Normally, all publicly funded schools are
under the authority of their local district school board. These school boards would follow
a common curriculum set up by the province the board resides in. Only Alberta allows
public charter schools, which are independent of any district board. Instead, they each
have their own board, which reports directly to the province.
Levels in education
Canada outside Quebec
As the education system in Canada is managed by the varying provincial governments
in Canada, the way the educational stages are grouped and named may differ from
each region. For example, the Ministry of Education in Nova Scotia refers to
Kindergarten as Grade Primary. Also, opposed to their French designations in Quebec,
Junior Kindergarten and Kindergarten in Ontario are called Maternelle and CPE Centre
de la Petite Enfance in French. Students in the Prairie provinces are not required by
statute to attend kindergarten. As a result, kindergarten often is not available in smaller
towns. The ages are the age of the students when they end the school year in June.
Early childhood education
o Junior Kindergarten (ages 4–5) (Ontario only)
Grade Primary or Kindergarten (ages 5–6)
Grade 2 (ages 7–8)
Grade 3 (ages 8–9)
Grade 4 (ages 9–10)
Grade 5 (ages 10–11)
Grade 1 (ages 6–7)
Grade 6 (ages 11–12)
Junior High/Middle School
Grade 8 (ages 13–14)
Grade 7 (ages 12–13)
Grade 9 (ages 14–15)
Grade 11 (ages 16–17)
Grade 12 (ages 17–18)
Grade 10 (ages 15–16)
Grade 12+ (ages 18+) (Ontario only)
College: In Canada, the term college usually refers to a community college
or a technical, applied arts, or applied science school. These are postsecondary institutions granting certificates, diplomas, associates degree,
and bachelor's degrees.
University: A university is an institution of higher education and research,
which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is a
corporation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate
Graduate school: A graduate school is a school that awards advanced
academic certificates, diplomas and degrees (i.e. master's degree, Ph.D.)
• préscolaire (Pre-school); Under 5
• maternelle (Kindergarten); 5-6
école primaire (literally Primary school, equivalent to Elementary School or
Grade 2; 7-8
Grade 3; 8-9
Grade 4; 9-10
Grade 5; 10-11
Grade 1; 6-7
Grade 6; 11-12
école secondaire (literally Secondary school, or High School)
Secondary I; 12-13
Secondary II; 13-14
Secondary III; 14-15
Secondary IV; 15-16
Secondary V; 16-17
Secondaries I-V are equivalent to grades 7-11. In most English High Schools, the
different terms are used interchangeably. In some English high schools, as well as in
most French schools, high school students will refer to secondary 1-5 as year one
through five. So if someone in Secondary three is asked "what grade/year are you in?"
they will reply "three" or "sec 3," or "grade 9". It is presumed that the person asking the
question knows that they are referring not to "Grade 3" but "Secondary 3". However, this
can be confusing for those who are asking the question from outside of Quebec.
o Pre-university program, two years (typically Social Sciences, Natural
Sciences or Arts)
Professional program, three years (e.g. Paralegal, Dental Hygienist,
University (Usually requires a Diploma of College Studies (DCS (DEC in French))
Three or four years leading to a Bachelor's degree. Non-Quebec
students require an extra year to complete the same degree
because of the extra year in college.
Graduate (or postgraduate)
One or two years leading to a Master's degree.
three or more years leading to a Doctoral degree.
English schools in Quebec have the same grade system as French schools, but with
English names. For example, "elementary school" is not called "école primaire" in an
English school, but has the same grading system.
Grade structure by province
The following table shows how grades are organized in various provinces. Often, there
will be exceptions within each province, both with terminology for groups, and which
grades apply to each group.
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
Primary Elementary Junior High
1 2 3 4
Level I Level II Level III
Junior Secondary Senior Secondary
1 2 3 4
Middle School High School
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
Maternelle 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
Sec I Sec II Sec III Sec IV Sec V first
1 2 3 4
In British Columbia some schools may group together the higher Elementary and
lower Secondary Grades. These schools are referred to as Middle Schools or Jr.
Secondary Schools. Some Elementary Schools consist solely of grades K-5.
Likewise, some Secondary Schools may only have grades 11 and 12. In addition,
some school districts may use just elementary (K-7) and secondary (8-12)
schools. British Columbia informally subcategorizes the Elementary level into
"Primary" (K-3) and "Intermediate" (4-6 or 7).
In Ontario, the terms used in French schooling consist of Maternelle in regards to
Junior Kindergarten, Kindergarten is then referred to as Jardin. This differs from
Quebec's Maternelle which is the equivalent of Ontario's Kindergarten.
In Manitoba, grade-9 - grade 12 is referred to as Senior 1-Senior 4;
In Nova Scotia the terms for groups, and grades they apply to varies significantly
throughout the province. A common, but not universal, organization is shown.
In Quebec college is two or three years, depending on what a student selects,
based usually on what their post-secondary plans are. College in Quebec
overlaps what other provinces consider the boundary between secondary
education (high school) and post-secondary education (college and university).
"Sec I" = "Secondary Year One" = "Grade 7"
In Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, schools are now set up as elementary
schools with grades K-5, middle schools with grades 6-8, and high schools with
grades 9-12. However, high school graduation requirements only include courses
taken in grades 10-12.
Primary education and secondary education combined are sometimes referred to as K12 (Kindergarten through Grade 12). It should be noted that this structure can vary from
school to school, and from province to province.
For example, Ontario and Québec are the only provinces which provide two levels of
Kindergarten (Junior and Senior).
In Canada, secondary schooling, known as high school or collegiate institute or "école
secondaire" or secondary school, differs depending on the province in which one
resides. Additionally, grade structure may vary within a province and even within a
school division. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in
Canada, except for Ontario and New Brunswick (where the compulsory ages are 18).
Students may continue to attend high school until the ages of 19 to 21 (the cut-off age
for high school varies between province). Those 19 and over may attend adult school.
Also if high schoolers are expelled or suspended for a period of time over 2 months or
so they could attend night school at the high school.
Ontario had a "Grade 13" known as Ontario Academic Credit (OAC) year, but this was
abolished by the provincial government to cut costs. OAC was last offered for the 20022003 school year. As a result, the curriculum has been compacted, and the more
difficult subjects, such as mathematics, are comparatively harder than before. However,
the system is now approximately equivalent to what has been the case outside of
Quebec and Ontario for many years. Secondary education in Quebec continues to
Grade 11 (Secondary V), and is typically followed by college (CEGEP), a two-year preuniversity (university for Quebecers is three years, except Engineering, Education,
Medical, and Law), or three year vocational program taken after high school. (see
Education in Quebec). Quebec is the only province where Grade 12 is part of
An increasing number of international students are attending pre-university courses at
Canadian high schools.
Canadian university enrollment in various subjects - 2005/2006
Post-secondary education in Canada is also the responsibility of the individual
provinces and territories. Those governments provide the majority of funding to their
public post-secondary institutions, with the remainder of funding coming from tuition
fees, the federal government, and research grants. Compared to other countries in the
past, Canada has had the highest tertiary school enrollment as a percentage of their
Nearly all post-secondary institutions in Canada have the authority to grant academic
credentials (i.e., diplomas or degrees). Generally speaking, universities grant degrees
(e.g., bachelor's, master's or doctorate degrees) while colleges, which typically offer
vocationally oriented programs, grant diplomas and certificates. However, some
colleges offer applied arts degrees that lead to or are equivalent to degrees from a
university. Private career colleges are overseen by legislative acts for each province,
For example in British Columbia training providers will be registered and accredited with
the (PCTIA) Private Career Training Institutions Agency regulated under the Private
Career Training Institutions Act (SBC 2003)  Each province with their own correlating
agency. Unlike the United States, there is no "accreditation body" that oversees the
universities in Canada. Universities in Canada have degree-granting authority via an Act
or Ministerial Consent from the Ministry of Education of the particular province.
Post-secondary education in Quebec begins with college following graduation from
Grade 11 (or Secondary V). Students complete a two- or three-year general program
leading to admission to a university, or a professional program leading directly into the
labour force. In most cases, bachelor's degree programs in Quebec are three years
instead of the usual four; however, in many cases, students attending a university in
Quebec that did not graduate from college must complete an additional year of
coursework. When Ontario had five years of high school, a three-year bachelor's degree
was common, but these degrees are being phased out in favour of the four-year degree.
The main variation between the provinces, with respect to the universities, is the
amount of funding they receive and the amount of tuition and other fees they charge.
The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), is the military academy of the Canadian
Forces and is a full degree-granting university. RMC is the only federal institution with
degree granting powers.
About 5.6% of students are in private schools. ] A minority of these are elite private
schools, which are attended by only a small fraction of students, but do have a great
deal of prestige and prominence. A far larger portion of private schools are religious
based institutions. Private schools are also used to study outside the country. For
example, Canadian College Italy has an Ontario curriculum, but the school is located in
Private schools have historically been less common on the Canadian Prairies and were
often forbidden under municipal and provincial statutes enacted to provide equality of
education to students regardless of family income. This is especially true in Alberta,
where successive Social Credit (or populist conservative) governments denounced the
concept of private education as the main cause of denial of opportunity to the children of
the working poor. These rules lasted longer than Social Credit; it was only in 1989 that
private K-12 schools were allowed to operate inside the boundaries of the City of
In the past, private universities in Canada maintained a religious history or foundation.
Although since 1999, the Province of New Brunswick passed the Degree Granting Act
allowing private universities to operate in the Province. The University of Fredericton is
the newest University to receive designation in New Brunswick.
Trinity Western University, in Langley British Columbia, was founded in 1962 as a junior
college and received full accreditation in 1985. In 2002, British Columbia’s Quest
University became the first privately funded liberal arts university without a
denominational affiliation (although it is not the first private liberal arts university). Many
provinces, including Ontario and Alberta, have passed legislation allowing private
degree-granting institutions (not necessarily universities) to operate there.
Many Canadians remain polarized on the issue of permitting private universities into the
Canadian market. On the one hand, Canada’s top universities find it difficult to compete
with the private American powerhouses because of funding, but on the other hand, the
fact that the price of private universities tends to exclude those who cannot pay that
much for their education could prevent a significant portion of Canada’s population from
being able to attend these schools.
In addition to the issue of access, Canadians are divided over the issue of special
protections instituted within the Charter of Rights and Freedoms for religious
organizations which enable private, religious universities in Canada to ignore basic
human rights, such as rights that protect LGBT people from discrimination in
employment. Christian universities have been known to fire LGBT staff and faculty
strictly on the bases of sexual orientation. 
Each province deals differently with private religious schools. In Ontario the Catholic
system continues to be fully publicly funded while other faiths are not. Ontario has
several private Jewish, Muslim, and Christian schools all funded through tuition fees.
Since the Catholic schools system is entrenched in the constitution, the Supreme Court
has ruled that this system is constitutional. However, the United Nations Human Rights
Committee has ruled that Ontario's system is discriminatory, suggesting that Ontario
either fund no faith-based schools, or all of them. In 2002 the government of Mike Harris
introduced a controversial program to partially fund all private schools, but this was
criticized for undermining the public education system and the program was eliminated
after the Liberals won the 2003 provincial election.
In other provinces privately operated religious schools are funded. In British Columbia
the government pays independent schools that meet rigorous provincial standards up to
50% of the per-student operating cost of public schools. The province has a number of
Sikh, Hindu, Christian, and Muslim schools. Alberta also has a network of charter
schools, which are fully funded schools offering distinct approaches to education within
the public school system. Alberta charter schools are not private and the province does
not grant charters to religious schools. These schools have to follow the provincial
curriculum and meet all standards, but are given considerable freedom in other areas.
In all other provinces private religious schools receive some funding, but not as much as
the public system.
An example of how schools can be divided by religions in Toronto includes the Toronto
Catholic District School Board and Toronto District School Board.
Technology in Canadian Education
When the second largest country in the world has only 8.3 people per square mile, it
becomes easy to understand what a tremendous advantage computers have become to
Canada’s educational system. Computers alone have enhanced the learning process in
ways probably thought impossible just a decade or two ago but, when coupled with the
internet, technology in Canadian education has revolutionized the typical classroom.
Canada is home to some of the most modern and technologically advanced cities in the
world but those cities are few and far between. What is in between them is usually vast
expanses of wilderness, farmland, prairies, plains, and mountains. And water. Those
elements make traveling very far to school just too much of an ordeal for many
Canadian school children.
Fortunately, putting technology in Canadian education systems to work has had the
effect of erasing some of that distance, at least in theory. Students on Baffin Island
cannot realistically commute to schools in Victoria or Toronto every day but they can
gain remote access to the classes and activities in those cities. And they can share
what they know about their life at the top of the world with children in those southern
The use of technology in Canadian education may be best appreciated by students in
the secondary and post-secondary phases of their educations. It’s these students
thinking more about life after graduation and what to do for a career that may benefit the
most from vocational or advanced learning opportunities that most small towns and
villages simply cannot provide.
Using computer technology in Canadian education brings subjects to students that
might be unavailable otherwise. Today’s computer-savvy school children can learn
things their parents had no access to just one short generation ago.
Canada certainly isn’t getting any smaller but using technology in Canadian education
has made it possible to bring students and educational opportunities closer together in
ways never seen before.
The Education of the New-Canadian: A Treatise on Canada’s
Greatest Educational Problem
[ Children parade their patriotism at Henrietta Public School, North Saskatchewan River,
1917, , Koozma Tarasoff personal collection 1215 ]
Throughout the Prairie Provinces great stretches of land have been settled by
immigrants from European countries. In many cases, as in the cities, they very seldom
come into contact with Canadian influences. They, too, have their own churches and
their own newspapers. The language of the home is German, Ruthenian, Hungarian,
Bohemian, or Polish, as the case may be. In the villages where they trade they have
their own merchants, speaking their own language. In these settlements there is but one
force at work to Canadianize their children—the public school. Even here the teacher is
very often one of their own nationality, who has an inadequate knowledge of our
language, and a very vague idea of Canadian citizenship and all that it stands for. This
phase of the problem will be dealt with in a later chapter. The most conspicuous,
perhaps, of these settlers who have made their homes apart from English-speaking
people are the Ruthenians and German Mennonites. The Doukhobors, although fewer
in number, may also be mentioned, especially those known as "community" members.
The principle of communism prevails among the Doukhobors who have settled in the
Western Provinces. Many, however, have become independent, and no longer
recognize the authority of their former leader. Some have written in eulogistic terms of
the beauty of this community life, but most Canadians will fail to approve of a people
who favor a mode of life which absolutely denies a public school education to the
children living in the community. We suspect the integrity and honor of a man who
denounces the education of the young, who forbids parents to allow their children to
attend the public schools, without making provision for their education elsewhere. Last
year, at a night school in a Western town, there were in attendance two young
Doukhobors, one a girl of fifteen and the other a boy of fourteen, who had never been a
day at public school. The parents had been forbidden to send them to school, and this
by the autocratic leader of the community. They were bright, but mentally-starved
children, and as one witnessed their eagerness to learn to read and write English, he
could not but feel that Canada has made a very serious mistake in allowing such a man
to guide the destinies of so many of her future citizens. His policy, apparently, is to keep
the people in ignorance, and all the while we, as Canadians, blindly turn our heads the
other way and continue our dreams of nation-building. Let us have a thorough
investigation of conditions among these people, and let us insist upon the state
exercising its right to see that every one of these New-Canadians obtains what in free
Canada should surely be one's birthright—a public school education! [...]