Teaching Approaches Cooperative Language Learning 06/29/11 [email_address]
CLL is part of more general instructional approach also known as Collaborative Learning(CL).Cooperative learning is an approach to teaching that can makes maximum use of cooperative activities involving pairs and small groups of learner in the classroom
Cooperative Learning in this context sought to do the following :
Raise the achievement of all students , including those who are gifted or academically handicapped
Help the teacher build positive relationships among students
Give students the experiences they need for healthy social , psychological, and cognitive development
Replace the competitive organizational structure of most classrooms and school with a team-based, high-performance organizational structure
The goals are :
To provide opportunities for naturalistic second language acquisition through the use of interactive pair and group activities
To provide teacher with methodology to enable them to achieve this goal and one that can be applied in a variety of curriculum settings
To enable focused attention to particular lexical items, language structures, and communicative functions through the use of interactive tasks
To provide opportunities for learners to develop successful learning and communication strategies
To enhance learner motivation and reduce learner stress and to create a positive affective classroom climate
Theory of language
Theory of learning
Theory of Language:
Cooperative Language learning is founded on some basic premises about the interactive/cooperative nature of language and language learning and build on these premises in several ways :
Premise 1 mirrors the title of the book on child language titled born to talk(Weeks 1979),
Premise 2 is that most talk/speech is organized as conversation,
Premise 3 is that conversation operates according to a certain agreed upon set of cooperative rules or “MAXIMS” (Grice 1975),
Premise 4 is that one learns how these cooperative maxims are realized in one native language through casual , everyday conversational interaction,
Premise 5 is that one’s learns how to the maxims are realized in a second language through participation in cooperatively structured interactional activities .
Theory of learning :
McGroatry (1989),six learning advantages for ESL students in CLL classrooms:
Increased frequency and variety of second language practice through different types of interaction
Possibility for development or use of language in ways that support cognitive development and increased language skills
Opportunities to integrate language with content-based instruction
Opportunities to include a greater variety of curricular materials to stimulate language as well as concept learning
Freedom for teacher to master new professional skills, particularly those emphasizing communication
Opportunities for students to act as resources for each other, thus assuming a more active role in their learning
D e s i g n :
since CLL is an approach design to foster cooperation rather than competition, to develop critical thinking skill, and communicative competence through socially structured interaction activities, these can be regarded as the overall objectives of CLL. More specific objective will derive from the context in which it is used .
CLL doesn’t assume any particular form of language syllabus, since activities from a wide variety of curriculum orientations can be taught via cooperative learning .
Types of learning and teaching activities..
Johnson et al, describe three types of cooperative learning groups :
Formal cooperative learning groups
Informal cooperative learning groups
Cooperative base groups
Key elements of successful by Olsen and Kagan (1992)
Structuring and Structures
Three major kinds of cooperative learning tasks and their learning focus by Cuelho, each of which have many variations……..
Team practice for common input – skill development and mastery of facts .
All students work on the same material.
Practice could follow a traditional teacher-directed presentation of new material and for that reason is a good starting point for teacher and/or students new to group work
The task is to make sure that everyone in the group knows the answer to a question and can explain well
When the teacher takes up the question , anyone in the group may be called on to answer for the team
This technique is good for review and for practice test
This technique is effective in situations where the composition of the groups is unstable
Jigsaw: differentiated but predetermined input – evaluation and synthesis of facts and opinions.
Each group member receives a different piece of the information .
Students regroup in topic groups compose of people with the same piece to master the material and prepare to teach it.
Students return to their home group to share the information.
Students synthesize the information through discussion.
Each students produces an assignment of part of group project ,to demonstrate synthesis of all information (presented by all member).
This method of organization may require team-building activities for both home and topic groups, long-term group involvement, and rehearsal of presentation method.
This method is very useful in multilevel class.
Information-gap activities in language teaching are jigsaw activities in the form of pair work.
Cooperative projects: topic/resources selected by students discovery learning :
Topic may be different for each group.
Student identify subtopics for each group member.
Steering committee may coordinate the work of the class as a whole
Students research the information using resources such as library reference , interviews, visual media.
Students synthesize their information for a group presentation : oral and /or written.
Each group presents to the whole class.
This method places greater emphasis on individualization and students’ interests.
Students need plenty of previous experience with more structured group work for this to be effective.
Learner roles :
the primary is a member of a group who must work collaboratively. Learner have to learn teamwork skills, and also directing of their own learning . they are taught to plan, monitor, and evaluate their own learning.
Learning is something that requires students’ direct and active involvement and participation
Pair grouping is the most typical CLL format, ensuring the maximum amount of time both learners spend engaged on learning tasks.
The teacher has to create a highly structured and well organized learning environment in the classroom, setting goals , planning and structuring tasks , establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom, assigning students to groups and roles, and selecting materials and time.
An important role for the teacher is that of facilitator of learning, so the teacher must able to help the students and groups.