Intellectual property

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  • Copyright protects "original works of authorship" that are fixed in a tangible form of expression. Copyrightable works include the following categories
  • an invention for a tool may have a uniquely shaped handle
  • Intellectual property

    1. 1. Intellectual Property on the Web Nga Nguyen
    2. 2. What is intellectual property? <ul><li>According to WIPO, intellectual property refers to “products of the mind: inventions, literary, artistic works, any symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce”. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into two categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial property (patents, trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Copyright <ul><li>Works protected by copyright: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sound recordings, films, broadcasts and cable programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typographical arrangements of published editions </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Copyright <ul><li>More difficult to control on the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet allows people to upload and download, copy and share, on a massive scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. free download (software, music…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to copy (anonymous) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Patent <ul><li>A right granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the owner the right to prevent others from making, using, importing or selling the invention without permission. </li></ul><ul><li>A monopoly right </li></ul>
    6. 7. Example: Apple owns the patent for iPhone
    7. 8. Patent <ul><li>A patent only protects an innovator from others producing the same product, but it does not protect him from others producing better products under new patents. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Domain Name <ul><li>A domain name functions as a trade mark (only when it satisfies the requirements of Trade Mark Act 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Some companies have purchased domain names related to competitor's names </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;harrods.com&quot;, &quot;harrods.co.uk“, &quot;harr0ds.com&quot; or “harrods1.com” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cybersquatting - using a domain name with bad faith intent to profit from the goodwill of a trademark belonging to someone else </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to sell it to the brand owner or wait the brand owner’s offer for a transfer </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. The importance of protecting intellectual property <ul><li>Competitive advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Form an essential part of marketing or branding </li></ul><ul><li>Create value for business </li></ul><ul><li>Sales, profits (also from licensing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, IBM generated $1.5billion a year in royalties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Offer customers something new and different </li></ul>
    10. 11. However <ul><li>Public interest is harmed by ever expansive monopolies in the form of copyright extensions, software patents and business method patents. </li></ul><ul><li>The Right to Education threatened by the Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical patents prevent generic alternatives to enter the market until the patents expire, and thus maintains high prices for medication. </li></ul>

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