Women Coaches In Sport


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This presentation is an overview of females in sport, especially female coaches.

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Women Coaches In Sport

  1. 1. WOMEN COACHES IN SPORT By Rewa Gonzalez-Granda Inder K0517329
  2. 2. AIMS: To explore and understand females participation in  sport. Examine the factors affecting females participation  in sport. To explore and understand the lack of female  coaches in sport. Examine the factors affecting female coaches. 
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION If women participate in sport, people assume that it  is their hobby Males sexual orientation is hardly ever questioned  because of their interest and participation in sports, and the media reaction to them multi-tasking parenthood or marriage alongside a career is a big plus Women on the other hand have to fight for a  picture of them sweating on the field as opposed to twiddling the ball in high heels for portraits Ahmed, M(2003)
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Women's sexual preferences are constantly under  attack, especially if they are rising athletes. They are also never commended for managing a full-time career and their personal relationships. It is expected that if a woman steps into sports, she  has to work twice as hard to maintain her familial responsibilities. Ahmed, (2003)
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS: Femininity has been characterized by certain  qualities, such as sensitivity, fragility, dependence on men and slim (Coakley, 2001). Masculinity has been characterized as  aggression, tough, independent, strength and power (Cassidy, Jones and Potrac, 2004). Hegemony (masculinity) refers to the dominance of  one form of masculinity over others (Connell, 1995).
  6. 6. TITLE IX “No person in the  United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”  (Coakley, 2007. p235).
  7. 7. TITLE IX Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972  concentrated on the rights of all individuals, regardless of sex, to join in educational programs or activities that receive federal financial assistance. Title IX required that both boys and girls have equal  opportunities to participate in sports and derive the benefits of participation. Title IX have been overshadowed by the losses  women have suffered despite their supposed protection under Title VII. Whisemant, 2003
  8. 8. TITLE IX Since the passing of Title IX there was a rise in  female participants in sport, including 90% of female coaches (Knoppers, 1994). Nevertheless, females coaches gradually  decreased in numbers and by 1985 there was a 32% decrease (True, 1986) as cited by Weiss & Stevens (1993). The reasoning for this decline can be explained by their high-pressured working schedules, lack of female role models and family life (Weiss & Stevens, 1993).
  9. 9. FACTORS AFFECTING FEMALES IN SPORT  Media  Social Class  Homophobia  Race
  10. 10. MEDIA  “Media stories and images provide the symbols, myths and resources which help constitute a common culture for the majority of individuals...” (Kellner, 1995)
  11. 11. MEDIA Sports media associate male athleticism with  strength, courage and competence, whilst at the same time relating female athleticism with sexual appeal, femininity and so-called limited physical capacity. This stereotypical coverage represents a common  sports culture in which men have the power and women do not (Duncan & Hasbrook, 1988). Kane & Lenskyj, (1998)
  12. 12. MEDIA Male Sports Illustrated Female Sports Illustrated Cover Cover
  13. 13. SOCIAL CLASS Wilson (2002) stated that the „upper‟ class are more  likely to involved in sports, however, only certain sports , which are not associated with the „lower‟ class . Upper class more likely to be spectators and  participants in sport (Coakley, 1998; Nixon & Frey, 1996; Scholsberg, 1987). Social Class in sport is a paradox, which can be  explained by Pierre Bourdiu‟s concept of cultural capital
  14. 14. SOCIAL CLASS According to Bourdieu all cultural  consumption, including sports consumption, requires the appropriate preferences and tastes as well as skills and knowledge, which he terms cultural capital (Wilson, 2002). As women usually do not earn as much as  men, they might not be able to afford to participate in certain or desired sports.
  15. 15. HOMOPHOBIA AND RACE IN SPORT Although opportunities and involvement have  increased, many significant differences have been exacerbated by racial barriers (Theberge & Birrell, 1994) Many factors affecting female participation and  female coaching are Heterosexism and/or Homophobia (Coakley, 2007). Many females do not want to be perceived as lesbians and participating or coaching in sport could stereotype and generalize their role (Coakley, 2007).
  16. 16. WHERE ARE ALL THE WOMEN COACHES? “ Coaching remains  one of the most prestigious areas of sport which embodies grossly unequal gender relations”
  17. 17. WHERE ARE ALL THE WOMEN COACHES? Evidence shows that there is a lack of female  coaches (Fasting & Pfister, 2000) The institution of sport and it‟s many sub-cultures  clearly implying a male domination in sport. Sports council shows evidence that demonstrates a  general trend toward fewer women coaches, as the level of coaching awards increase.
  18. 18. PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN COACHES BY LEVEL OF COACHING AWARD Level of Gymnastics Badminton Volleyball Tennis award 5 24 0 8 21 4 39 19 - 20 3 55 22 13 31 2 70 24 16 24 1 78 36 35 22 Sports Council, 1993
  19. 19. TYPE OF NGB AWARD BY GENDER Award Male (%) Female (%) Advanced 13.7 4.2 Senior 41.3 16.7 Intermediate 34.8 62.5 Elementary/ 10.0 16.7 Introductory Sports Council, 1993
  20. 20. PERCENTAGES OF FEMALE COACHES IN THE UK SUMMER OLYMPIC SQUADS Year Male Coach (%) Female Coach (%) 1976 96 4 1980 91 9 1984 96 4 1988 90 10 1992 92 8 Sports Council, 1993
  21. 21. FACTORS AFFECTING FEMALE COACHES IN SPORT Low expectations  Limited scale of performance sport  Absence of social support  Patterns of recruitment  Lack of social flexibility  Lyle, 2006
  22. 22. LOW EXPECTATIONS Opportunity missed Absence of expectations Reinforcement of lack of expectations Failure of social learning Lack of motive Lyle, 2006
  23. 23. LIMITED SCALE OF PERFORMANCE SPORT Recruitment avenue straight from performance  Scale of women participants is much less than  males, decreasing the chance for females to carry on coaching their sport It can be exacerbated by two factors:  The age range of popular female sports such as  gymnastics and swimming may negatively influence the transition to becoming a coach  Fewer rewards in females sports have resulted in less professionalisation Lyle, 2006
  24. 24. ABSENCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT Due to the domination of males in sport it is evident  that there is a lack of social networks and support mechanisms. The lack in females coaches, influence, power and  authority, and the failure to provide formal support structures are likely to affect, recruitment, maintenance and retention.
  25. 25. PATTERNS OF RECRUITMENT Initiation Development Maintenance Motives Ladders of opportunity Experience Achieved Pool of status Stages in Performance Personal professional coaches X X Qualities Perceptions development of coaching Education and practice Reward Training environment Relative status and standing of the sport
  26. 26. LACK OF SOCIAL FLEXIBILITY Society often make the assumption that females will  take responsibility of the children and domestic household. This restricts a females social freedom and  flexibility Factors such as lack of financial resources and  early exit from performance sport may also influence recruitment and progress in coaching
  27. 27. CONCLUSION Title IX has caused much controversy, receiving a  great deal of resistance when it came to promoting sport. Previously men had dominated sports departments and the notion of sharing their equipment with females seemed unreasonable Hasbrook et al. (1990) indicate that a coach needs  to be aggressive, competitive and firm and women are perceived as soft, feminine and yielding.
  28. 28. CONCLUSION The fact that there is a large number of women  participation coaches should not be overlooked. Females in performance coaches are greatly under-  represented. Coaching is perceived to be more male orientated  and early socialisation into coaching roles is not an expectation for women performers Lyle, 2006
  29. 29. REFERENCES: Ahmed, M (2003)  http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/local/scisoc/sports03/papers/mahmed.ht ml Cassidy, T., Jones, R & Potrac, P. (2004) Understanding Sports  Coaching. (2nd Edition) New York: Routledge. Coakley, J. (2007) Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies (9th  Edition) London: McGraw-Hill Coakley, J.J. (1998) Sport in Society (6th Edition). Boston, MA: Irwin  McGraw-Hill. Connell, R., W (1995) Masculinities. Sydney: Allen & Unwin  Hasbrook, C., A. Mathes, S., A. & True, S. (1990) Sex Bias and the  Validity of Believed Differences between Male and Female Interscholastic Athletic Coaches. Researcg Quarely for Exercise and Sport. 61:3: 259-267 Kane, M., J & Lenskyj H., J. (1998) Media Treatment of Female  Athletes: Issues of Gender and Sexualities. In: Wenner, L., A.(1998) Media Sport. USA: Routledge, Pgs 186-202
  30. 30. REFERENCES: Knoppers, A. (1994) Gender and the Coaching Profession.  Birrel, S. & Cole, C., L (Ed) Women, Sport, and Culture. p. 119- 133. USA: Human Kinetics Lopiano, D., A. (2000) Modern History of Women in Sport: Twenty-five  Years of Title IX. Clinics in Sport Medicine. 19:2. Pg 163-173 Nixon, H.L., II, and Frey, J.H. (1996) A Sociology of Sport. USA:  Wadsworth. (cited in Wilson, T., C. (2002) The Paradox of Social Class and Sports Involvement: The roles of Cultural and Economic Capital. International Review of Sociology of Sport. 37:5 Rowe, D. (2004) Sport, Culture and the Media. (2nd Edition) UK;  McGraw-Hill Theberge, T & Birrell, S. (1994) Structural Constrains Facing Women  in Sport. Costa, M & Guthrie, S., R. (Ed) Women and Sport Interdisciplinary Perspectives. P 331-340. United Kingdom: Human Kinetics Weiss, M., R. & Stevens, C. (1993) Motivation and Attrition of females  Choaches: An Application of Social Exchange Theory. The Sports Psychologist. 7, 244-261 Wilson, T., C. (2002) The Paradox of Social Class and Sports  Involvement: The roles of Cultural and Economic Capital. International Review of Sociology of Sport. 37:5. http://irs.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/37/1/5
  31. 31. ANY QUESTIONS?