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Coaching Philosophy

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  • 1. By Rewa Gonzalez-Granda Inder k0517329 COACHING PHILOSOPHY
  • 2. Aims  To understand coaching styles.  To understand the factors affecting coaching styles.  To understand the different coaching philosophies.  How to improve ones philosophy  To understand the rules in coaching
  • 3. Definitions  Coaching:  The organized provision of assistance to an individual athlete/group of athletes to help them develop and improve the performance of their chosen sport. (Kent, 2005)  Philosophy:  The pursuit of wisdom helping to answer fundamental questions about what, why and how. (Martens, 2004). Describes a process or method (Hardman & Jones, 2008)  Coaching philosophy:  A coaches belief and guide to become the best coach possible (Clarke, 2008). Basic beliefs that guide every day behaviour (Vealey, 2005).
  • 4. Coaching  Participation coach:  Is considered to be a coach that focuses on the “taking part” rather than the preparation of a specific sport.  Performance coach:  Is a coach that focuses on long-term goals preparing athletes for sporting competitions. Cross & Lyle, 2003
  • 5. Coaching Participation Performance Goals Clark, 2008
  • 6. Coaching Style  Coaching style is defined as a descriptive categorization of the individuals aggregated coaching behaviour  Can also be described as a leadership style  Could be a useful mechanism for describing and analysing coaching practice or it may be a superficial way of caricaturing the most obvious elements of the coaches behaviour (Cross & Lyle, 2003)
  • 7. Coaching Style continued  It reflects the coaches value framework  It is an analytical tool Lyle, 2006
  • 8. Factors affecting coaching styles  Kuklinski (1990), Douge and Hastie (1993) stated that factors affecting coaching styles were:  Gender, team/individual sports, age and type of sport  The athletes aspirations  Abraham and Collins (1998) provided a review of literature of factors affecting coaching styles and similar findings were seen Cross & Lyle, 2003
  • 9. Factors affecting coaching style  Rogers (2007) did a report on coaches behaviour and found several factors that could influence behaviour:  Competitive experience as an athlete  Hours of coaching per week  Individual/team sports  Nevertheless, a better understanding in the relationship between coaches and athletes is needed.  A coach can change their style at will, however, there is little evidence supporting this statement.
  • 10. Coaches behaviour study  Research into coaches behaviour and athletes self-talk was studied.  243 subjects had to take the athletes‟ positive and negative self-talk scale, to asses how much they use self-talk (positive or negative)  Coaches positive and negative statement scale and Coaching Behaviour Questionnaire.  Results state that a coaches behaviour and statements have a direct impact on athletes self-confidence.
  • 11. Balancing the triad Optimal Optimal development performance Optimal experience
  • 12. Coaching Philosophy  Autocratic coaching style  Democratic coaching style  Humanistic approach
  • 13. Autocratic style of coaching  Autocratic:  Coaching behaviour involving independent decision making and stresses the personal authority of the coach but not the athlete. Lyle, 2006
  • 14. The Intense style Advantages Disadvantages  Performers put of by the  Coach supports hard demands work  Emotional outburst from  Coach works hard coach Prepared for any type of  The less motivated competition performers are overlooked Lyle, 2006
  • 15. Democratic style of coaching  Democratic:  Coaching behaviour allowing high levels of participation by the athlete in decision making, goals, practice, game tactics and strategies. Cross & Lyle, 2003
  • 16. The Nice-Guy style Advantages Disadvantages  Cohesive team  Coach may be seen as weak  Relaxed atmosphere  Socially inhibited athletes overlooked Lyle, 2006
  • 17. Autocratic vs. Democratic  Coach makes all decisions  Athletes are able to participate in decision-  Directive and dominating making approach to interpersonal-  behaviour There is an inter-active communication process  The exchange of  knowledge, teaching and Athletes values learning assumed to be incorporated into goals and one way evaluation  The coach determines  Coach involves athletes in rules, rewards, standards teaching-learning process and applications  Flexibility, empathy and  Lack of personal empathy support in personal relationships Lyle, 2006
  • 18. Is an „authoritarian‟ or „democratic‟ style established by experience and a psychological nature or is it a learned capacity (perhaps through coach education)?
  • 19. Humanistic approach  Are the beliefs and values focusing predominantly on the athlete‟s personal growth through an active engagement in the coaching experience (Cross & Lyle, 2003).  Is a person-centred philosophy or ideology that emphasises the empowerment of the individual towards achieve personal goals within a facilitative interpersonal relationship (Lyle, 2006).
  • 20. Humanistic approach  It is significant as it is inclined to be used as an indicator for the evaluation of coaching behaviour (Coakley, 1993).  The potential of the humanistic approach is to provide a set of principles to guide coaching practice (Cross & Lyle, 2003)  The whole process is used to aid individual athletes growth and development in a positive way.
  • 21. Humanistic approach  Hogg (1995) stated that the relationship between the athlete and coach should start as a more directive relationship, gradually sharing relationship and eventually, independence for the athlete.  This increase provides opportunities for personal growth and development.
  • 22. Hogg‟s model in the evolving relationship between coach and athlete Authoritarian Power sharing Humanistic approach 16-17 18 years & 12 years & 13-15 years years over under • early experience • developing and • empowerment • coach collaborating • athlete independence •Athlete/coach dependence dependence
  • 23. Humanistic approach  Cross (1990) describes the humanistic approach as „collaborative‟ and „non- manipulative‟.  Cross (1991) characterises suitable behaviour as producing an „open‟ and „no- blame‟ culture using five specific features:  Understand the athletes  Adapt to the athletes needs  Communicate well  Be a motivator  Be consistent
  • 24. How to improve own philosophy  Know strengths and weaknesses  Recognize values and beliefs  These two aspect will help the coach to adapt to their own style
  • 25. How to improve own philosophy Confidence in oneself Help others develop High self-worth Martens, 2004
  • 26. Coaching and ethics  Rules are set to provide a logical framework for coach behaviour.  This framework influence the „how‟ of coaching and some elements in a „code of ethics‟ are related to coaching philosophies.  The sense of right and wrong Cross & Lyle (2003)
  • 27. Coaching and ethics  Athletes and coaches have to recognize that codes of ethics are socially determined and reflects on a particular ideology, in addition to legal concerns and matters of human and civil rights. (Cross & Lyle, 2003)
  • 28. Conclusion  To develop a successful philosophy two main factors are needed:  Major objectives  Your beliefs or principles  Get to know ones strengths and weaknesses  Understand coaching context better
  • 29. Conclusion  Get to know athletes better therefore the coach can tailor the training to the athletes needs.  On the whole, all coaches have some kind of philosophy whether it is natural instinct or formally documented.  Coaching is all about helping the athlete to achieve their dreams.
  • 30. References  Clark, N. (2008) Coaching Philosophy . Lecture notes  Coakley, J. (1993). Social dimensions of the intensive training and participation in youth sports. Intensive Participation in Children’s Sports (Cahill, B.R. & Pearl, A.J. Editors) Human Kinetics  Cross, N. (1990) Insight into coaching philosophy. The Swimming Times. 68(11) 17-19  Cross, N. (1991) Arguments in Favour of a Humanistic Coaching Process. The Swimming Times. 68(11)17-18  Cross, N. & Lyle, J. (2003) The Coaching Process: principles and practice for sport. Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinmann Jones, C & Hardman, A (2008) „Philosophy for Coaching‟. In: Jones, R., J., Hughes, M, &  Kingston, K. (Ed) An Introduction to Sport Coaching: From Science and Theory to Practice. USA: Routledge  Kuklinski, B. (1990) Sports Leadership: An Overview. New Zealand Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 23(4):29-39  Lyle, J. (2006). Sports Coaching Concepts: A framework for coaches; behaviour. New York: Routledge  Martens, R. (2004) Successful Coaching. (3rd Edition) USA: Human Kinetics Rogers, W. (2007) Factors that Influence Coaches‟ Use of Sound Coaching Practice.  International Journal of Sport Science and Coaching. 2(2)  Vealey, R., S. (2005) Coaching for the Inner Edge. USA: Sheridan Books Zourbanos, N (2007) A preliminary Investigations of Relationship between Athletes‟ Self-  Talk and Coaches. International Journal of Sport Science and Coaching. 2(1) 57-66