By Rewa Gonzalez-Granda Inder
k0517329

COACHING PHILOSOPHY
Aims
 To understand coaching styles.

 To understand the factors affecting coaching
  styles.

 To understand the diffe...
Definitions

 Coaching:
   The organized provision of assistance to an individual
    athlete/group of athletes to help ...
Coaching
 Participation coach:
   Is considered to be a coach that focuses on
    the “taking part” rather than the prep...
Coaching



                        Participation
Performance




              Goals




                      Clark, 2008
Coaching Style

 Coaching style is defined as a descriptive
  categorization of the individuals
  aggregated coaching beh...
Coaching Style continued

 It reflects the coaches value framework


 It is an analytical tool




                     ...
Factors affecting coaching styles

 Kuklinski (1990), Douge and Hastie (1993)
  stated that factors affecting coaching st...
Factors affecting coaching style

 Rogers (2007) did a report on coaches
  behaviour and found several factors that could...
Coaches behaviour study

 Research into coaches behaviour and
 athletes self-talk was studied.
   243 subjects had to ta...
Balancing the triad

                                    Optimal
 Optimal
                                    development
...
Coaching Philosophy


 Autocratic coaching style


 Democratic coaching style


 Humanistic approach
Autocratic style of coaching


 Autocratic:
   Coaching behaviour
    involving independent
    decision making and
    ...
The Intense style

Advantages                 Disadvantages


                            Performers put of by the
 Coac...
Democratic style of coaching

 Democratic:
   Coaching behaviour
   allowing high levels of
   participation by the
   a...
The Nice-Guy style

Advantages             Disadvantages


 Cohesive team         Coach may be seen as
                 ...
Autocratic vs. Democratic


 Coach makes all decisions     Athletes are able to
                                   parti...
Is an „authoritarian‟ or „democratic‟ style
established by experience and a
psychological nature or is it a learned
capaci...
Humanistic approach
 Are the beliefs and values focusing
  predominantly on the athlete‟s personal
  growth through an ac...
Humanistic approach
 It is significant as it is inclined to be used
  as an indicator for the evaluation of
  coaching be...
Humanistic approach

 Hogg (1995) stated that the relationship
  between the athlete and coach should
  start as a more d...
Hogg‟s model in the evolving
 relationship between coach and
 athlete
Authoritarian          Power sharing                ...
Humanistic approach
 Cross (1990) describes the humanistic
  approach as „collaborative‟ and „non-
  manipulative‟.

 Cr...
How to improve own philosophy

 Know strengths and weaknesses


 Recognize values and beliefs


 These two aspect will ...
How to improve own philosophy

  Confidence in oneself   Help others develop




 High self-worth




                    ...
Coaching and ethics

 Rules are set to provide a logical
  framework for coach behaviour.

 This framework influence the...
Coaching and ethics

 Athletes and coaches have to recognize
 that codes of ethics are socially
 determined and reflects ...
Conclusion
 To develop a successful philosophy two
 main factors are needed:
   Major objectives
   Your beliefs or pri...
Conclusion

 Get to know athletes better therefore the
  coach can tailor the training to the athletes
  needs.

 On the...
References
   Clark, N. (2008) Coaching Philosophy . Lecture notes
   Coakley, J. (1993). Social dimensions of the inten...
Coaching Philosophy
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Coaching Philosophy

  1. 1. By Rewa Gonzalez-Granda Inder k0517329 COACHING PHILOSOPHY
  2. 2. Aims  To understand coaching styles.  To understand the factors affecting coaching styles.  To understand the different coaching philosophies.  How to improve ones philosophy  To understand the rules in coaching
  3. 3. Definitions  Coaching:  The organized provision of assistance to an individual athlete/group of athletes to help them develop and improve the performance of their chosen sport. (Kent, 2005)  Philosophy:  The pursuit of wisdom helping to answer fundamental questions about what, why and how. (Martens, 2004). Describes a process or method (Hardman & Jones, 2008)  Coaching philosophy:  A coaches belief and guide to become the best coach possible (Clarke, 2008). Basic beliefs that guide every day behaviour (Vealey, 2005).
  4. 4. Coaching  Participation coach:  Is considered to be a coach that focuses on the “taking part” rather than the preparation of a specific sport.  Performance coach:  Is a coach that focuses on long-term goals preparing athletes for sporting competitions. Cross & Lyle, 2003
  5. 5. Coaching Participation Performance Goals Clark, 2008
  6. 6. Coaching Style  Coaching style is defined as a descriptive categorization of the individuals aggregated coaching behaviour  Can also be described as a leadership style  Could be a useful mechanism for describing and analysing coaching practice or it may be a superficial way of caricaturing the most obvious elements of the coaches behaviour (Cross & Lyle, 2003)
  7. 7. Coaching Style continued  It reflects the coaches value framework  It is an analytical tool Lyle, 2006
  8. 8. Factors affecting coaching styles  Kuklinski (1990), Douge and Hastie (1993) stated that factors affecting coaching styles were:  Gender, team/individual sports, age and type of sport  The athletes aspirations  Abraham and Collins (1998) provided a review of literature of factors affecting coaching styles and similar findings were seen Cross & Lyle, 2003
  9. 9. Factors affecting coaching style  Rogers (2007) did a report on coaches behaviour and found several factors that could influence behaviour:  Competitive experience as an athlete  Hours of coaching per week  Individual/team sports  Nevertheless, a better understanding in the relationship between coaches and athletes is needed.  A coach can change their style at will, however, there is little evidence supporting this statement.
  10. 10. Coaches behaviour study  Research into coaches behaviour and athletes self-talk was studied.  243 subjects had to take the athletes‟ positive and negative self-talk scale, to asses how much they use self-talk (positive or negative)  Coaches positive and negative statement scale and Coaching Behaviour Questionnaire.  Results state that a coaches behaviour and statements have a direct impact on athletes self-confidence.
  11. 11. Balancing the triad Optimal Optimal development performance Optimal experience
  12. 12. Coaching Philosophy  Autocratic coaching style  Democratic coaching style  Humanistic approach
  13. 13. Autocratic style of coaching  Autocratic:  Coaching behaviour involving independent decision making and stresses the personal authority of the coach but not the athlete. Lyle, 2006
  14. 14. The Intense style Advantages Disadvantages  Performers put of by the  Coach supports hard demands work  Emotional outburst from  Coach works hard coach Prepared for any type of  The less motivated competition performers are overlooked Lyle, 2006
  15. 15. Democratic style of coaching  Democratic:  Coaching behaviour allowing high levels of participation by the athlete in decision making, goals, practice, game tactics and strategies. Cross & Lyle, 2003
  16. 16. The Nice-Guy style Advantages Disadvantages  Cohesive team  Coach may be seen as weak  Relaxed atmosphere  Socially inhibited athletes overlooked Lyle, 2006
  17. 17. Autocratic vs. Democratic  Coach makes all decisions  Athletes are able to participate in decision-  Directive and dominating making approach to interpersonal-  behaviour There is an inter-active communication process  The exchange of  knowledge, teaching and Athletes values learning assumed to be incorporated into goals and one way evaluation  The coach determines  Coach involves athletes in rules, rewards, standards teaching-learning process and applications  Flexibility, empathy and  Lack of personal empathy support in personal relationships Lyle, 2006
  18. 18. Is an „authoritarian‟ or „democratic‟ style established by experience and a psychological nature or is it a learned capacity (perhaps through coach education)?
  19. 19. Humanistic approach  Are the beliefs and values focusing predominantly on the athlete‟s personal growth through an active engagement in the coaching experience (Cross & Lyle, 2003).  Is a person-centred philosophy or ideology that emphasises the empowerment of the individual towards achieve personal goals within a facilitative interpersonal relationship (Lyle, 2006).
  20. 20. Humanistic approach  It is significant as it is inclined to be used as an indicator for the evaluation of coaching behaviour (Coakley, 1993).  The potential of the humanistic approach is to provide a set of principles to guide coaching practice (Cross & Lyle, 2003)  The whole process is used to aid individual athletes growth and development in a positive way.
  21. 21. Humanistic approach  Hogg (1995) stated that the relationship between the athlete and coach should start as a more directive relationship, gradually sharing relationship and eventually, independence for the athlete.  This increase provides opportunities for personal growth and development.
  22. 22. Hogg‟s model in the evolving relationship between coach and athlete Authoritarian Power sharing Humanistic approach 16-17 18 years & 12 years & 13-15 years years over under • early experience • developing and • empowerment • coach collaborating • athlete independence •Athlete/coach dependence dependence
  23. 23. Humanistic approach  Cross (1990) describes the humanistic approach as „collaborative‟ and „non- manipulative‟.  Cross (1991) characterises suitable behaviour as producing an „open‟ and „no- blame‟ culture using five specific features:  Understand the athletes  Adapt to the athletes needs  Communicate well  Be a motivator  Be consistent
  24. 24. How to improve own philosophy  Know strengths and weaknesses  Recognize values and beliefs  These two aspect will help the coach to adapt to their own style
  25. 25. How to improve own philosophy Confidence in oneself Help others develop High self-worth Martens, 2004
  26. 26. Coaching and ethics  Rules are set to provide a logical framework for coach behaviour.  This framework influence the „how‟ of coaching and some elements in a „code of ethics‟ are related to coaching philosophies.  The sense of right and wrong Cross & Lyle (2003)
  27. 27. Coaching and ethics  Athletes and coaches have to recognize that codes of ethics are socially determined and reflects on a particular ideology, in addition to legal concerns and matters of human and civil rights. (Cross & Lyle, 2003)
  28. 28. Conclusion  To develop a successful philosophy two main factors are needed:  Major objectives  Your beliefs or principles  Get to know ones strengths and weaknesses  Understand coaching context better
  29. 29. Conclusion  Get to know athletes better therefore the coach can tailor the training to the athletes needs.  On the whole, all coaches have some kind of philosophy whether it is natural instinct or formally documented.  Coaching is all about helping the athlete to achieve their dreams.
  30. 30. References  Clark, N. (2008) Coaching Philosophy . Lecture notes  Coakley, J. (1993). Social dimensions of the intensive training and participation in youth sports. Intensive Participation in Children’s Sports (Cahill, B.R. & Pearl, A.J. Editors) Human Kinetics  Cross, N. (1990) Insight into coaching philosophy. The Swimming Times. 68(11) 17-19  Cross, N. (1991) Arguments in Favour of a Humanistic Coaching Process. The Swimming Times. 68(11)17-18  Cross, N. & Lyle, J. (2003) The Coaching Process: principles and practice for sport. Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinmann Jones, C & Hardman, A (2008) „Philosophy for Coaching‟. In: Jones, R., J., Hughes, M, &  Kingston, K. (Ed) An Introduction to Sport Coaching: From Science and Theory to Practice. USA: Routledge  Kuklinski, B. (1990) Sports Leadership: An Overview. New Zealand Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 23(4):29-39  Lyle, J. (2006). Sports Coaching Concepts: A framework for coaches; behaviour. New York: Routledge  Martens, R. (2004) Successful Coaching. (3rd Edition) USA: Human Kinetics Rogers, W. (2007) Factors that Influence Coaches‟ Use of Sound Coaching Practice.  International Journal of Sport Science and Coaching. 2(2)  Vealey, R., S. (2005) Coaching for the Inner Edge. USA: Sheridan Books Zourbanos, N (2007) A preliminary Investigations of Relationship between Athletes‟ Self-  Talk and Coaches. International Journal of Sport Science and Coaching. 2(1) 57-66
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