Ne g ri & Har dt,Commonwealth A summary of the book Alberto J. Revolware
PREFACE: THE BECOMING-PRINCEOF THE MULTITUDE Our ethical and political project: how can an ethical production be established on the shifting ground of the production of subjectivity, which constantly transforms fixed values and subjects? Our challenge will be to find ways to translate the productivity and possibility of the poor into power. Negri&Hardt, wonders if "one can suggest a Spinozian reading, or rewriting, of Heideggers Being and Time.
1.1. REPUBLIC OFPROPERTY Nowadays, the concept of the individual is defined by not being but having, by property. Property and the defense of property remain the foundation of every modern political constitution: american (9), french (11), Haitian Social democrats thus never radically question the republic of property: Habermas, Rawls; Giddens, Beck; Stiglitz, Friedman (18-19)
1.2. PRODUCTIVE BODIES Private property in its capitalist form thus produces a relation of exploitation in its fullest sense—the production of the human as commodity— Negri&Hardt, try to summarize the entry of the phenomenology of bodies into Marxist theory: Frankfurt School, Socialisme ou Barbarie, situationist, events of 1968 (23ss).
1.2. PRODUCTIVE BODIES How phenomenology of body arises: voluntarism & vitalism, Bergson, Gentile as a dialectic without negativity Dilthey & von Wartenburg, event, transcendence and historicism (28). Martin Heidegger, an apology for fascism (29)
1.2. PRODUCTIVE BODIES The phenomenology of bodies in Foucault reaches its highest point in his analysis of biopolitics, his research agenda: 1.bodies are the constitutive components of the biopolitical fabric of being. 2.On the biopolitical terrain where powers are continually made and unmade, bodies resist. History is determined by the biopolitical antagonisms and resistances to biopower. 3.corporeal resistance produces subjectivity, not in an isolated or independent way but in the complex dynamic with the resistances of other bodies.
1.2. PRODUCTIVE BODIES Labor, freed from private property, simultaneously engages all our senses and capacities, in short, all our "human relations to the world—seeing hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling, thinking, contemplating, sensing, wanting, acting, loving." (Marx) When labor and production are conceived in this expanded form, crossing all the domains of life, bodies can never be eclipsed and subordinated to any transcendent measure or power.
1.3. THE MULTITUDEOF THE POORDuring the whole history, the specter of a multitude of the poor circulates around the globe and threatens the rule of property everywhere it takes root: Francis of Assisi.“Iure naturali sunt omnia omnibus" (by natural law all belongs to everyone). Pamphlets of political struggles in seventeenth-century England Thomas Münzer and the Anabaptists against the German princes 1647 Putney Debates between the Levellers and factions of the New Model Army, the 1781 Tupac Katari attack on Spanish rule in La Paz to the 1857 Indian rebellion against the rule of the British East India Company. Robert Boyle, multiplicity and mixture as primary in nature.
DE CORPORE 1:BIOPOLITICS ASEVENT Being is made in the event, the biopolitical event thus breaks with all forms of metaphysical substantialism or conceptualism.
DE CORPORE 1:BIOPOLITICS ASEVENTthe biopolitical event is: The rute to Francois Ewald and Roberto Esposito, an actuarial administration of life. Giorgio Agamben, negates any constructive capacity of biopolitical resistance. Chomsky, Simondon, Bernard Stiegler, and Peter Sloterdijk; certain autonomy in the invariable logical-linguistic structures but that lacks a dynamic creative character. None of these interpretations captures what is most important in Foucaults notion of biopolitics: Biopolitics as an event or, really, as a tightly woven fabric of events of freedom. Alain Badiou, event as the central question. Gilles Deleuze, precipitating events of resistance that have the power not only to escape control but also to create a new world.
PART2MODERNITY(AND THE LANDSCAPES OFALTERMODERNITY)
2.1 ANTIMODERNITYAS RESISTANCE More modernity or a more complete modernity is not an answer to our problems. Modernity, coloniality, racism, the three together, function as a complex, with each serving as a necessary support for the other.
2.2 AMBIVALENCES OFMODERNITY Marxism was simplified into an evolutionary theory of progress from which all elements of antimodernity are excluded as backward, underdeveloped.
2.2 AMBIVALENCES OFMODERNITY Two positive tasks for an analysis of the forces of antimodernity. 1.To pose a clear distinction between • reactionary antimodern notions of power that seek to break the relationship by freeing the sovereign and • liberatory antimodernities that challenge and subvert hierarchies by affirming the resistance and expanding the freedom of the subordinated. 1.To recognize how this resistance and freedom always exceed the relationship of domination and thus cannot be recuperated in any dialectic with modern power.
2.3 ALTERMODERNITY Three senses to see antimodernity as a form of resistance 1.As a struggle for freedom within the power relation of modernity 2.As not geographically external to but rather coextensive with modernity 3.As not temporally external to modernity in the sense that it does not simply come after the exertion of modern power, as a reaction. In fact antimodernity is prior in the sense that the power relation of modernity can be exercised only over free subjects who express that freedom through resistance to hierarchy and domination.
2.3 ALTERMODERNITYTo construct a definition of altermodernity we propose threegeneral lines of investigation1.An alternative line within European Enlightenment: Machiavelli, Spinoza, and Marx. Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche, occupy ambiguous positions with respect to this line. search for absolute democracy against sovereign absolutism.1.Workers movements throughout the world2.the forces of antimodernity that resist coloniality, imperialism,and the innumerable permutations of racialized rule.Our hypothesis is that the forces of antimodernity in each ofthese three domains, continually defeated and contained i n thepast, can be reproposed today as altermodernity when they linkwith the lines of resistance in the other domains.
DE HOMINE 1:BIOPOLITICAL REASON Three characteristics that a biopolitical reason would have to fulfill: it would have to 1.put rationality at the service of life; 2.technique at the service of ecological needs, where by ecological we mean not simply the preservation of nature but the development and reproduction of "social" relations, as Viveiros de Castro says, between humans and nonhumans; 3.and the accumulation of wealth at the service of the common.
DE HOMINE 1:BIOPOLITICAL REASON The collective practice of biopolitical reason has to take the form of strategic investigation. The truth is produced in action made in common, without intermediaries. Practical cases: 1.industrial workers‘ movements and their scientific knowledges in the 1960s 2.professors and students who take their work outside the universities 3."coresearch“ developed experimentally in social centers and nomad universities, on Web sites and in movement journals… Biopolitical reason is thus defined by a kind of ontological resonance between the dispositifs and the common.
PART 3CAPITAL(AND THE STRUGGLESOVER COMMON WEALTH)
3.1 METAMORPHOSES OFTHE COMPOSITION OFCAPITAL The rupture of the organic relationship and the growing autonomy of labor are at the heart of the new forms of crisis of capitalist production and control. Author Concept Capital subsumes… Marx Formal Preexisting labor activities Subsumption Marx Real Ad-hoc labor activities Subsumption Negri&Hardt Society as a whole Negri&Hardt No more: labor power is becoming more and more autonomous
3.1 METAMORPHOSES OFTHE COMPOSITION OFCAPITAL Trends in actual biopolitical production Contradictions in the productivity of biopolitical labor due to mechanisms of control imposed by the capitalist1 The inmaterial dimension of the strategies of control destroy the common product and the productivity of biopolitical labor is reduced every time the common is destroyed2 The feminization of work in the the creativity involved in biopolitical terms of: production, requires the freedom of the 2.1- The proportion of woman in the labor producers to organize their own time market 2.2- Temporal flexibility 2.3- Increasing importance in production of qualities traditionally associated wtih "woman´s work" affective, emotional, relationship3 New patterns of migration the creativity of biopolitical labor requires an open and dynamic egalitarian culture with constant cultural flows and mixtures.
3.2 CLASS STRUGGLEFROM CRISIS TOEXODUS still, of course, involveClass struggle doesresisting and attacking the bases of capitalistpower,but it also requires an exodus from therelationship with capital.a process of subtraction from capital and theconstruction of autonomy o f the multitude; andthat this project of exodus is the primary formclass struggle takes today.Exodus is possible only on the basis of thecommon—both access to the common and theability to make use of it.
3.2 CLASS STRUGGLEFROM CRISIS TOEXODUSof these really existing forms ofRevealing somethe common is a first step toward establishing thebases for an exodus of the multitude from itsrelation with capital.1.In its beneficial form as motor of generation.Metropolis. Real estate agents, do not need anycomplicated theories to understand the dominant role ofthe common.Finance capital is in essence an elaborate machine forrepresenting the common.
3.2 CLASS STRUGGLEFROM CRISIS TOEXODUS that decrease our powers..2.In its corrupt form,Family Imposing gender hierarchies and enforcing gender norms, as the sole paradigm for relationships of intimacy and solidarity, extreme forms of narcissism and individualism institution for the accumulation and transfer of private propertyCorporationNation
3.3 KAIROS OF THEMULTITUDEWe propose the multitude as an adequate concept fororganizing politically the project of exodus and liberation,but it have critics: 1.The question is whether and how these singularities can act together politically: Machery, Laclau, 2.see no reason to assume that the political decisions and action of the multitude will be oriented toward liberation: Paolo Virno, Balibar, Zizek, Badiou
3.3 KAIROS OF THEMULTITUDEWe have to shift our perspective from being themultitude to making the multitude, and to recognizethe multitude as a constant process ofmetamorphosis grounded in the common:1.just as a wide social multiplicity producesimmaterial products and economic value, so too issuch a multitude able to produce political decisions.2.There is indeed something mysterious about theact of creation, but it is a miracle that wells up fromwithin the multitude every day. The multitude mustselect the beneficial and flee the detrimental forms ofthe common.
DE SINGULARITATE 1:OF LOVE POSSESSEDLove is a process of the production of thecommon and the production of subjectivity.Being, is not some immutable backgroundagainst which life takes place but is rather a livingrelation in which we constantly have the power tointervene. Love is an ontological event in that itmarks a rupture with what exists and the creationof the new.
DE SINGULARITATE 1:OF LOVE POSSESSEDMandevilles free agents capitalistbees trading labor dream and goodsDutiful worker joined with their socialistbees flowers in Utopia mutual aidGuattari´s wasp That has sex biopolitical with orchids economy
A FORCE TOINTERMEZZO:COMBAT EVILOur proposition for political anthropology is toconceive of evil as a derivative and distortion oflove and the common. Evil is the corruption oflove that creates an obstacle to love, or to say thesame thing with a different focus, evil is thecorruption of the common that blocks itsproduction and productivity.
A FORCE TOINTERMEZZO:COMBAT EVIL Desire sets in motion the construction of the common; and finally love consolidates the common institutions that form society. Human nature is not negated but transformed in this sequence.
A FORCE TOINTERMEZZO:COMBAT EVILCriteria for distinguishing loves force.1.Interaction of singularities in processes ofsocial solidarity and political equality.2.Oriented toward the freedom of thosesingularities.3.Organizational forms: always open, constitutive,and horizontal,4.Fourth, the relation between love and force islegitimated in the consensus
4.1 BRIEF HISTORY OFA FAILED COUP DETAT Every coup needs a trigger, a catastrophic event that legitimates taking the reins of power. September 11, 2001, the rhetoric of a "war on terror" justified a state of emergency.
4.1 BRIEF HISTORY OFA FAILED COUP DETATA primary element of the unilateral project in Iraqwas the military strategy often referred to as the"revolutionary in military affairs" ( RMA ) or"defense transformation.“based on two primarystrategic innovations:1.reducing troop levels through the coordinated use ofinformation and weapons technologies in combat;2.and reorganizing military formations to make themlighter, more mobile, and more flexible.
4.2 AFTER U.S.HEGEMONYthe Vietnam War, marked the signal crisis of theimperialist era; while War of Iraq marked its terminalcrisis and the passage to EmpireA wide variety of authors employ "governance," incontrast to "government," to explore the novelty of thenew authorities and assemblages forming within andoutside the nation-state.A new imperial formation is emerging that can functiononly through the collaboration of a variety of national,supranational, and non national powers. Our futurepolitics will have to be cast in relation to this Empire.
4.3 GENEALOGY OFREBELLIONThe axiom of freedom: Power can be exercisedonly over free subjects, and thus the resistance ofthose subjects is not really posterior to power butan expression of their freedom, which is prior.Revolt as an exercise of freedom not onlyprecedes but also prefigures the forms that powerwill take in reaction.
4.3 GENEALOGY OFREBELLIONToday, in the context of biopolitical production,when the factory is no longer the primary site ofthe production of capital, this imaginarycontinues, but transformed: the proletariat iswithin society as a whole and produces there;and it is against this same social totality.So exodus means a kind of anthropological (andontological) separation from the domination ofcapital.
4.3 GENEALOGY OFREBELLIONAlso is no longer posible the division betweenwork time and life time.So revolution is no longer imaginable as anevent separated from us in the future but has tolive in the present.Temporality of “exception” should become an"exceeding" present that in some sense alreadycontains the future within it through a movementof exodus.
4.3 GENEALOGY OFREBELLIONProduction of capital is no longer limited to thefactory or any other separated site but ratherspreads throughout the entire social territory. Thetask facing capital is thus constantly to rebuildborders, reterritorialize the laboring populations,and reconstruct the fixed dimensions of socialspace. Capital must pursue, in other words, evernew definitions of localized social hierarchies torebuild the borders necessary for its order andcommand.
4.3 GENEALOGY OFREBELLION Constructing global public space requires that the multitude, in its exodus, create the institutions that can consolidate and fortify the anthropological conditions of the resistance of the poor.
DE CORPORE 2:METROPOLISthe metropolis is to the multitude whatthe factory was to the industrial working class1.There is no longer a factory wall that divides living fromworking places, and "externalities" are no longer external.2.The organization of the joyful encounters of themultitude corresponds to the productive deployment ofworkers on the factory floor, in cooperative teams,3.the metropolis, like the factory, is the site of hierarchyand exploitation, violence and suffering, fear and pain.
DE CORPORE 2:METROPOLISThe metropolitanization of the world does notnecessarily just mean a generalization ofstructures of hierarchy and exploitation. It canalso mean a generalization of rebellion and then,possibly, the growth of networks of cooperationand communication, the increased intensity of thecommon and encounters amongsingularities.This is where the multitude is findingits home.
5.1 TERMS OF THEECONOMICTRANSITIONThe crisis is caused,by the newontology of biopolitical labor. The formsof intellectual, affective, and cognitive laborthat are emerging in the central role in thecontemporary economy cannot becontrolled by the forms of discipline andcommand developed in the era of thefactory society.
5.1 TERMS OF THEECONOMICTRANSITION a paradoxicalCapital is confronted withsituation: the more it is forced to pursuevalorization through knowledge production, themore that knowledge escapes its control.Also there is a incompatibility of biopoliticalproduction and socialism in all its forms:bureaucratic planning, state regulation, and soforth… as autonomy is equally required fromstate control and government forms of discipline.Also in social democracy as it is seen solely asa mechanism for the distribution of wealth, not itsgeneration.
5.1 TERMS OF THEECONOMICTRANSITION what the private is to capitalism and what the public is to socialism, the common is to communism.
5.1 TERMS OF THEECONOMICTRANSITION is based on PolybiusNegri & Hardt idea of Imperial Governanceeulogy to ancient Rome, as having a mixed constitution defined by apyramidal structure, combining:1. A single monarch:a central military power in Washington (or Beijing); a central cultural power inLos Angeles (or Mumbai); a central financial power in New York (orFrankfurt); and so forth. 2. A limited aristocracy:In Russia industrial and financial oligarchs together with mafia thugs and anarray of government officials. In China instead anchored more closely to thestate and party with tightly controlled participation of entrepreneurs andbusiness elites… 3. A broader (pseudo-)democratic base.various humanitarian NGOs and aid organizations are cast as representingthe people (or at least their interests); and the dominant media.
5.2 WHAT REMAINS OFCAPITALISM economic science of biopolitical An adequate production has yet to be invented. Following physocratic Quesnay´s Tableau Economique (1758), Negri & Hardt propose to draw an analogous table for biopolitical production with at least three columns of struggles of the common : against work in defence of freedom against wage in defence of social life against capital in defence of democracy
5.2 WHAT REMAINS OFCAPITALISMIs it possible at this point to reintegrate the working classwithin capital? This is the illusion promoted by socialdemocracy,The primary capitalist strategy for maintaining power inthis divided situation,is financial control. Using the dualnature of money. On its politically neutral face as abstraction of the value of commodities based on the quantity of labor. As a representation of the wealth of social production.Is possible a strategy that would conserve bothrepresentational functions of money but wrest control ofthem away from capital?
5.3 PRE-SHOCKSALONG THE FAULTLINESof capitals illness:Symptoms1.the decline of capitals entrepreneurialcapacities.2.its failure to engage and develop productiveforces, in subjective terms. Biopolitical goods—such as ideas, affects, codes, knowledges,information, and images—still have to circulate torealize their value, but that circulation is nowinternal to the production process.
5.3 PRE-SHOCKSALONG THE FAULTLINESPossible reforms that could constitute a program for capital. 1.providing the infrastructure necessary for biopolitical production Basic: clean drinking water, sanitary conditions, electricity, access to affordable food social and intellectual infrastructure, linguistic tools, affective tools; open infrastructure of information and culture (physical, logical & content layer) 1.freedom of movement, establishing some form of open citizenship. 2.freedom of time, establishing a minimum guaranteed income 3.The freedom to construct social relationships and create autonomous social institutions. This means participatory democracy.
DE HOMINE 2: CROSSTHE THRESHOLD! In the sequence of discussions at the end of each part of this book, we have tracked figures in which labour value exceeds the flows of the economy and power. the biopolitical event (part 1) biopolitical reason (part 2) love as a constituent social drive exceeds all constituted powers (part 3) the metropolis (part 4)
DE HOMINE 2: CROSSTHE THRESHOLD!what it means for biopolitics to exceed?In epistemological terms, exceeding is alinguistic act of rupture and innovationIn physical terms, accelerated invention of newforms of social life in common. In ethics, an experience of training in love
DE HOMINE 2: CROSSTHE THRESHOLD!The principle of an exceeding of will overinstrumental knowledge through history:ancient GreeceAugustines affirmation of a free willWhat Ernst Bloch call the "Aristotelian Left“:Avicenna, Averroes…Duns Scotus, Nicholas of Cusa, Spinoza,Nietzsche and Deleuze
DE HOMINE 2: CROSSTHE THRESHOLD!To exceed is a creative activity. A new theory ofvalue has to be based on the powers ofeconomic, political, and social innovation thattoday are expressions of the multitudes desire.This leads to a series of political positions:labor-power against exploitationsingularity against identitythe common against the republic of propertymeasure of value must be determined throughthe democratic exercise of the production of thecommon
6.1 REVOLUTIONARYPARALLELISMRevolutionary politics has to start from identity butcannot end there. 1. Make visible the brutally real but too often hidden mechanisms and regimes of social subordination, segmentation, and exclusion that operate along identity lines. 2. Struggle for freedom, first as emancipation, after as liberation. emancipation freedom to be who you really are liberation Freedom to determine what you can become 3. The self-abolition of identity. The project for the abolition o f identity thus fills the traditional role o f the abolition of property and the abolition of the state. Queer, as critique of identity.
6.1 REVOLUTIONARYPARALLELISM Identity politics, by its very concept, assumes a certain parallelism: so structures of subordination (gender, racial, class…) share some common elements this makes possible processes of translation among the analytical and political traditions.Only on the field of biopolitical struggles,composed by parallelism and multiplicity, cana revolutionary struggle for the common besuccessfully pursued.
6.1 REVOLUTIONARYPARALLELISMmodernity identity-property-sovereignty is been replaced in byaltermodernity singularity-the common-revolution Revolution is now, finally, becoming the order of the day.
6.2 INSURRECTIONALINTERSECTIONS ¿Crisis of representation, "democratic deficit"— in the global context? What is lacking, are the mechanisms of measure that identity and representation require. The process of articulation of insurrectional intersections is an ontological process. That also drive us to an ontological transformation of the conditions of decision making itself.
6.2 INSURRECTIONALINTERSECTIONS Revolutionary struggle must be consolitaded and reinforce in a new form of institution: 1. based on conflict 2. consolidate collective habits, practices, and capacities that designate a form of life 3. are open-ended in that they are continually transformed by the singularities that compose them.This notion of institution corresponds closely to what wecalled earlier "training in love" in that it does not reducethe multiplicity of singularities but creates a context forthem to manage their encounters promoting de joyful ones
6.3 GOVERNING THEREVOLUTION The process of transition rather than dialectical, is asymptotic, and is not spontaneous. How can the transition be governed? What or who draws the political diagonal that guides the transition? The way out of the impasse is to bring the political diagonal back to the biopolitical diagram, that is, to ground it in an investigation o f the capacities people already exercise in their daily lives and, specifically, in the processes of biopolitical production.
6.3 GOVERNING THEREVOLUTION Problems to overcome about these capacities that people already exercise in their daily lives:1. first, the autonomy of biopolitical production is only partial, since it is still directed and constrained under the command of capital;2. and second, these economic capacities are not immediately expressed as political capacities.
6.3 GOVERNING THEREVOLUTION Gramsci, with his notion of “pasive revolution”, is in many ways a prophet of the biopolitical diagram. He seems to intuit that the transformation of the technical composition of the proletariat, will break down the divisions between structure and superstructure, bringing culture and social relations directly into the realm of economic value and production. He even grasps that the new technical composition implies a new production of subjectivity.
6.3 GOVERNING THEREVOLUTION Our inclination is to appropriate this concept of governance, subvert its imperial vocation, and reformulate it as a concept of democracy and revolution. We find some potential in the notion of federalism by which some theorists understand functions of global governance.
6.3 GOVERNING THEREVOLUTION Connection with a group of German legal theorists who build on Niklas Luhmann s systems theories: GuntherTeubner and Andreas Fischer-Lescano…This group of German Negri & Hardtfragmentation multiplicity of singularitiesoverflowing relation between labor and valuenetwork logic in the governance of cooperation of biopolitical productionexceptional normative situationssocial conflict as the basis for basis for the revolutionarycontingent legal frameworks notion of institution
6.3 GOVERNING THEREVOLUTION A revolutionary process today will have to be governed by a Rechtswollen, that is, an institutional and constitutional will , which, in a parallel way, articulates the singularities of the multitude, along with its diverse instances of revolt and rebellion, in a powerful and lasting common process.
DE SINGULARITATE 2:INSTITUTINGHAPPINESS Happiness should become once again today a political concept. Happiness as a pleasure that lasts and repeats, and of collective nature. Being is not fixed once and for all in some otherworldly realm but constantly subject to a process of becoming. Human nature similarly is not immutable but rather open to a process of training and education. Change is possible at the most basic level of our world and our selves and that we can intervene in this process to orient it along the lines of our desires, toward happiness.
DE SINGULARITATE 2:INSTITUTINGHAPPINESS conceptions of happiness, joy,How can we restore or reinvent such politicaland love for our world?1.Provide basic means of life for all, throughout the world, aglobal guaranteed income and truly universal health care,2.demand equality against hierarchy, allowing everyone tobecome capable of participating in the constitution ofsociety, collective self-rule, and constructive interactionwith others. This means: basic education, a globalcitizenship.3.open access to the common against the barriers ofprivate property
DE SINGULARITATE 2:INSTITUTINGHAPPINESShappiness will constantly be The process of instituting accompanied by laughter. Ours is also a laugh of creation and joy, anchored solidly in the present. Ours is finally a laugh of destruction, the laugh of armed angels which accompanies the combat against evil, nothing to do with hatred. The extirpation in ourselves of our attachments to identity and, in general, the conditions of our enslavement will be extraordinarily painful, but still we laugh.