Useful Hardness Testing by Zwick Hardness Testing

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  • 1. FP 303 2.1208 Hardness testing with Zwick Intelligent testing
  • 2. Contents The Zwick Roell Group – over a hundred years' materials testing experience ......................................................... 3 Innovative hardness testing .................................................................................................................................. 4 Basic principles, methods, standards .................................................................................................................... 5 Hardness testing machines and instruments ........................................................................................................ 15 Zwicki-Line universal hardness testing machine .................................................................................................... 16 ZHU topLine hardness testing machine – up to 3000 kg test load ......................................................................... 18 ZHU 187.5 and ZHU 250 universal hardness testing machines ............................................................................. 19 Zwick 3106 universal ball indentation hardness tester .......................................................................................... 20 ZHV1 micro Vickers hardness tester .................................................................................................................... 21 ZHV10 low-load Vickers hardness test ................................................................................................................. 22 ZHV/zwicki-Line Vickers hardness tester .............................................................................................................. 23 ZHR Rockwell hardness tester ............................................................................................................................ 24 Zwick portable hardness testers .......................................................................................................................... 25 Zwick MIC10 hardness tester (UCI method) ......................................................................................................... 25 Zwick DynaPocket digital rebound hardness tester ............................................................................................... 25 Zwick Sclerograph mechanical rebound hardness tester ..................................................................................... 26 Zwick Webster hardness testing pliers ................................................................................................................. 26 Zwick PZ3 Brinell clamp ...................................................................................................................................... 26 Zwick Barcol hardness tester .............................................................................................................................. 26 Zwick testXpert® testing software - intelligent and reliable ..................................................................................... 27 Selection chart: hardness testing machines and devices ...................................................................................... 30 Zwick service ...................................................................................................................................................... 31 2
  • 3. The Zwick Roell Group – over a hundred years' materials testing experience Mechanical testing is the oldest branch of materials testing and one which has continued to gain in importance. As early as the 15th and 16th centuries, Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei were considering matters such as the bending load and elastic properties of materials. The first such testing machines appeared in France in the middle of the 18th century. The Swiss, later German company Amsler began materials testing in the mid-19th century, followed by Roell & Korthaus in 1920, while mechanical-testing specialists Zwick had been making hardness testers and materials testing machines and systems since 1937. In July 2001 the group was reorganized as a corporation under the name of Zwick Roell AG, which today includes Zwick, Toni Technik, Indentec Ltd and Acmel Labo. Zwick Roell AG's expertise in the field of force and extension measurement was reinforced by the acquisition in 2006 of the Austrian company Meßphysik, followed by the German firm GTM in 2007. Together, these companies provide a comprehensive, coordinated component and function-testing programme – from manually operated or fully automated hardness testers to static and dynamic integrated laboratory testing systems for process-parallel applications. Zwick's comprehensive and innovative hardness testing solutions The success of our hardness testing machines and instruments is founded on many years' experience, on our role as a global supplier and on maintaining close contactwith our customers. The versatility and high levelof 'intelligence' of our testing systems are the product of up-to-date engineering, powerful electronics and application-orientated software. But the Zwick Roell Group is far more than just a supplier of testing equipment, having received EN ISO 9001 certification as long ago as 1994 – a guarantee of product and service quality. Fig. 1: Zwick Roell AG/Zwick GmbH & Co. KG Administration building, Ulm Zwick hardness testing systems Cost-effectiveness: • co-ordinated solutions for standard applications • universal application – goods inwards, production control, research and development • optimum cost/performance ratio in any situation Flexibility through modular construction: • modular design of hardness testers, machines and accessories offers optimum custom-made solutions to any testing assignment • upgrading/retrofitting options make our systems future proof • robust delivery times Versatile accessories: • hardness-testing devices to standard and customerspecified requirements • indentors to suit any established testing method • a range of prismatic specimen supports and holders • manual and motorized compound tables • a range of specimen vices • certified hardness comparison platens Support before and after purchase: • expert on-the-spot help and advice • testing in our applications laboratory • hotline support and service • comprehensive customer-focused cover provided by more than 56 agencies worldwide 3
  • 4. Innovative hardness testing Zwick has been supplying stationary hardness testing devices for all standardized methods for many years, plus a wide range of portable hardness testers. Through our active involvement in national and international standards committees we are helping to shape modern, innovative hardness testing – for both today and tomorrow. A policy of innovative development has seen our hardness product range greatly expanded, particularly in the last few years. The Zwick Roell Group has probably the most comprehensive selection of hardness testing machines and instruments available – for almost any situation. Stationary hardness testing machines and instruments for the following methods: • HV – Vickers • HB – Brinell • HK – Knoop • HM – Martens (instrumented indentation testing,formerly HU – universal hardness) • HR – Rockwell (scales A...K, N, T) • H – ball indentation hardness • HVT – modified Vickers method • HBT – modified Brinell method • testing hardness of special materials, e.g. carbonbased materials, carbon brushes, plaster, asphalt; hardness of resilient floor coverings Portable hardness testers for the following methods: • Shore, IRHD • HL – Leeb • HB – Brinell • HR – Rockwell Zwick solutions - customer benefits Zwick offers a complete range of hardness-testing machines and instruments, from fully automated systems to basic instruments for standard applications. Our hardness testing machines use innovative technologies from our materials testing range in conjunction with hardness testing add-ons and Zwick's testXpert® software. Flexibility and upgradability, particularly with the zwickiLine test frame, allow tailor-made, customer-oriented solutions using: • hardness testing devices for optical testing • hardness measuring head for indentation depthmeasuring 4 Fig. 2: Different specimen for hardness tests • combination of hardness measuring head with a highprecision measuring microscope, giving hardness testing with optical indentation measurement and digital depth measurement • compound tables with manual or motorised control • application-orientated master and standard testing programs in testXpert® Features of our hardness testing machines: • modular design allowing flexible combinations • virtually unlimited upgradability and expandability • can be automated and integrated into automatic testing systems • state-of-the-art digital measuring and control technology as standard • used in production control, quality assurance and research and development • your guarantee of a secure, future proof investment Hardness testers – a broad spectrum of uses: • standardised applications • with line display and integrated standardized conversion functions to other hardness scales for standard applications • with touchscreen, extended functions and comfortable operation for a wide range of testing assignments, including batch testing and production control Our hardness testers are characterized by: • straight forward operation • automatic test cycle • manual or automatic load changing • flexible/large test area height • high precision • robust construction with play-free ball-bearing lead screw • a wide range of accessories
  • 5. Hardness testing – basic principles, methods and standards Basic principles Around 1900 Martens proposed the following definition: “Hardness is the resistance of a body to penetration by a second (harder) body.“ This simple, graphic definition became accepted in technical circles and is still used today. Technical hardness is a mechanical characteristic used to describe a material or the state of a material. Hardness cannot be measured directly, but is derived from primary measured variables including: • test load • indentation depth • indentation area. Depending on the test method, the hardness value is determined from one of the following: • test load plus a geometrical value describing the indentation, e.g. indentation depth • solely via a length characterizing the indentation • through a different material response, e.g. scorability. An unequivocal hardness value can only be determined using the following criteria: • definition of hardness value • indentor geometry and material • size of test load and duration of effect plus means of application • condition and surface quality of specimen Selecting hardness testing method – principal factors: • cost-effectivenesss • cost/effort involved in specimen preparation • availability of machines and instruments • standardized specifications Additional factors: • specimen material and hardness • shape, dimensions, weight • accessibility of specimen • nature of test (e.g. series or hardness sequence testing) • permissible measurement uncertainty Hardness values can only be compared if they have been determined by the same test method using identical test parameters. Fig. 1: Overview of hardness testing methods 5
  • 6. For metals, methods involving static force application are usually employed. An indentor (ball, cone or pyramid) made of steel, hard metal or diamond is pressed into a specimen supported on a firm base. The test load is applied perpendicularly, without shock, and with a defined initial application time and duration. With many test methods, the indentation is measured after removal of the load. The length measurement values(indentation depth, diagonals, diameter) are used to calculate the hardness value. Fig. 2: Zwick/ZHU0.2/Z2.5 universal hardness testing machine with HU measuring head, microscope and motozried compound table. Fig.1: Zwick/ZHV1 micro Vickers hardness tester with motor operated cross-table. In practice the Rockwell, Brinell and Vickers (Knoop) hardness testing methods are used, with the modern instrumented indentation method (Martens hardness) gaining steadily in significance. This method is seeing increasing use in research and development and industry, as it offers the capability to determine other materials parameters in addition to hardness. Moreover, this method can be employed with any material. Zwick is playing a leading role in this innovative testing method, in collaboration with the German Institute of Material Research (BAM), and is actively involved in national and international standards committees in this field. Hardness testing methods featuring dynamic force application often require portable devices, particularly when large components are being tested. Zwick has a range of potable hardness testers for this purpose. 6
  • 7. Hardness testing methods and standards Rockwell hardness testing (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) Vickers hardness testing Measured quantity Rockwell hardness HR. Indentation depth h in mm Measured quantity Vickers hardness HV. Lengths of both diagonals of residual test indentation measured. Definition HR = N - h/S N ... numerical value (specified for each Rockwell method) h ... residual indentation in mm S ... scale value in mm. This value is the change in indentation in mm corresponding to one Rockwell unit. Definition HV = 0.102 F/A = 0.1891 F/d² F ... test load in N A ... indentation surface in mm2 d ... arithmetic average value of diagonal lengths.in mm Explanation of test result display: e.g. 61,2 HRC Code letter for selected Rockwell method Code letters for Rockwell hardness Hardness value Explanation of test result display: e.g. 230 HV 10/20 Indentation duration in s (not required for standardised duration) Code number for test load corresponding to F in N · 0.102 Code letters for Vickers hardness Hardness value Advantages • test requires little time as the hardness value can be read off directly following indentation (or is displayed) • capable of automation • low capital cost of testing machine as no optical measuring unit is required • no operator influence - hardness value displayed directly Advantages • virtually no limit imposed on use of method due to specimen hardness • can be used for tests on thin sheet-metal, small specimens or test areas, thin-walled pipes and electroplating • hardness value not dependent on test load in macro range (test loads > 49 .03 N) • no measuring errors due to limited specimen elasticity in effective test force direction Disadvantages • possibility of error during test sequence due to permanent displacement of specimen and other components in force flow • limited capability for testing specimens with hardened edge layers due to high test loads involved • diamond indentor sensitive to damage, with consequent risk of measuring errors • poor hardness differentiation • influence of indentor on test result when using a conical indentor Disadvantages • difficult to obtain adequate surface quality • measurement of diagonals time-consuming • diamond indentor sensitive to damage • susceptible to vibrations, especially in micro range • operator influence on hardness value Relevant standards • EN ISO 6508 • ASTM E 18 Relevant standards • EN ISO 6507 • ASTM E 92 7
  • 8. Knoop hardness testing Brinell hardness testing Measured value Knoop hardness HK. Length of long diagonals from residual test indentation measured. Measured value r Brinell hardness HB. Two diameters (at right angle)s of the residual indentation in the specimen surface r measured. Definition HK = 0.102 F/A = 1.451 F/d² F ... test load in N A ... projection area of test indentation in mm² d ... length of long diagonals in mm Explanation of test result display: e.g. 1240 HK 0,5/30 Definition HB = 0.102 F/A = 0.102 · 2F/ (p D(D- vD²-d²)) F ... test load in N A ... indentation surface in mm² D ... Ø of ball indentor in mm d ... arithmetical average of two measured indentation diameters in mm Explanation of test result display: e.g. 205 HBW 10/3000/30 test duration in s (n/a for standardised durations of 10 - 15 s) code number for test load, corresponding to F in N · 0.102 diameter of ball indentor in mm code letter for indentor ball material (hard metal) code letter for Brinell hardness hardness value test duration in s (n/a for 10 - 15 s) code number for test load corresponding to F in N · 0.102 code letters for Knoop hardness hardness value Advantages • suitable for narrow specimens due to high diagonal length ratio of approx. 7:1 • superior to Vickers method for thin specimens or layers, owing to reduced indentation depth (by a factor of 4) for the same diagonal length • suitable for brittle materials due to low risk of cracking • suited to investigation of anisotropy of a material, as Knoop hardness in such cases is dependent on the direction selected for the long diagonals • no impairment of test surface functionality due to shallow indentations Advantages • suitable for hardness tests on inhomogeneous materials (owing to large indentation), provided the extent of the inhomogeneity is small in relation to the indentation • suitable for hardness tests on large unfinished components such as forgings, castings, hot-rolled, hot-pressed and heat-treated items • no measuring errors due to specimen elasticity in effective force direction • simple, robust indentors Disadvantages • considerable time required to obtain a sufficiently fine test surface • hardness dependent on test load • diamond indentor susceptible to damage • time-consuming alignment of test surface to obtain symmetrical indentations Disadvantages • range of applications limited at a maximum Brinell hardness of 650 HBW • of limited use for testing small or thin-walled specimens • measuring indentation diameters is time-consuming • relatively high level of damage to specimen during indentation Relevant standards • EN ISO 4545 Relevant standards • EN ISO 6506 • ASTM E 10 8
  • 9. Instrumented indentation testing (Martens) 2 Fmax F hc 3 hmax hp 1 a c b hp hr hmax Measured value Test load and associated (synchronous) indentation depth during loading and load removal are measured. Definition 1 indentor 2 surface of residual plastic indentation in specimen 3 surface of indentation at maximum indentation depth and test load a test load application b test load removal h c tangent to curve b at Fmax Explanation of test result display: e.g. HM 0,5/20/20 = 8700 N/mm² hardness value test load dwell time in s test load application time in s test load in N Advantages • suitable for all materials • capable of automation • determination of hardness value from elastic and plastic deformation • additional characteristics data on mechanical material properties available (material relaxation/ creep, elastic and plastic proportion of indentation work, plastic hardness, elastic indentation modul us) Disadvantages • decreasing the degree of indentation places increas – ed demands on the quality of the specimen surface (indentation depth = 20 · average surface value) • susceptible to vibrations, particularly in indentation range h < 15 µm • possibility of error due to elastic and permanent displacement of specimen and of components in the force flow during test cycle This testing method is also referred to as an instrum ented test to determine hardness and other materials parameters. The result of the test is the continuous load-indentation depth curve during the complete test cycle. By analyzing this curve at several points, comprehensive mechanical materials properties can be determined – within the scope of a single test. Derivable materials parameters • Martens hardness HM • volume hardness HM S • indentation hardness H IT • elastic indentation modul us EIT • creep CIT • relaxation R IT • indentation work (elastic, plastic) • local Martens hardness via indentation depth Zwick Martens testing systems offer you: • use in the macro range with test loads from 2N to 2500 N with indentation depths > 6 µm and indentors with various geometries (Vickers, Berkovich, various ball shapes, …) • flexible testing parameters with regard to load application, holding and load removal – position or load-controlled • standardized assessment criteria for calculation of results – definitions of the approximation curve, beginning and end of elastic resilience, and interval for volume hardness • automated cyclic indentation testing to determine machine compliance – evaluation of all unloading surges in the testing cycles • automatic determination of machine elasticity, with graphic presentation • testing program (optional) for cyclic indentation testing to obtain experimental data as the basis of the new R&D field 'Simulation of strength values from instrumented indentation testing' Relevant standards • EN ISO 14577 9
  • 10. Modified Vickers HVT method Modified Brinell HBT method Measured value Vickers hardness from HVT depth measurement Indentation depth h under test load. Measured value Modified Brinell hardness HBT. Residual indentation depth h from test indentation under pre-load measured in mm. Definition HVT = 0.102 F/A = 0.102 F/ (26,43 h²) F ... test load in N A ... indentation surface in mm² h ... indentation depth under test load in mm Definition HBT = hardness value, converted from indentation depth using a reference specimen. Explanation of test result display: e.g. 320 HVT 10/20 indentation duration in s code number for test load corresponding to N · 0.102 code letters for Vickers depth hardness hardness value Explanation of test result display: e.g. 205 HBT 10/3000 calibration method for reference specimen code letters for test method hardness value Advantages • suitable for all materials • capable of automation • can be used in production control • determination of hardness value from elastic and plastic deformation Advantages • only short time required for test, as hardness value can be read off / is displayed directly following indentation • capable of automation • no operator influence -hardness value displayed directly • test surface requires little preparation Disadvantages • decreasing degree of indentation places increased demands on quality of specimen surface (indentation depth = 20 · average surface value) • susceptible to vibrations, particularly in indentation depth range h < 15 µm • sensitive to shape deviations in indentor, particularly in tip area • method not standardi zed Disadvantages • conversion ratio has very restricted validity • possibility of error during test cycle due to permanent displacement of specimen and other components in force flow • comparison measurements on different machines assume a common conversion factor • method not standardi zed Non-standardized method to: VDI/VDE 2616-1 10 Non-standardized method to: VDI/VDE 2616-1
  • 11. UCI method (Ultrasonic Contact Impendance) Measured values Rebound hardness. Impact velocity va and rebound velocity vr (or height) of impact body are measured. Definition Rebound hardness = c · vr / va c ... constant vr ... rebound velocity of impact body va ... impact velocity of impact body Explanation of test result display: e.g. 540 HL code letters for rebound hardness hardness value Advantages • portable device, simple to operate • automatic test sequence; very short test time • testing in any position, e.g. overhead measurement possible using correction factors Disadvantages • testing thinner specimens or specimens with low mass poses problems • high level of operator influence possible Relevant standards • ASTM Standard A 956 dynamic measuring methods: quotient of rebound (Rp) and impact (Ap) velocity with hardness expressed in Leeb: HL • DIN 50156 Load F Sender Resonanceamplifier Receiver Oscillation Rebound hardness test Diamond F Δf Calibration line Specimen hardness calculated from known test load, measured frequency shift and stored adjustment values, with reference to the E modulus. Hardness HV Hardness = f (F, Δf) A rod is excited into longitudinal oscillations. At one end there is a Vickers diamond, which is pressed into the material under test. The defined load F is mostly applied via a spring. The rod oscillates at its natural resonance frequency, which essentially depends on its length. Pressing the Vickers diamond into the specimen causes damping of the oscillation. Linked to this is a shift in the resonance frequency, which is measured. The damping of the rod, and the associated frequency shift, depends on the contact area between diamond and specimen and, given a fixed test load, on the hardness of the specimen. The E modulus of the material under test also influences the frequency shift. Advantages • mobile, flexible in use • testing in any position • simple to operate Disadvantages • testing thinner specimens or specimens with low mass can be difficult. The testing requires a minimum thickness as well as a minimum mass in order to achieve reliable results. In certain cases the acoustic attatchment onto larger masses could improve the results. Relevant standards • The Ultrasonic Contact Impedance method is standardised to ASTM A 1038 • DIN 50158 11
  • 12. Summary chart: hardness testing on metals Abbreviation Indentor Test load Total test load Rockwell Scale A HRA Diamond cone 98.07 N 588.4 N Measurand & range Rockwell hardness HR 20 ... 88 HRA Scale B HRB 98.07 N 980.7 N 20 ... 100 HRB Scale C HRC Ball, Ø 1.5875 mm (1/16 inch) Diamond cone 98.07 N 1471 N 20 ... 70 HRC Scale D HRD Diamond cone 98.07 N 980.7 N 40 ... 77 HRD Scale E HRE 98.07 N 980.7 N 70 ... 100 HRE Scale F HRF 98.07 N 588.4 N 60 ... 100 HRF Scale G HRG 98.07 N 1471 N 30 ... 94 HRG Scale H HRH 98.07 N 588.4 N 80 ... 100 HRH Scale K HRK 98.07 N 1471 N 40 ... 100 HRK 15 N 30 N 45 N HR 15N HR 30N HR 45N Ball, Ø 3.1750 mm (1/8 inch) Ball, Ø 1.5875 mm (1/16 inch) Ball, Ø 1.5875 mm (1/16 inch) Ball, Ø 3.1750 mm (1/8 inch) Ball, Ø 3.1750 mm (1/8 inch) Diamond cone Diamond cone Diamond cone 29.42 N 29.42 N 29.72 N 147.1 N 294.2 N 441.3 N 70 ... 94 HR 15 N 42 ... 86 HR 30 N 20 ... 77 HR 45 N 15 T 30 T 45 T HR 15T HR 30T HR 45T Ball, Ø 1.5875 mm (1/16 inch) 29.42 N 29.42 N 29.42 N 147.1 N 294.2 N 441.3 N 67 ... 93 HR 15 T 29 ... 82 HR 30 T 1 ... 72 HR 45 T Method Standard EN EN EN EN EN EN EN EN EN EN ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO 6508-1 6508-1 6508-1 6508-1 6508-1 6508-1 6508-1 6508-1 6508-1 6508-1 EN ISO 6508-1 Table 1: Overview of metals standards and methods Rockwell testing method Applications HRA Can test hardened and hardened tempered steels with low thickness or thinner edge layer than HRC Reduced material stress and specimen damage compared with HRC. Hard metals . HRD Surface-hardened parts with medium hardness layers. HRC Hardened and hardened tempered steels (tools, high-strength mild steels). HRF Cold-rolled thin steel sheet,annealed copper-zinc alloys and annealed copper . HRB Soft mild steels (sheets, non-ferrous metals ). HRG Phosphor-bronze, beryllium copper, low-hardness malleable cast iron . HRH Aluminium, zinc, lead. HRE Cast iron, aluminium and magnesium alloys, bearing metals. HRK Bearing metals and other metals with very low hardness. HR 15/30/45 N Steels as per HRA, HRD und HRC, provided thin parts or edge layers are involved. HR 15/30/45 T Soft steels and non-ferrous metals as per HRF und HRB, provided items are thin (e.g. deep-drawn sheets) Table 2: Overview of applications for Rockwell testing 12
  • 13. Summary chart (continued): hardness-testing on metals Method Abbreviation Indentor Test pre-load Total test load Measurand & range Standard HBW Ball, Ø 1/2.5/5/10 mm - 9.8... 29420 N Brinell HB EN ISO 6506-1 2.5 1 2442 612.9 153.2 24.52 8...55 Aluminium 980.7 245.2 61.29 9.807 3...22 Lead, tin Measurand & range Standard Brinell Degree of loading Indentor ball Ø in mm 10 5 2.5 1 Recordable hardness range Examples 30 10 29420 7355 1839 294.2 96-650 Steel, (malleable) cast iron 9807 2452 612.9 98.07 32-218 Aluminium, brass, copper, bronze 5 Test load F in N 4903 1226 306.5 49.03 16...109 Aluminium, zinc Method Abbreviation Indentor Test pre-load Total test load Vickers Micro Low-load Macro HV 0.01...≤ 0.2 HV 0.2...≤ 5 HV 5...100 Diamond pyramid, face angle 136° - Vickers HV 0.098...1.961 Vickers HV 1.961...49.03 49.03...980.7 N Vickers HV HK rhombic diamond pyramid - ≤ 9.807 N Knoop HK Abbreviation Indentor Test pre-load Total test load Measurand & range Standard - 2...2500 N EN ISO 14577 - 2...2500 N HM in N/mm2 HM in N/mm2 Knoop Method Instrumented indentation test (Martens hardness) HM Diamond pyramid, face angle 136° HM Berkovich diamond pyramid, hard-metal balls DIN ISO 4516, EN ISO 6507-1 ISO 4545 DIN ISO 4516 HVT method HVT Diamond pyramid 136° ~1.96 1.961 ... 980.7 N Vickers HVT Method not standardized; HVT according VDI/VDE 2616-1 HBT Ball, Ø 2.5/5/10 mm 1961 N; 980.7 N; 490.3 N; 98.07 N 29420 N ... 612.9 N Brinell HBT, ≤ 650 HBT Method not standardized; HBT according VDI/VDE 2616-1 HRT method Table 1: Overview of metals standards and methods 13
  • 14. Summary chart (continued): hardness testing on metals Method Abbreviation Indentor Test pre-load Rebound hardness testing (Leeb) HL spherical, radius 1.5 ... 2.5 mm Totalpre-load Measurand & range Standard - E = 3.0 mJ ... 90.0 mJ Rebound hardness conforms to VDI/VDE 2616-1 ASTM A 956 DIN 50156 - 10, 49, 98 N UCI DIN 50158 UCI-Method - Diamond pyramid Table 1: Overview of metals standards and methods Converting hardness values Sometimes it is necessary to convert values obtained by one method into those of another method. This is generally because a testing machine for the desired method is not available, or when, for example, there is not enough room on the specimen for indentations using the preferred method. Rule-of-thumb (for estimations)1: HB ↔ HV: HB ≅ 0,95 x HV – HRB ↔ HB: HRB ≅ 176 - 1165/√HB HRC ↔ HV: HRC ≅ 116 - 1500/v– HV HV ↔ HK: HV ≅ HK (low load range ) Rm ↔ HB, HV: Rm ≅ c HB (oder HV), Rm in N mm-2 Given the locally differing hardnesses in many materials, such conversions only provide a rough indication of the actual hardness and should only be used when there is a sufficient certainty of obtaining an accurate conversion. Factor c for estimation of tensile strength Rm given in most literature as: c ≅ 3.5 for steel (bcc-Fe-matrix ) c ≅ 5.5 for Cu and Cu-alloys (annealed) c ≅ 4.0 for Cu and Cu-alloys (cold-formed) c ≅ 3.7 for Al and Al-alloys Empirical conversion ratios exist between the Brinell, Vickers and Rockwell methods and between hardness and tensile strength. These are for certain materials only and have limited accuracy. General conversion ratios do not exist. Details are available from Standard EN ISO 18265 (formerly DIN 50150). For non-ferrous metals, further information can be found in ASTM E 140. 1 ... from: Blumenauer, H.: Werkstoffprüfung, 6th edition, 1994 diamond corundum hard metals topaz chromium-hardened tool steel quartz orthoclase apatite fluorite calcite gypsum material Fig. 1: Comparison of various hardness scales 14
  • 15. Hardness testing machines and instruments Hardness testing machines comprise zwicki-Line materials testing machines with a range of hardness testing add-ons plus Zwick's testXpert® software. Load application is controlled by the testing machine and the testXpert® software in closed loop mode. Digital measuring and control technology comes as standard with the hardness testing machines and enables test sequence parameters to be reproduced with a high level of precision. Options providing optimization of individual test cycles are a highly important aspect of testing machine automation. Zwick hardness testing machines can be divided into two main groups: 1. Machines based on the zwicki-Line and focused to use in research and development and quality assurance: • ZHU0.2/Z2.5 – universal hardness testing machine with HU measuring head up to 200 N • ZHU2.5/Z2.5 – universal hardness testing machine with HU measuring head up to 2500 N • ZHV20/Z2.5 – low-load Vickers tester up to 20 kgf • ZHV30/Z2.5 – low-load Vickers tester up to 30 kgf Fig. 2: Zwick/ZHU250top universal hardness testing machine in dark field mode with testXpert® II link • ZHU250top – universal hardness tester (TFT, PC technology) up to 250 kgf • ZHU750top - universal hardness tester (TFT, PC technology) up to 750 kgf • ZHU3000top - universal hardness tester (TFT, PC technology) up to 3000 kgf Our self-contained hardness testing instruments can be set up for a particular testing method. They are used in R&D and for production control and quality assurance: • ZHV1/ZHV2 – micro Vickers hardness tester up to 1 (2) kgf • ZHV10 – low-load Vickers hardness tester up to 10 kgf (optional 30 kgf) • ZHV30 – low load Vickers hardness tester up to 30 kgf • ZHR – Rockwell hardness testers Zwick Roell Group's hardness testers and testing machines are your guarantee of a secure, long-term, futureproof investment. Fig. 1: Zwick/ZHV20/Z2.5 low-load Vickers hardness testing machine with motor-operated compound table and testXpert® 2. All-purpose group of testing machines are also based on closed -loop technology and cater for quality and production control: • ZHU250 – universal hardness tester ( matt screen) up to 250 kgf Fig. 3: Zwick/ZHV1 micro Vickers hardness testingin strument with motor-operated compound table and testXpert® 15
  • 16. ZHU/zwicki-Line universal hardness testing machines The ZHU/Z2.5 universal hardness testing machines can be used for all the classical testing methods, including Rockwell, Vickers, Knoop, Brinell and ball indentation hardness. They are also well-suited to the innovative instrumented indentation testing method. This is used to determine hardness plus additional metallic materials parameters and is referred to as Martens hardness (EN ISO 14577). The ZHU/Z2.5 features a patented hardness measuring head (resolution 0.02 µm) with integrated digital depth and force measuring system, mounted in a zwicki-Line materials testing machine with modified drive. Add to this our stateof-the-art measuring and control electronics testControl and our intelligent test software testXpert® and the result is a well-balanced, high precision measuring system. • Rockwell hardness HR scales R, L, M, E, K, a • Vickers depth measurement HVT • Brinell depth measurement HBT • Ball indentation hardness H (for plastics) Optical methods using the Zwick ZHU optical unit • Vickers HV • Brinell HB • Knoop HK Two different test areas are available with the ZHU/ zwicki-Line: 350 mm or 850 mm. To facilitate high-precision measurements in various application areas, 2 hardness measuring heads with exchangeable indentors and transducer foot are available: 2 N … 200 N or 5 N … 2.5 kN housing load measuring system (1% fnom, class 1) indentation depth measuring system indentor sensor foot Fig. 1: General layout of HU hardness measuring head Also available is an add-on optical unit which, when used with the hardness measuring head, allows any current hardness method to be employed. The optical unit consists of a measuring microscope with up to 4 lenses. It also has a manual operated linear displacement unit designed to allow microscope and load assembly to exchange positions. This avoids the need to move components waiting to be tested. The ZHU/zwicki-Line can be upgraded to an fully-automated hardness tester using the motorized linear displacement unit (MLDU), actively controlled by testXpert®. Therefore potential user influences are totally eliminated. Depth measurement methods • Martens hardness HM, instrumented indentation testing (formerly universal hardness HU, DIN 50359-1) • Rockwell hardness HR in scales A to K, N, T , plus HMR5/250 16 Fig. 2: Zwick/ZHU2.5/Z2.5 universal hardness testing machine with hardness measuring head The application of the intelligent testing software testXpert® supports the innovative testing systeme in standard tasks (e.g. quality assurance) as well as in research and development for very sophisticated tasks. The ZHU/zwicki-Line range is complemented by a comprehensive, standardised range of accessories. This includes a highly varied selection of indentors, hardness comparison blocks, clamping systems, ring light and compound tables with manual or fully automatic control up to 2.5 kN.
  • 17. The ZHU/Z2.5 range features: • user-friendly one-button operation • universal application for practically any hardness testing method using indentation depth measurement, regardless of material • fast, automatic approach, even with varying specimen heights • automatic test sequence and evaluation • shortest possible testing times • minimum changeover time from one method to another or when exchanging indentor and transducer foot • high level of precision and reproducibility of measured values due to high test data resolution and constant testing conditions • additional materials data obtained from force/ indentation test profile • versatile result presentation: single and statistical values, graphics, on-screen display, and print-outs can be varied as required Fig. 2: Zwick/ZHU0.2/2.5 in hot cell for testing radioactive material Fig. 1: Zwick/ZHU2.5/Z2.5 universal hardness testing machine with hardness measuring head and optical add-on unit • multiple curve overlay for direct comparison of series tests • configuration of user-specific test sequences; even special test sequences are easy to define and execute • can be used for production-line testing. Fig 3: Fully-automated universal hardness tester Zwick/ZHU2.5/Z2.5 with motorized linear dispacement unit (MLDU) 17
  • 18. Zwick/ZHU topline universal hardness testing machine (up to 3000 kgf test load) Today's modern all-purpose hardness testing machines are based on technologies making innovative use of mechatronic components. Their high level of precision gives them a wide range of applications, particularly in quality assurance, production-line checks and in the laboratory environment. A further option available is a ringlight using LED technology. This produces a special contrast image to allow more precise, automatic indentation measuring, particularly with softer materials (e.g. < 200 HB), unaffected by loss of clarity due to edge bulging. 'Revolver' option Zwick manufactures three ZHU topLine hardness testers: ZHU250top (1 – 250 kgf / 9 .8 – 2452.5 N) ZHU750top (3 – 750 kgf / 29 .4 – 7357.5 N) und ZHU3000top (20 – 3000 kgf / 196 .2 – 29430 N) . All use innovative optical zoom technology, thus eliminating the need for frequent lens changes. The closed loop/load cell load application technology provides solutions for both optical and depth measurement testing in accordance with recogni zed testing methods. Optical methods • Vickers (HV) EN ISO 6507 • Brinell (HB) EN ISO 6506 • Knoop (HK) ISO 4545 Depth measurement methods • Rockwell (HR) EN ISO 6508 • Vickers (HVT) • Brinell (HBT) • Ball indentation hardness (H) ISO 2039-1for plastics Users quickly become familiar with the intuitive, easy-touse operating system. Test sequences can be configured individually or easily stored or loaded. In addition to manual indentation measurement, ready integrated, fully automatic image analysis is optionally available, providing intelligent, high-precision measuring and reducing operator influence to a minimum. Fig 2: ‘Revolver’ holding 4 indentors and 2 lenses One very special feature is the 'Revolver' motorised turretavailable with the ZHU250top und ZHU750top. This can hold 4 different indentors and 2 lenses (2.5 / 4 / 10 / 20-fold). Add to this a motorized lead screw (instead of a handwheel) and the result is a top-of-the range hardness tester with a comprehensive range of accessories to suit any application. Intelligent testing with testXpert® II (option) Ringlight option Fig 3: Zwick/ZHU250top universal testing machine with testXpert® II connection An integrated RS232 interface allows transfer of test data to Zwick's testXpert® II software for evaluation and straight forward documentation – or direct connection with quality assurance systems. Fig 1: Ringlight option 18
  • 19. Zwick/ZHU 250 universal hardness tester Zwick/ZHU 187.5 universal hardness tester Applications The Zwick/ZHU250 universal hardness tester is used for the following methods: The Zwick/ZHU 187,5 is available in versions to suit test loads between 29.4 N and 1839 N (187.5 kg) for the following methods: • Vickers hardness (macro) • Brinell hardness (up to 1839 N) • Rockwell hardness (classic method). • Vickers (HV) EN ISO 6507, ASTM E 92 • Knoop (HK) ISO 4545, 4546 • Brinell (HB) EN ISO 6506, ASTM E 10 • Rockwell (HR) EN ISO 6508, ASTM E 18 • Vickers depth measurement HVT VDI/VDE 2616-1 • Brinell depth measurement HBT VDI/VDE 2616-1 • Ball indentation hardness (H) (ISO 2039-1) (plastics) The Zwick/ZHU250's robust design guarantees many years of high-precision testing in a wide range of applications requiring a test load up to 250 kgf. It features quick, easy, precise handling. Optical measuring of indentations uses a digital precision measuring system on a highly tempered, non-reflective matt screen. A comprehensive range of lenses (magnifications from 15x up to 520x) and accessories is available to suit any testing situation. Connection to testXpert® or testXpert® II via an RS232 interface. Fig. 2: The Zwick/ZHU 187,5 universal hardness tester is available in various versions to suit different load stage combinations. Features of these instruments include weight-loading, an automatic test cycle and an indentor-carrier providing highly flexible test positions. They are available with an LCD line display. Load-change is by means of sidemounted rotary knobs; the test method is selected via the line display. The microscope has adjustable graticules and the hardness value is transmitted to the testXpert® software at the touch of a button, to appear automatically on the display. Statistical evaluations and conversions conforming to testing standards can be performed in addition to entering tolerance limits. An RS 232 interface plus a wide range of accessories (indentor, support table, hardness comparison blocks) are included as standard. Fig. 1: Zwick/ZHU250 universal hardness tester linked to testXpert® II 19
  • 20. Zwick 3106 universal ball-indentation hardness tester The Zwick 3106 hardness tester has universal application for all depth-measurement tests. The following can be tested to standard: • Rockwell hardness (EN 10109-1, EN ISO 6508), • Rockwell hardness for carbon-based materials (DIN 51917, DIN IEC 413) • Ball indentation hardness for plastics and hard rubber (ISO 2039-1), • Hardness test: plaster (DIN 1168-2), • Indentation test: asphalt (DIN 1996-13), • Indentation test: resilient floor-coverings (EN 433). The Zwick 3106 is equipped with a digital gage and an upgrade allows data output to printers and PCs. It is employed in research, development, quality control and for goods inwards. Fig. 1: Zwick 3106 with integrated digital display and electronic measuring Optional accessories: Zwick 3106 Indentor: normal/short (120° diamon d pyramid) Balls: ø 1/16’’, ø1/8’’,ø1/4’’,ø1/2’’ (Rockwell) Indentor balls: ø 5/10 mm Compression die: ø 11.3/25.2/15.97 mm Circular support table : ø 9/48/155 mm Summary of applications: Zwick 3106 Method Abbreviation Rockwell hardness of carbon-based materials HR 10/20 HR 10/40 HR 10/60 HR 10/100 HR 10/150 Indentation method HR 10/20 on carbon brushes HR 10/60 HR 10/100 HR 10/150 Hardness testing H in MN/m² plaster Indentation testing asphalt Indentation test on resilient floor coverings - Indentor Hardened ball, Ø 10 mm (5 mm) Hardened ball, Ø 10 mm Ball, Ø 10 mm Cylinder L = 30mm 25 N Ø 11.3 mm Ø 25.2 mm Cylinder Ø11.3 mm 3N Ø 15.97 mm - Table 1: Overview of standards and methods for special materials 20 Total Test pre-load test load 196.1 N 98.07 N 392.2 N 588.4 N 980.7 N 1471 N 196.1 N 98.07 N 588.4 N 980.7 N 1471 N 200 N 10 N 525 N 500 N 1000 N Standard Application DIN 51917 Carbon, graphite, metal-graphite materials (carbon brushes) DIN IEC 413 Natural/metal/ electrographite, hard carbon Stucco, plaster DIN 1168-2 Mastic/rolled asphalt DIN 1996 Teil 13 Elastomers, embossed DIN EN materials, cork 433
  • 21. Vickers hardness testers Zwick has a range of Vickers hardness testers to suit every application, covering a wide load range and offering various levels of operator comfort. Zwick/ZHV1 and ZHV2 micro Vickers hardness testers Zwick's micro Vickers hardness testers are available in two versions to suit different load ranges: ZHV1 for weights from 10g to 1000g, and ZHV2 for weights from 25g to 2000g. They conform to the following standards: • Vickers (HV) EN ISO 6507, ASTM E 92 • Knoop (HK) EN ISO 4545, ASTM E 384 For both load ranges there is a choice of operating concept: ZHV-m (manual) – measuring is performed manually by the operator, using a microscope. The automatic turret allows one-button control of lens and indentor positionchange. The automatic test sequence and predetermined time frame eliminate operator influence during hold time. ZHV-PC - the ZHV1 and ZHV2 can be retrofitted with a CCD camera for optical evaluation on a PC system. Optical measurement of the indentations is then performed manually, or automatically via testXpert®. Fig. 2: Zwick/ZHV2-a fully automatic micro Vickers hardness tester with motorized compound table ZHV1-A / ZHV2-A fully automatic: • Automatic focussing of the indentation controlled by testXpert® • 2 versions: 2 different motorised compound tables • Control of 3 axis (x-y-z) ZHV1-S / ZHV2-S semiautomatic: • Manual focussing of the indentation • 3 versions: one digital or two different motorised compound tables • Control of 2 axis (x-y) Motorized load-change, automatic indentation measuring, automatically controlled turret (via testXpert®) for changing indentor position and lens positions, motorized compound table and fully automatic test sequences – uses include hardness profile tests with multiple sequences. Fig. 1: Zwick/ZHV1-PC manual micro Vickers hardness tester with testXpert® connection 21
  • 22. Zwick/ZHV10 low-load Vickers hardness tester Zwick ZHV30 low-load Vickers hardness tester The Zwick/ZHV10 Vickers hardness tester has a proven track record, especially with: • Vickers hardness • Knoop hardness • Brinell hardness • case-hardening, hardening and nitriding depth • scratch hardness according to Mohs (analog unit only). Loading weights from 0.2 kg to 10 kg (option up to 30 kg) and exchangeable lenses for various magnifications and image areas are available for both versions. Hardness tables are used to evaluate the hardness value when using the analog unit. The PC version uses the testXpert® software. As well as being simple to operate, testXpert® adapts to varying test conditions with great flexibility. The indentation is measured on the monitor by adjusting the graticules (manually or automatically) and is then evaluated automatically. A master test program for series measurement for Vickers, Knoop and Brinell hardness testing is available and , with add-ons for hardness sequence tests and automatic indentation measurement. A wide range of further accessories is available in addition to manual compound tables. Fig. 2: Zwick/ZHV30 manual low-load Vickers hardness tester The Zwick ZHV30 manual low-load Vickers hardness tester covers Vickers (HV) applications EN ISO 6507 and ASTM E 92. With a load range of 0.2 to 30 kg, it can also optionally be equipped for K noop (HK): EN ISO 4545, ASTM E 384 and Brinell (HB): EN ISO 6506 ASTM E 10 also. As with the Zwick micro Vickers hardness testers, measuring on the Zwick/ZHV30 is performed manually by the operator, using a microscope. One-button control of lens/indentor change is made possible by the automatic turret, while operator influence during hold time is eliminated by a fully automatic test sequence to a specified timeframe. A CCD camera can be retrofitted to the ZHV30 to enable optical evaluation via a PC system. Optical measurement of the indentation is then performed either manually or automatically with testXpert® . Fig. 1: Zwick/ZHV10 low-load Vickers hardness tester with automatic indentation measurement via testXpert® 22
  • 23. Zwick ZHV20/Z2.5 Vickers hardness testing machine The ZHV/zwicki-Line Vickers hardness testing machine is the result of integrating the Zwick hardness testing device used for optical methods with a testing machine from the zwicki -Line range. The integrated load cell permits electro-mechanically applied test loads in closed loop mode between 2 and 200 N (ZHV20/Z2.5) and 3 and 300 N (ZHV30/Z2.5). A high-resolution CCD camera is attached to a microscope angled at 90°. Indentor carrier(s) and lenses are integrated in the turret; rotating it brings them into the correct position to make or measure the indentation respectively. The turret has four carriers in total, allowing various different lenses to be used with one indentor. A testXpert® master test program contains series tests for the Vickers, Knoop und Brinell methods. Optional add-ons are available for automatic indentation measurement and focusing and for hardness sequence tests (including multiple sequences), as are manual or motorized compound tables. Fig.1: Zwick/ZHV20/Z2.5 Vickers hardness testing machine with motorized compound table, linked to testXpert®, with automatic indentation measurement Principal features: • flexible adaptation to test parameters , e.g. approach and test speeds • manual/automatic indentation measurement • selectable 5% diagonal monitoring • selectable pre-check of sequence position • selectable automatic focusing on any indentation • freely definable im/exportable sequence tests suitable for all methods ZHV20/Z2.5: optional accessories Lens carrier for indentor Lenses (50x, 100x, 200x, 400x, 600x) Indentors: • diamond pyramid 136° (Vickers) • diamond pyramid 172° (Knoop) • HM ball (Ø 1 mm, Ø 2 mm) Adapter plate for compound table Compound table: • manual • manual & digital display & RS 232 interface • motorized control Hardness comparison block Fig. 2: Zwick/ZHV30/Z2.5 Vickers hardness testing machine with motorized compound table 23
  • 24. Zwick/ZHR Rockwell hardness testing machine The Zwick/ZHR Rockwell hardness testing range caters for the following methods: • classical Rockwell methods: Zwick/ZHR 4150 (pre-load:10 kg; test load: 60; 100; 150 kg), Scales A B C D E F G H K L M P R S V; • super Rockwell method: Zwick/ZHR 4045 (pre-load: 3 kg; test load: 15, 30, 45 kg), Scales N T W X Y • combined Rockwell and super R ockwell method: Zwick/ZHR 8150 ( pre-load: 3, 10 kg; test load: 15, 30, 45, 60, 100, 150 kg), Scales A B C D E F G H K L M PRSVNTWXY • Jominy method for sequence testing to Rockwell. The instruments are available with various levels of operating convenience: • models with one-button operation for simple testing situations (Type AK, Type BK) • models with line-display and integrated conversion functions for standard applications (Type LK) • models with Touchscreen, expanded functions and high level of operating convenience for wide-ranging test situations. Used for batch-testing (Type SK) and production control (Type TK). Fig. 2: Zwick/ZHR 8150SK for series testing small batches This range of hardness testing instruments features modular design, with a wide variety of equipment, allowing the ideal combination to be produced for each application. A special feature of our Rockwell hardness testers is an indentor carrier for testing difficult-to-access measuring positions, with straight forward operation thanks to: • automatic test cycle • automatic loading and unloading • automatic evaluation, including conversion • loading weight selection using rotary knob or via touchscreen (automatic load changing). These testers are of rugged construction, with a playfree, ball-bearing spindle, test area up to 292 mm in height for large workpieces and an integ rated RS 232 interface for connection to testXpert®. Zwick can even provide a standardized solution – using the Zwick/ZHR tester – for the Jominy end quench test (Rockwell sequence testing). Fig. 1: Zwick/ZHR 4150AK for simple test situations 24 Fig. 3: Jominy test to Rockwell sequence testing with Zwick/ZHR
  • 25. Zwick portable hardness testers Increasing interest is being shown in portable hardness testers, which are used in various ways. Stationary hardness testers in the laboratory are not suitable for large or non-transportable components and plants. Zwick has a comprehensive range of portable hard ness testing products for the most varied applications. Zwick MIC10 hardness tester (UCI method) The Zwick MIC 10 provides quick, handy, on-the-spot hardness testing in conformity with the UCI method (Ultrasonic Contact Impedance, standardized to ASTM A 1038). In what is known as the comparative method, the indentation made by the diamond in the surface of the material is measured electronically and hardness value is immediately shown on the display. Zwick DynaPocket – digital rebound hardness tester The Zwick DynaPocket is an extremely handy integrated digital hardness-testing instrument which uses the dynamic rebound hardness method (Leeb) (standardized to A956). Its compact design allows easy on-the-spot testing of bulky, non-transportable components such as forgings or castings, even at locations which would be difficult for other testers to reach. Fast, reproducible measurements can be obtained regardless of impact direction thanks to patented signal processing technology. Operation is straight forward via 2 buttons, with settings and hardness values shown on a digital LCD display. Test probes for loads between 1 N (HV 0.1) and 98 N (HV 10) are available for the portable tester. The automatic conversion function allows results to be expressed in various hardness scales or converted to tensile strength. A ready-integrated statistics function enables individual values or average values to be shown within a series of tests. The handy Zwick MIC 10 can be used almost anywhere – on scaffolding for testing large containers and pipes, or for component testing wherever it is needed. The UCI method is particularly suited to testing hardened surfaces and fine-grained materials of various shapes and sizes. Thanks to the small, slender probe, measurements can be made in hard-to-reach locations. Fig. 2: DynaPocket digital rebound hardness tester plus accessories Fig. 1: Zwick MIC 10 portable hardness tester Fig. 3: Zwick DynaPocket rebound hardness tester with patented impact direction The tester already contains standard conversion tables for nine materials groups, enabling conversion of hardness values for hardness scales HV, HB, HRC, HRB, HS, HL und N/mm2. It is therefore extremely well-suited to material identification in such locations as goods inwards or a raw materials store. 25
  • 26. Zwick Sclerograph – mechanical rebound hardness tester The portable Sclerograph is based on the dynamic rebound height method. This analog device can be used to determine the hardness of steel, non- ferrous metals and rubber. The rebound height is read off and the hardness value is taken from the comparison chart supplied with the instrument. This contains Shore D, Rockwell B and C plus Brinell hardness. Zwick PZ3 Brinell testing clamp This unique portable hardness tester is suitable for standardized static Brinell ball indentation tests up to 29420 N (3000 kg). Hardness tests can be performed on materials and workpieces unsuitable for testing in the laboratory. Examples include stored steel stocks, finished structures, machines and larger metal components. Fig. 1: The portable Zwick Sclerograph Fig. 3: Zwick PZ3 Brinell clamp for tests up to 3t Zwick Webster hardness testing pliers Portable, easy-to-use pliers with built-in indentor and spring. Squeezing the grips together presses the indentor (via the spring) into the material to be tested (thickness 0.6 mm ... 8 mm) and the indentation depth is shown on the scale. The value is read off and converted to Rockwell hardness using the chart supplied. These testing pliers are used for aluminium, aluminium alloys, brass, copper alloys and steel in the following range: Rockwell E20 to E110 (max.). Zwick Barcol hardness tester This digital hardness tester is especially suitable for testing flat or lightly curved specimens, including fibreglass-reinforced plastics, duroplasts, hard thermoplasts, finished and semi-finished goods and aluminium, to EN 59 and ASTM D2583. Fig. 2: Zwick Webster hardness testing pliers Fig. 4: Zwick Barcol hardness tester with digita lmeasuring electronics 26
  • 27. testXpert® – intelligent and reliable testXpert® is the universal testing software for materials, component and function-testing. Its range of use is vast – in Zwick materials testing machines and hardness testers, pendulum impact testers, extrusion plastom – eters and automatic testing systems, to name a few. It is also used for modernizing testing machines of widely varying design and manufacture. It handles data, user and test program administration, plus communication with the test system and other peripherals. The testXpert® concept is your guarantee of maximum flexibility, operational reliability and simplicity in use. It also has clear advantages in an international context – language-swapping with just one click of the mouse. Regardless of which language the test was performed in, a test report can automatically be printed and mailed in a different language. Tasks and functions testXpert® controls and monitors: • testing system setup and reset • test/test series preparation • test execution • evaluation and documentation, • data management and IT network interface • quality management special features of testXpert® : • standardized operating platform for all applications • standard and master test programs provide a modular system for test sequences, however straight forward or demanding. Standard test programs are ideal for standardized largeseries testing under constant testing conditions: • extremely simple and intuitive in use, requiring the minimum number of entries • pre-tailored to the current application • industry-oriented • 100 % standard-compliant. Master test programs are designed for frequently changing or complex tests. Little effort or previous knowledge is required to: • create and alter test programs • arrange on-screen layouts individually • create test-specific reports. Intelligent software wizards guide you quickly and safely through every menu and perform consistency tests. testXpert® – for hardness testing products testXpert® provides a standardized operating platform, so using the software is the same no matter which hardness tester is in use.The test assistant helps you to configure the test parameters and select the results and tolerances plus the data for the test report. The actions relevant to the test are already incorporated into an easy-to-read toolbar. Various layouts for the test, the results (with statistical evaluation), a video layout for optical indentation display (and evaluation) and standard protocols are implemented – all in testXpert® . For hardness testers with optical measuring devices, a testXpert® master test program is available covering standard-compliant Vickers, Knoop and Brinell testing. This provides control of hardness testers, whether manual or fully automatic, for series and sequence testing. Also available to the user are manual, digital and motorized (controlled by testXpert® ) 2-axis compound tables. Fully automatic testing systems have the option of a motorized Z-axis for auto focusing. To reduce operator influence – a possible source of errors – on optical evaluation, the residual indentation can be evaluated automatically with innovative, pre-implemented image analysis algorithms. 27
  • 28. Fig. 1: testXpert® automatic image analysis Overview of principal software functions for optical methods • video layout with live camera image and results display for hardness and diagonals • applying measuring lines to indentation – manual or automatic via integrated image analysis algorithms • test labelling (retrospectively if required) – valid or invalid • free measuring in video layout with calibrated lens data • indentation images in BMP format – save and load, remeasure, incorporate in test report • focusing specimen surface (motorized Z-axis) manually using scroll bar/mouse or automatically via integrated image analysis • easy-to-read results and statistics in tabular form produced automatically • auto-measuring function with multi-stage algorithms for wide range of applications – extremely high level of accuracy and reproducibility • standard-compliant hardness profile testing to determine CHD, NHD, • standard-compliant conversion to EN ISO 18265 • standard-compliant curvature correction • teach-in indentation co-ordinates and test • multiple profile testing with motor-controlled 2-axis compound table • multiple sequences with identical or different samples – save and load from templates For zwicki-Line based hardness testers with depth measuring devices, additional test programs are available for standard-compliant Rockwell and ball indentation hardness tests and for the new standard for instrumented indentation test, ISO 14577 (Martens hardness). This machine is equipped as standard with a load cell and digital depth measuring system with a resolution of 20 nm . The hardness tester with the latest testControl electronics has been designed as a top-loader – the specimen is approached from above, without being Fig. 2: testXpert® with language-swapping on sample report (English/Polish) 28 Fig. 3: Typical results – instrumented indentation test on cylindrical specimen
  • 29. raised. An optical measuring device can also be fitted, allowing the Vickers, Knoop and Brinell methods to be included also. A further benefit is that continuously recording the load/ indentation depth curve – during loading and unloading – allows additional material properties to be determined which would not have been available with conventional hardness testers. This is a unique feature of the Zwick ZHU/zwicki-Line - a truly innovative hardness testing machine. Principal software functions for methods involving depth measurement, particularly instrumented indentation testing • universal application range – all standardized methods for metals and plastics are covered • instrumented indentation testing – recording and evaluating force/indentation curve regardless of method in use • determine Martens hardness and Vickers hardness from same indentation and test sequence • accurate Rockwell testing, even without diamond correction • excellent repeatability thanks to application-oriented testControl digital measuring and control technology • derivable materials parameters: Martens hardness HM,volume hardness HMS, indentation hardness HIT, elastic indentation modulus EIT, creep CIT, relaxation RIT, indentation work (elastic, plastic), local Martens hardness via indentation depth • flexible test parameters regarding load application, hold and load removal – position or load-controlled • standardized evaluation criteria for result calculation – specifications for approximation curve, beginning and end of resilience and volume hardness interval • determination of machine compliance with automated cyclic indentation testing – evaluation of all unloading steps from test cycle • automatic determination of machine compliance with graphic representation • new field: 'simulation of strength values from instrumented indentation testing' uses Zwick cyclic indentation program (optional) to obtain experimental data. Fig. 2: Touch PC with testXpert® or testXpert® II and small device program For the Zwick ZHR Standalone hardness tester (Rockwell), ZHU250 (universal hardness testing machine up to 250 kg) and the ZHU topLine range (1-3000kg), customers have the option of testXpert® II as their Zwick testing software. The software supports data readout via the serial ports: • transfer of test results via RS232 interface and ISO 9001 standard-compliant test reports • easy-to-read tabular presentation or results and automatic test report production and archiving • conversion to EN ISO 18265 with all steel and nonferrous metal charts • easy integration with laboratory information systems (LIMS). Fig. 1: Screenshot showing multiple sequences 29
  • 30. Metals Plastics Special materials Ceramics Martens hardness Rockwell A...C Rockwell N...T Rockwell L, M, R Ball indentation HVT, HBT Vickers Sequence testing Knoop Brinell Test load Testing software Overview: Hardness testing machines and hardness testers Variants • - • o - o - - - - - - • • • o • • • • • • • - - - - ➀ ➀ ZHV30/Z2.5 to 30 kg ZHU0.2/Z2.5 or ZHU2.5/Z2.5 • o • • • • - • • • • • • • • • • • ➀ with supplementary unit „optics“ - - • • • o • • - o • ➁ 250/750/3000 kg, zoom-optics - - • • • • • • • • • ➀/➁ non-reflective matt sreen, digital precision measuring system Hardness testing machines ZHV20/Z2.5 ZHUx.y/Z2.5 ZHU topLine ZHU250 1,96...196 N 4,9...2452 N (1,96...196 N) 4,9...2452 N 9,8...29430 N 9,8...2452 N Hardness testers Zwick/ZHV1(2) Zwick/ZHV10 Zwick/ZHV30 10(25)...1000(2000) g 1,96...98 (294) N 1,96...294 N • - • • • • - o o - - - - - - - - - - - - - • • • • • • o • • • o ➀ ➀ ➀ ZHV1-m/-PC/-s/-a analogue/PC-variant ZHV30-m/-PC Zwick/ZHU187,5 29,43...1839,4 N • o - - - • - - - - • - - o ➀ manual, PC Zwick/ZHR4150 Pre-load: 98 N Test load: 588,4; 980,7; 1471 N • • - - - • - • - - - - - - ➀/➁ one button operation, line display, touchscreen basic, touchscreen advanced Zwick/ZHR4045 Pre-load: 29,4 N Test load: 117,7; 264,8; 411,9 N • • - - - - • - - - - - - - ➀/➁ one button operation, line display, touchscreen basic, touchscreen advanced Zwick/ZHR8150 Pre-load: 29,4; 98 N • • Test load: 117,7; 264,8; 411,9; 588,4; 980,7; 1471 N - - • • • - - - - - - ➀/➁ one button operation, line display, touchscreen basic, touchscreen advanced Zwick3106 Pre-load: 3; 10; 25; 98 N • • • Test load: 200; 500; 525; 196,1; 392,2; 588,4 980,7; 1471 N - • - • • - - - - - ➀ loading weights, integrated digital display and electronic measuring Table 1: Overview hardness testing machines and hardness testers • ... fits perfect o ... suitable, however limited load range/material dependencies - ... not suitable 30 Applicable testing software: ➀ testXpert ® ➁ testXpert ® II
  • 31. Zwick service Pretesting Worldwide service For new, altered or highly complex applications, Zwick offers you the opportunity to carry out a practical test. The application technology laboratory's experts and comprehensive range of equipment are at your disposal. Customer satisfaction is our first priority at Zwick Roell AG. Local service organizations in over 56 countries work to ensure optimum utilization and maximum availability of your testing system. Engineering services Pre-delivery inspection Contract testing Before final delivery of a machine, customers have the opp ortunity to carry out a pre-delivery inspection at our premises, where they can satisfy themselves regarding scope of delivery and try out the functions stipulated in the order. We also provide an introduction to operating the system. New testing assignments with changing requirements, building or upgrading a testing laboratory – only with the aid of specialists can you be sure of getting what you want. Experienced Zwick engineers advise at the planning stage of complex projects and then help you achieve the reality. Whether it's complex new testing assignments with new specimen geometry or materials, Zwick's contract testing laboratory will deliver the desired test results quickly and regardless of the customer's mechanization levels – or the absence of suitable grips. Transport If required, Zwick Service will, as part of the commissioning process, provide full transport supervision. We can also provide business to business transport and deliver the machine to the desired location at your premises. Testing applications - seminars Modernization Demonstration There are many factors to consider before deciding to acquire a materials testing system and accessories. To make that decision easier, the application laboratory at Zwick's headquarters offers you the opportunity to experience various solutions to a wide range of testing situations. Active co-operation with associates associates in research and technology enables the Zwick Academy to organize seminars on the basic principles of materials testing, its applications and the current level of knowledge. New from old – Zwick' s skilled modernization service will bring your old machines up to state of the art. Whatever the original brand – Zwick Service has a conversion kit to suit it and an experienced team of specialists to do the job. 31
  • 32. Installation Relocation Hotline Zwick Service will organize the relocation of your testing machine from start to finish. Our experienced project management team will take care of the detailed planning of disassembly, transport and recommissioning. Zwick will see to it that your testing machine is ready and waiting at your new premises. Software adaptation With several thousand successful commissionings under our belt, you can rely on Zwick Service to provide the best possible installation service for machine and/or accessories. Pre-handover function test in the customer's presence help make installation trouble-free. Hardware familiarization Nothing is left to chance at Zwick Service when a new system is commissioned. Professional, systematically constructed checklists help you get the most out of our products. With our software engineers' depth of expert knowledge and many years of experience, you can rely on Zwick to deliver programming perfectly adapted to your individual requirements. Working closely with our customers, we identify their testing requirements and – still in close collaboration – deliver the right package for the job. First priority is for your testing machine to be in perfect working order. Should faults develop in your machine or software, in spite of their high quality, our expert staff are ready to help you via the Zwick Hotline. Your call will be returned in the shortest possible time. Support Desk Product training Software familiarization Specially produced checklists using concrete examples from everyday practice help you become familiar with our software, with results being saved for later use. Alternatively, we offer a 2-stage induction course, consisting of a basic introduction as part of the commissioning process, followed by an expanded induction at a later point in time. 32 Qualified trainers with industry experience provide product training We also offer individual training tailored to customers' requirements. This is available in-house or at our premises. For further advice or assistance, such as technical support, software adaptation or training, the Zwick Support Desk is in many cases a better option than an on-the-spot visit. Our experienced staff will use their wide-ranging technical knowledge to provide you with an answer speedily and effectively.
  • 33. Rental Repairs Whether for short-term testing requirements or just to try them out Zwick Service has the specimen grips you need. An update gives you access to the ongoing development of testXpert® software and opens the door to an expanded range of functions. Changes to testing standards are also incorporated into the latest versions. Maintenance Zwick Service can perform the necessary scheduled maintenance of machines and accessories as detailed in the operating manual and will also ensure that service intervals are maintained. Servicing Zwick Service helps you reduce downtime significantly through regular servicing of your testing machines.The condition of the machine is recorded at the service and necessary repairs are carried out and wear parts replaced immediately, where possible. The service engineer will also advise on preventive and/or precautionary measures. Software Upgrade/Update If, in spite of careful servicing and maintenance, a fault develops in a machine, one of our many service engineers will be with you in the shortest po ssible time, while spare parts can be delivered within 24 hours. Upgrading from an old DOS operating system to the latest Windows equivalent provides a secure route to the new technology. Upgrade from testXpert® to testXpert® II and enjoy access to all the latest testXpert® developments, with their many benefits for everyday use. Calibration Zwick's calibration service is accredited by DKD1), UKAS2), COFRAC3) and A2LA4) to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 for on-site calibration of materials testing machines. The reference measuring equipment used is regularly recalibrated. Depending on the customer's requirements, either a works calibration (Zwick calibration certificate), ISO calibration (Zwick certificate with documentation showing measuring equipment supervision to ISO 9001) or DKD calibration (DKD certificate) is performed. If necessary, the testing machines and associated sensors will be adjusted during calibration. Upgrading or udating to testXpert® II allows Zwick's customers to profit from the latest developments. 1) Deutscher Kalibrier-Dienst United Kingdom Accreditation Service 3) COFRAC: Comité Français d´Accréditation 4) A2LA: American Association for Laboratory Accredition 2) DKD: UKAS: 33
  • 34. Notes 34
  • 35. Notes 35
  • 36. Zwick Asia Pte Ltd. 25 International Business Park #04-17 German Centre Singapore 609916 · Singapore Phone ++65 6 899 5010 Fax ++65 6 899 5014 www.zwick.com.sg info@zwick.com.sg Zwick Testing Machines Ltd. Southern Avenue Leominster, Herefordshire HR6 OQH Great Britain Phone ++44 1568-61 52 01 Fax ++44 1568-61 26 26 www.zwick.co.uk sales.info@zwick.co.uk Zwick USA 1620 Cobb International Boulevard Suite #1 Kennesaw, GA 30152 · USA Phone ++1 770 420 6555 Fax ++1 770 420 6333 www.zwickusa.com info@zwickusa.com Zwick France S.a.r.l. B.P. 45045 F-95912 Roissy CDG Cedex France Phone ++33 1-48 63 21 40 Fax ++33 1-48 63 84 31 www.zwick.fr info@zwick.fr Zwick Ibérica Equipos de Ensayos S.L. Marcus Porcius, 1 Pol. Les Guixeres, s/n Edificio BCIN 08915 Badalona (Barcelona) - Spain Phone ++34 934 648 002 Fax ++34 934 648 048 www.zwick.es comercial@zwick.es