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Gamification 08 2011

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Six dimensions of Gamification

Six dimensions of Gamification


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  • 1. Gamificaon  and  Audience  Engagement   The  New  Normal  for  audience  parcipaon   August  2011   Ver.  1.0  LLBC,llchttp://www.RevolutionaryInnovator.comexcellence. perspective. innovation.
  • 2. This  proposal  is  protected  under  the  copyright  laws  of  the  United  States  and  other  countries  as  an  unpublished  work.    This  proposal  contains  informaon  that  is  proprietary  and  confidenal  to  LLBC,llc,  which  shall  not  be  disclosed  outside  the  recipient’s  company  or  duplicated,  used  or  disclosed  in  whole  or  in  part  by  the  recipient  of  any  purpose  other  than  to  evaluate  this  proposal.    Any  other  use  or  disclosure  in  whole  or  in  part  of  this  informaon  without  the  express  wriNen  permission  of  LLBC,llc  is  prohibited.    2011  LLBC,llc  (unpublished).      All  rights  reserved.     Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   2  
  • 3. LLBC,llc Got  Game?   Gamificaon  is  the  use  of  game  techniques  to  encourage  audiences  to  adopt  behaviors,  generally,  for  consumer-­‐oriented  products  or   services.      Audiences  are  becoming  more  broad  everyday,  the  sponsor  of  the  games  become  more  diverse.  Techniques  used  encourage  audiences  to  adopt  a  behavior  (keep  playing  to  achieve  some  goal,  try  to  have  “more”  than  other  competors)  are  fun  oriented  and  usually   with  a  bit  of  compeve  edge.  Tradional  examples  include  loyalty  programs  and  have  grown  to  include  the  use  of  mobile  devices  (e.g.,   “check  ins”  at  your  favorite  restaurant  to  become  the  highest  ranked  player)  and  reward  badges  (icons  associated  with  your  login)  for   accomplishments.       Consider  it  entertainment  with  a  business  goal.  The  entertainment  must  be  relevant  to  the  user  and  the  goal  very  clearly  defined  and   focused.  The  goal  should  be  mutually  beneficial  as  it  plays  on  the  psychological  need  to  engage  in  gaming.  Games  that  we  never  win/ achieve  something  are  no  fun  and  therefore  we  stop  playing.  Gamificaon  can  be  applied  to  a  wide  variety  of  acvies  from  rewards   programs  to  diet/exercise  or  surveys  and  opinion  polls.      Retail  and  Consumer  products  benefit  from  gamificaon  most  today  but  other   industry  can  benefit  as  well.   •  It’s  not  about  making  games,  it’s  about  human  behavior  and  the  behavioral  factors  that   encourage  us  to  strive  for  a  goal   –  You  can  compete  with  yourself   –  You  can  compete  with  a  community   •  It  is  about  the  game  mechanics  that  spur  and  movate  human  (and  some  scienst  will  tell  you,  all   mammals  love  to  play  games)    behavior     •  Much  of  the  terminology  came  from  fantasy  role  playing  games  (RPGs)  that  became  popular  in   the  1980’s   •  Those  games  have  since  evolved  from  board  games  to  single  player  video  games  to  online  to   games  sponsored  or  enabled  by  social  media  networks   •  What’s  old  is  new  again,  this  is  latest  iteraon  of  loyalty  and  affinity  programs   –  Frequent  Flier  Miles,   –  Hotel  Loyalty,   –  Retail  Reward,     –  Cooking  contest  sponsored  by  Consumer  Product  Manufacturer,   –  And  of  course  the  latest  trend  from  social  networks  such  as  Facebook,  Yelp,  Foursquare   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   3  
  • 4. LLBC,llc Essenals  of  the  Gamificaon  Event   The  audience  and  the  sponsor  play  different  roles  in  the  gamificaon  event.    The  sponsor  may  be   the  party  that  derives  direct  benefit  from  parcipaon.    Alternavely  the  sponsor  may  host  the   game  (e.g.,  Bazaar  Voice,  Facebook)  and  their  customer  reap  the  benefits   Your  gamificaon  is  a  series  of  discrete  events.    Audience  parcipate  and/or  “check  in”  at  mes.   The  parcipaon  maybe  brief  (clicking  on  app  when  arriving  at  a  desnaon)  or  lengthy  as  they   play  a  turn  based  game,  stay  at  a  hotel  or  take  trip.   In  the  following  pages  we’ll  explore  each  of  the  following  six  areas  briefly.     Audience   Game  Sponsor   1 Role   Player   Game  Master/Host   2 Reward  Point   Desnaon   Journey   3 Movaon   Fun/Reward/Sasfacon  (of  a  need  or  want)   Market  Share,  Audience  Engagement   4 Commitment   Investment  of  me   Investment  of  Resources   5 Social  Goal   Community   Community   6 Orientaon   Goals   Tasks   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   4  
  • 5. LLBC,llc Bartle’s  Four  Types  of  Game  Players   Before  we  can  understand  audiences,  we  want  to  set  some  context  and  give  some  names  to  the  archetypes  that   reside  within  each  type  of  audience.    In  1990  Richard  Bartle  wrote  a  paper  that  came  out  of  a  series  of  discussions   between  online  gamers.    The  paper  was  not  meant  to  be  scienfic  but  did  create  some  commonly  accepted   archetypes  for  describing  gamers,  their  movaons  and  social  interacons  in  the  online  (gamified)  world.   We’ve  adopted  and  modified  his  definions  a  bit  to  provide  a  common  frame  of  reference  and  terminology.    Future   versions  of  this  paper  will  have  new  archetypes.  Each  of  these  archetypes  are  found  in  a  gamified  environment.    Do  you  have  a  friend  on  Facebook  who  posts  ten  mes  an  hour?  Ever  read  a  review  from  someone  who  has  been  to  every   restaurant  in  your  neighborhood  and  knows  the  owners  “personally?”    • There  are  four  basic  reasons  people  parcipate  in  these  interacve  gamified  environments.    Based   on  our  experience  these  hold  true  in  the  modern  environment  though  there  are  no  absolutes.    The   reasons  people  parcipate  are:   1.  Achievement  within  the  game  context  –  What  benefit  does  your  audience  find  from  play?   2.  Explora<on  of  the  game  –  What  can  they  discover  or  unlock?    Does  it  become  progressively  more   interesng/challenging  to  keep  them  coming  back?   3.  Socializing  with  others  –  Are  there  social  rewards/recognion  and  the  ability  to  communicate  and   collaborate  with  others?   4.  Imposi<on  upon  others  –  This  sounds  ominous  and  it  happens  in  the  real  world  and  ofen  unintenonally.     One  person’s  helpful,  is  another’s  intrusion.    However  in  a  review  oriented  environment  (e.g.,  Yelp)  this  is   where  experts  or  people  who  feel  they  are  experts  impose  points  of  view  on  others.    Like  it  or  not,  this  is  part   of  human  behavior  so  we  want  you  to  be  prepared  for  it   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   5  
  • 6. LLBC,llc Bartle’s  Four  Types  of  Game  Players  (connued)   The  four  archetypes  are:  1.  Achievers  -­‐  regard  badge/reward-­‐gathering  and  rising  in  levels  as  their  main  goal,  and  all  is  ulmately  subservient  to  this.  Exploraon  is  necessary   only  to  find  new  sources  praise  or  badges.  Socializing  is  a  relaxing  method  of  discovering  what  other  players  know  about  the  business  of   accumulang  of  more  accolades.    They  are  genuinely  interested  in  what  others  have  to  say  but  it’s  a  means  to  an  end.  “Killing”  is  only  necessary  to   when  having  the  most  check-­‐ins  gives  you  status  above  others  2.  Explorers  -­‐  delight  in  having  the  game  expose  its  internal  machinaons  to  them.  They  try  progressively  esoteric  acons  in  wild,  out-­‐of-­‐the-­‐way   places,  looking  for  interesng  features  (i.e.  bugs)  and  figuring  out  how  things  work.  Scoring  points  may  be  necessary  to  enter  some  next  phase  of   exploraon,  but  its  tedious,  and  anyone  can  do  it.    They  tend  to  try  every  feature  at  least  once  but  there  may  not  be  a  lot  of  depth.    “Killing”  other   gamers  is  quick  but  they  are  not  looking  to  burn  any  bridges  on  the  social  aspects.  Socializing  can  be  informave  as  a  source  of  new  ideas  to  try   out,  but  most  of  what  people  say  is  something  they’ve  tried.    They  will  gravitate  to  more  experienced  explorers.    These  archetypes  are  your  best   beta-­‐testers  and  will  be  more  forgiving  of  bugs  or  issues  they  discover  in  your  product  or  service  3.  Killers  –  get  their  kicks  from  imposing  themselves  on  others.  This  may  be  "nice",  i.e..  busybody  do-­‐gooding,  but  few  people  pracce  such  an   approach  because  the  rewards  (a  warm,  cozy  inner  glow,  apparently)  arent  very  substanal.  Much  more  commonly,  audience  members  may   “aNack”  others  for  the  personal  graficaon  of  demonstrang  some  type  of  game  superiority.  The  more  massive  the  distress  caused,  the  greater   the  killers  joy  at  having  caused  it.  Normal  points-­‐scoring  is  usually  required  so  as  to  become  powerful  enough  to  begin  causing  havoc  in  earnest,   and  exploraon  of  a  kind  is  necessary  to  discover  new  and  ingenious  ways  to  ”kill”  or  be  the  known  expert  to  other  people.  Even  socializing  is   somemes  worthwhile  beyond  taunng  a  recent  vicm,  for  example  in  finding  out  someones  playing  habits,  or  discussing  taccs  with  fellow   killers.  Theyre  all  just  means  to  an  end,  though;  only  in  the  knowledge  that  a  real  person,  somewhere,  is  very  upset  by  what  youve  just  done,  yet   can  themselves  do  nothing  about  it,  is  there  any  true  adrenalin-­‐shoong,  juicy  fun.  4.  Socializers  -­‐  are  interested  in  people,  and  what  they  have  to  say.  The  game  is  merely  a  backdrop,  a  common  ground  where  things  happen  to   players.  Inter-­‐audience  relaonships  are  important:  empathizing  with  people,  sympathizing,  joking,  entertaining,  listening;  even  merely  observing   people  play  can  be  rewarding  -­‐  seeing  them  grow  as  individuals,  maturing  over  me.  Some  exploraon  may  be  necessary  so  as  to  understand   what  everyone  else  is  talking  about,  and  points-­‐scoring  could  be  required  to  gain  access  to  neat  communicave  spells  available  only  to  higher   levels  (as  well  as  to  obtain  a  certain  status  in  the  community).  “Killing”  (wring  some  scathing  retort)  is  only  perpetrated  upon  someone  who  has   caused  intolerable  pain  to  a  dear  friend.  The  only  ulmately  fulfilling  thing  is  not  how  to  rise  levels  or  kill  hapless  drips;  its  gepng  to  know  people,   to  understand  them,  and  to  form  beauful,  lasng  relaonships.   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   6  
  • 7. LLBC,llc 1.  Role  -­‐  Audiences  and  Sponsors   Choosing  your  sponsor  is  easy.    It’s  you  and  you’ve  decided  to  engage  with  an  audience  for  some  value  added  purpose.    We  won’t  explore  the  value   proposion  here.    You  may  choose  a  third  party  to  host  your  gamificaon  event.    They  act  as  a  proxy  for  your  needs  and  wants.   Audiences  are  more  complex.    There  is  a  broad  category  that  are  oYen  called  personas  which  represent  market  segments  you  are  trying  to  aZract  or  appeal   to.    Development  of  personas  is  a  topic  for  another  presentaon.    We’ll  discuss  it  a  high  level  here.    Development  of  your  community  must  be  tailored  to  your   audience.   Each  persona  represents  a  group  of  like-­‐minded  individuals  that  come  to  your  community  for  shared  goals  or  interests.    Your  acvies  and  rewards  must   appeal  to  them.    As  you  develop  the  audience  a  picture  helps  to  ground  you  as  you  think  about  them.    Your  events  and  rewards  must  match  their  social  style   and  parcular  movaons.    Some  you  may  actually  wish  to  discourage  while  others,  such  as  Explorers  you  may  wish  to  emphasize.  Emphasize  the  explorers   when  you  want  to  expand  the  boundaries  of  your  product  or  service.   Within  each  group  are  the  arch-­‐types  we  previously  discussed.    The  following  example  gives  you  an  idea  of  the  types  of  behaviors  each  will  exhibit.    How  will   you  movate  each?  Each  of  these  archetypes  are  found  in  a  gamified  environment.    Do  you  have  a  friend  on  Facebook  who  posts  ten  mes  an  hour?  Ever   read  a  review  from  someone  who  has  been  to  every  restaurant  in  your  neighborhood  and  knows  the  owners  “personally?”   Foodie   Networker    Achiever   Well  wriNen  reviews  of  high   Lots  of  connecons  and  well  wriNen  recommendaons.    Would   end  food  items.    They  love   love  the  term  “Professional  Networker”   flaNery   Art LoverExplorer   Reviews  of  “off  the  beaten”   Every  feature  of  the  system  will  be  exercised  to  a  moderate  or   path  restaurants   high  degree,  once  and  perhaps  a  few  many  mes.  You’re  best   Foodie beta  testers.    Would  be  offended  by  “Professional  Networker”  Killer   What’s  bad  (and  good)  about   A  lot  of  high  profile  connecons  but  likely  held  private.     the  owners  of  a  gourmet  shop   However  once  you’re  in  their  network,  you’re  in  for  life.  Scoffs   or  restaurant   at  “Professional  Networkers”   Dad Video GameSocializers   Favorite  food  for  pares  or   Potenally  thousands  of  connecons  and  have  the  badges  to   best  places  to  hang  out  with   prove  it.  Would  look  at  the  term  “Professional  Networker”  as   Addict interesng  cuisine.  The  local   too  formal  but  would  accept  it   fondue  place   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   7  
  • 8. LLBC,llc 2.  Reward  Point  -­‐  A  Journey  leads  to  a  Desnaon   Audiences  “arrive”  at  your  gamificaon  event  because  of  a  number  of  factors.    Your  ability  to  “market”,  buzz  factor  (the  latest  hot  social  network),  peer  group  and  of  course  interest  in  the  topic.    Don’t  rely  on  audiences  “stumbling  upon”  your  site  or  event.    Markeng  must  be   “in  context”  (adversing  frequent  flier  miles  on  a  flight)  and  have  the  “minimum  barrier  to  entry.”    The  MBE  depends  on  the  level  of   exclusively  you  need  for  your  business.    An  event  designed  to  aZract  fisherman  to  a  boang  magazine  should  be  a  few  lines  of   informaon.    An  event  designed  to  aZract  extreme  athletes  to  remote  locaons  may  require  validaon  of  previously  completed  athlec   events   For  your  audience,  it’s  the  reward  they  receive  at  the  desnaon.    Desnaons  can  be  stops  along  the  way  (think  ers  of  membership  or  elite  status)  and  the  journey  should  never  end.  For  you  it’s  the  journey.    Audiences  may  contribute  to  your  cause  or  consume  your  product.     The  journey  itself  must  have  challenges  to  connue  to  engage  and  delight  your  audience     •  Start  with  the  on-­‐boarding  experience   –  In  any  type  of  customer  service,  the  first  ten  minutes  and  last  ten  are  what  audiences   remember  best.    Make  it  simple  with  a  minimum  barrier  to  entry.    That  is,  something   that  is  easy  for  the  audience  or  player  to  do  in  the  context  of  their  need.    The  more   experienced  your  audience  is,  the  more  exclusivity  they  will  need  to  make/keep  them   interested   •  Challenge  each  of  the  four  archetypes,  idenfy  what  is  going  to  appeal  to  them   during  the  journey  and  how  will  you  reward  them  once  they  get  where  you  want   them  to  go   •  Once  they  have  made  it  to  a  Point  of  Arrival,  make  it  important  and  make  it   personal   •  For  the  sponsor  it’s  incremental  value  that  the  audience  provides  by  parcipaon   or  acons     Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   8  
  • 9. LLBC,llc 3.  Movaon  -­‐  Movement   It’s  been  speculated  that  earliest  known  board  games  came  from  the   Mancala  family  of  “Count  and  Capture”  games.    Mancala  type  boards   have  been  idenfied  in  ancient  tombs.   The  word  Mancala  is  thought  to  come  from  Arabic  “naqala”  meaning  to   to  move  or  transfer.    Gamificaon  is  about  moving  or  movang  your   audience.  •  The  theories  behind  gamificaon  come  from  Behavioral  Sciences  •  Movaons  and  aNracons  of  a  cause,  your  cause,  be  they     –  Restaurant  reviews   –  Managed  outcomes  used  by  Healthcare  professional  to  encourage  paent  behaviors   Modern  Mancala  Type  Board   –  Polical  agendas   –  Consumer  products  or  services   –  Hotel  programs  are  all  supported  by  the  process   First –  It’s  a  call  to  acon,  but  those  acons  must  be  acceptable  to  your  audience  before   to decide  to  engage   Visit!•  Audiences  want  to  belong  to  communies  of  like  minded  individuals.    You  must  create  the   100 community  and  develop  relevance  to  your  audience   Reviews!•  It’s  the  journey  as  well  as  the  desnaon.    Movang  your  audience  by  archetype  is  key  to  their   social  experience.    Why  are  they  here?    Have  you  tailored  the  game  to  their  level  of  experience?  •  Movaons  vary  based  in  age,  interests  and  context  (what  you  do  for  fun  vs.  what  you  do  for  work).     They  are  powerful,  it  can  spur  large  groups  to  acon  •  Nearly  any  set  of  acvies  can  be  gamified  and  in  any  industry    •  Rewards  range  from  badges  to  elite  status  and  exclusive  entry  (virtual  or  real)  to  rooms  or  clubs   Top Dog!•  The  key  is  movaon  in  context  of  the  gamified  event   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   9  
  • 10. LLBC,llc4.  Commitment  –  Time  and  Resources  •  Audiences  are  very  smart  and  increasingly  savvy.    There  is  now  a  whole  generaon  of  consumers  (business  and   individual)  growing  up  with  social  networks.    They  know  the  price  of  their  me  and  commitment  to  your  event  •  The  judgment  is  qualitave  but  audiences  are  looking  for  what  they  consider  to  be  “fair  trade”  •  A  sponsor’s  commitment  is  to  building  against  the  four  movaon   –  Achievement  –  What  and  where  are  the  rewards?  Are  they  visible  in  a  meaningful  and  relevant  way?   –  Exploraon  –  Can  the  audience  find  meaningful  and  relevant  items  of  value?    Is  there  exclusivity  for  experienced  members?   –  Socializaon  –  Can  users  find  friends/peers  quickly?    Can  they  import  them  easily  from  social  networks  or  their  personal   contacts?   –  Imposion  –  The  two  edged  sword.    Your  gamified  system  must  be  balanced  to  allow  for  players  to  achieve  but  also  to  prevent   the  system  from  being  taken  advantage  of.    Make  the  rules  clear  and  transparent   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   10  
  • 11. LLBC,llc5.  Social  Goals  –  Communies  of  Interest   Audiences  are  made  up  of  individuals  but  sharing  is  in  our  nature   •  Commitment  to  a  community  from  both  the  audience  and  sponsor  are  generally  the  same.     Movaon  may  differ  but  for  the  commitments  made  by  each  run  deep  and  have  an   emoonal  engagement   •  Community  development  should  be  done  with  a  good  amount  of  research  and  forethought.     Understanding  of  your  audience  and  the  community  will  make  or  break  adopon  very  quickly   –  Have  “experts”  on  hand  or  interview  them   –  Understand  the  context  of  current  trends  and  interests   –  Know  what’s  important  now  and  be  ready  to  provide  a  way  for  that  to  “bubble  up”   –  Develop  depth  into  your  experience.    You  cannot  fool  your  audiences  with  superficial  knowledge   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   11  
  • 12. LLBC,llc6.  Task  vs.  Goal  Orientaon  •  Goals  must  be  relevant  to  the  community  •  Tasks  must  be  realisc  and  achievable  yet  provide  value  to  the  Sponsor   –  It  goes  without  saying  the  reward  for  the  task  must  be  proporonate  but  the  audience  doesn’t  like  to   feel  as  if  it  is  being  taken  advantage  of  •  Create  the  tasks  to  build  on  one  another.    Progressive  levels  of  difficulty  are  fine  as  long  as   there  is  transparency  •  Your  audience  is  concern  about  the  goal  so  you  need  to  make  the  tasks  as  simple  and   engaging  as  possible   –  When  wring  up  text,  does  the  browser  lend  itself  to  simple,  yet  complete  eding?     –  Do  the  puzzles  or  acvies  depend  or  something  that  the  user  does  not  readily  or  easily  have  at   hand?   –  Are  the  number  of  tasks  proporonate  to  the  goal?   –  Are  you  acvely  engaged?    Audiences  love  to  parcipate  with  their  favorite  stars  or  events   •  Consider  the  “Wave”  at  sporng  events   •  TwiNer  feeds  that  run  across  live  broadcasts   •  Special  “appearances”  by  celebries  or  sponsors   •  Consider  running  surveys  and  live  feedback  sessions.  Your  audience  wants  to  talk  to  you,  they  will  be   disappointed  if  you  don’t  engage  but  it  must  be  tasteful   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   12  
  • 13. LLBC,llcSome  further  thoughts  •  Goals  and  rewards  lead  the  way  •  The  game  that  never  ends  –  Make    •  Master  this,  master  that  •  Be  King  of  the  mountain  –  Who  has  the  most  of  “…?”  Friendly   compeons   –  Who  will  take  you  down?  •  Create  Emoonal  ANachment  and  value  to  your  game  •  The  Social  Network  –  What’s  social  and  special  about  yours?  •  Encourage  “test  players”   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   13  
  • 14. LLBC,llcSome  Starng  Points  •  What’s  your  goal  and  why  is  that  compelling  to  the   communies  you  are  trying  to  involve   –  Don’t  be  afraid  to  have  more  than  one  (or  many!)   communies  •  Defining  Communies,  audiences  and  parcipaon  goals  •  Audience  delight  •  Make  the  discovery  process  engaging  •  Don’t  over  complicate  it.    One  goal  per  challenge    •  Making  those  unseen  connecons  clear  •  What’s  your  goal?  •  Challenges  must  keep  changing   You met 50•  Reward  people  for  being  social   new people! Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   14  
  • 15. LLBC,llc Gamificaon  Strategy  Worksheet   <<Overarching  Value  Proposion  –  One  Liner>>   Archetypes   Journey   Reward   Mo<va<on   Community   Tasks   1.  Achievement   1.  Achievement   1.  Achievement   1.  Achievement   1.  Achievement   2.  Exploraon   2.  Exploraon   2.  Exploraon   2.  Exploraon   2.  Exploraon   3.  Socializaon   3.  Socializaon   3.  Socializaon   3.  Socializaon   3.  Socializaon   4.  Imposion   4.  Imposion   4.  Imposion   4.  Imposion   4.  Imposion   Explorer  <<Your  Audience>>   Achiever   Killer   Socializer   Privileged  and  Confidenal  Informaon   15  
  • 16. Thank  you  for  taking  the  me  to  read  our  materials.  There  is  much  more  material  than  could   be  covered  in  this  presentaon.  We  hope  it’s  been  able  to  expand  your  perspecve.       We  look  forward  to  connuing  the  conversaon   Lawrence  I  Lerner   President  LLBC,llc   lawrence@RevoluonaryInnovator.com   Direct:  +1.630.248.0663   HNp://www.RevoluonaryInnovator.com/Consulng    

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