Digital News Report 2016

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Based on a survey of 50,000 people in 26 countries, over 150 charts and tables illustrating the changing shape of the news industry

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Digital News Report 2016

  1. 1. 2 LICENSING AND TERMS OF USE • You are welcome to use the data and slides in this report for any purpose (commercial or non-commercial) in return for simple attribution under a Creative Commons license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ • Please attribute to the Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2015. If relevant, add a link to: www.digitalnewsreport.org • We welcome feedback and questions at info@digitalnewsreport.org
  2. 2. BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY • One of the largest news surveys in the world • Explores the online news habits of more than 50,000 people in 26 countries. • Research conducted online in January/early February 2016. • Focus on tracking top-level global trends over time.
  3. 3. KEY FINDINGS  Majority of people now use social media for news, with one in ten saying it is their main source.  Rapid move to mobile news consumption showing no signs of slowing, with some countries now smartphone first.  Traditional news brands struggle to remain noticed in a social and mobile news environment – but they remain important to news users.  Most are still reluctant to pay for online news.  Around a quarter use ad blockers, but less than one in ten block ads on their smartphones.  Strong concerns about the drawbacks of more personalised news – but the young are more comfortable with algorithms. 4
  4. 4. THE RISE OF SOCIAL AND AGGREGATED NEWS
  5. 5. SOURCES OF NEWS FROM 2012-2016 UNITED STATES Social media news use has nearly doubled in the USA since 2013. Print has declined.
  6. 6. PROPORTION THAT USE SOCIAL MEDIA FOR NEWS SELECTED COUNTRIES Across Europe and the rest of the world, the proportion using social media for news is even higher.
  7. 7. GROWTH IN SOCIAL MEDIA AS MAIN SOURCE OF NEWS BETWEEN 2015 AND 2016 SELECTED COUNTRIES Significant growth in social media as main source of news since 2015 in many countries
  8. 8. GENDER BASED DIFFERENCES IN HOW PEOPLE ARRIVE AT ONLINE NEWS ALL COUNTRIES Women more likely to discover news via social media than to directly access it from a news website or app.
  9. 9. MAIN SOURCE OF NEWS BY AGE ALL COUNTRIES For 18-24s, social media is now preferred to TV as a source of news for the first time. But, TV is still the most popular source for the over 45s.
  10. 10. TOP SOCIAL NETWORKS FOR NEWS (AND FOR ANY PURPOSE) ALL COUNTRIES 13/06/2014 RISJ Digital News Report 2014 11 Facebook the most popular social network for news in every country surveyed other than Japan. YouTube is in second place, and Twitter often in third. Twitter remains particular popular with journalists.
  11. 11. WEEKLY USE OF SNAPCHAT DISCOVER FOR NEWS USA AND UK Snapchat discover not widely used for news outside of the 18-24 age group in the USA.
  12. 12. USE OF SELECTED NEWS AGGREGATORS UK, USA, AUSTRALIA New mobile aggregators like AppleNews, Smartnews and Flipboard are far behind Facebook in terms of reach and importance.
  13. 13. WHY PEOPLE USE SOCIAL AND AGGREGATED NEWS USA, UK, GERMANY COMBINED Speed and variety are the key motivations for using social media and aggregators as news sources
  14. 14. I AGREE THAT EACH IS A GOOD WAY TO GET THE NEWS ALL COUNTRIES More people say that personalised algorithmic news is a good way to get the news compared to editors and journalists. Algorithms based on friends’ consumption least preferred. People think *they* are the best judge of what’s important to them.
  15. 15. 16 I WORRY THAT MORE PERSONALISED NEWS MEANS… SELECTED COUNTRIES Strong concerns over the impact of personalisation on missing information, missing challenging viewpoints, and privacy
  16. 16. 17 NEWS BRAND VISIBILITY ON SOCIAL MEDIA AND NEWS AGGREGATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES Finland most likely to notice the news brand on social media sites – twice as likely as the Irish sample. Least likely to notice the brand in Korea where there is a strong aggregator tradition
  17. 17. THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF MOBILE NEWS ACCESS
  18. 18. 19 GROWTH OF SMARTPHONE NEWS USE SELECTED COUNTRIES Year-on-year smartphone for news growth shows no signs of slowing down. Smartphone news access higher than computer access in Switzerland, Sweden, and Korea.
  19. 19. UK REACHES TIPPING POINT FOR MOBILE NEWS 20 Combined preference for smartphone and tablet news now higher than desktop/laptop in the UK.
  20. 20. 21 MAIN DIGITAL NEWS DEVICE BY AGE UK Younger users prefer smartphone news access, older users prefer either tablets or the computer.
  21. 21. PROPORTION WHO ACCESS NEWS SEVERAL TIMES A DAY BY DEVICE ALL COUNTRIES The more devices people use, the they more likely they are to access the news several times a day.
  22. 22. MAIN PATHWAYS TO NEWS BY DEVICE ALL COUNTRIES Stronger preference for social media as a news gateway among smartphone users than among tablet or computer users.
  23. 23. PROPORTION USING A NEWS APP ON A SMARTPHONE OR TABLET SELECTED COUNTRIES Use of news apps has grown in many countries since 2014.
  24. 24. 25 Mobile news alerts have seen the biggest growth in Austria where they have doubled in use. Increases also in Ireland, Japan, Denmark, Turkey and Brazil PROPORTION WHO ARRIVED AT NEWS VIA A MOBILE ALERT SELECTED COUNTRIES
  25. 25. NEWS USE ON SMARTWATCHES ALL COUNTRIES Less than 1% in both the US and Europe use smartwatches for news. Of those that do use news, push alerts seem to be more popular than going directly to an app.
  26. 26. FIRST CONTACT WITH NEWS IN THE MORNING SELECTED COUNTRIES Internet is the most popular route to news in the morning for the younger age groups, but print and TV are still favoured by older groups. 20% get their first news contact via print in Finland
  27. 27. NEWS DESTINATIONS FOR SMARTPHONE USERS FIRST THING IN THE MORNING UK AND US Social media is used by half of those accessing their first news on their smartphone
  28. 28. NEWS FORMATS
  29. 29. CHANGE IN USE OF HOMEPAGE HEADLINE LISTS AND DIRECT TO NEWS ARTICLES OVER TIME UK In 2014, more people went to homepages to access news. In 2016, more people go direct to news articles.
  30. 30. TYPES OF NEWS ACCESSED IN THE LAST WEEK ALL COUNTRIES We see the emergence of news forms of news, such as live pages, listicles and infographics.
  31. 31. 32 PROPORTION WHO WATCHED A NEWS VIDEO IN THE LAST WEEK ALL COUNTRIES After substantial rises for many markets in 2015, less upward movement this year USA leads in terms of consuming news videos online, experiencing a rise of 3%. Canada is a close second
  32. 32. BARRIERS TO NEWS VIDEO CONSUMPTION ALL COUNTRIES The number of people put off by pre-roll ads in front of online video is rising in some countries.
  33. 33. BALANCE BETWEEN DISTRIBUTED AND ON- SITE NEWS VIDEO CONSUMPTION SELECTED COUNTRIES Off-site video news consumption particularly popular in countries where social media is also prevalent.
  34. 34. BALANCE BETWEEN DISTRIBUTED AND ON-SITE NEWS VIDEO CONSUMPTION AMONG UNDER 35S SELECTED COUNTRIES Off-site video news consumption is more popular among the under 35s.
  35. 35. PROPORTION WITHIN EACH GROUP THAT CONSUME ONLINE NEWS VIDEO ALL COUNTRIES
  36. 36. THE BUSINESS OF NEWS
  37. 37. 38 PROPORTION THAT ARE CURRENTLY USING ADBLOCKNG SOFTWARE ALL COUNTRIES Ad blocking is widespread outside of Asia. A majority of under 35s in Poland and Greece use them.
  38. 38. PROPORTION WITHIN EACH AGE GROUP THAT CURRENT USE AN AD BLOCKING SOFTWARE SELECTED COUNTRIES Ad-blocking particularly popular with 18-24s. Once people download ad blockers, they rarely uninstall them.
  39. 39. 40 REASONS FOR ADLOCKING SELECTED COUNTRIES There is no one reason for ad blocking but the volume and distracting nature comes out top almost everywhere with privacy concerns strong in Netherlands and Spain
  40. 40. 41 PROPORTION THAT THINK THE LABELLNG OF SPONSORED CONTENT IS SIMPLE AND CLEAR SELECTED COUNTRIES
  41. 41. 42 PROPORTION THAT AGREE THAT EACH TYPE OF ADVERTISING IS A FAIR PRICE TO PAY FOR FREE NEWS SELECTED COUNTRIES Under 35s are more prepared to see sponsored or branded content in exchange for free news (Korea is the exception). They are also more likely to agree that its clearly labelled
  42. 42. 43 PROPORTION WHO PAID FOR ONLNE NEWS IN THE LAST YEAR ALL COUNTRIES Highest in Norway and increases seen in many markets – Ireland, Austria, Poland, Japan, Italy, Portugal, Denmark and the Netherlands. Dip of 2% in the USA as some publishers abandon paywalls and free apps
  43. 43. TRUST IN THE NEWS
  44. 44. 45 PROPORTION THAT AGREE THEY CAN TRUST MOST NEWS MOST OF THE TIME ALL COUNTRIES Trust highest in Finland, but lowest in Greece where the reputation of many institutions has been dented by the financial crisis.
  45. 45. 46 TRUST IN NEWS ORGANISATIONS COMPARED TO TRUST IN JOURNALISTS ALL COUNTRIES In almost every country people trust news organisations more than they trust journalists.
  46. 46. TRADITIONAL NEWS BRANDS ONLINE
  47. 47. PROPORTION THAT USE EACH TYPE OF NEWS BRAND ONLINE ALL COUNTRIES Traditional news brands still matter enormously online, and remain more popular thaN digital born brands.
  48. 48. 49 PROPORTION OF ONLINE NEWS USERS WHO SAID EACH IS THEIR MAIN BRAND SELECTED COUNTRIES When asked about their main news brand, most people cite a traditional news brand rather than a pure player.
  49. 49. PROPORTION OF USERS OF EACH WHO SAID IT IS THEIR MAIN NEWS SOURCE UK Over half (51%) use BBC News each week and two thirds of them say (70%) users say it is their MAIN source of news. 14% use Huffington Post and 9% Buzzfeed but only a small proportion of them as a main source.
  50. 50. DECLINE OF BROADCAST NEWS FROM 2013-2016 GERMANY, FRANCE, UK, US 51 Use of live broadcast TV news falling sharply among under 35s, with smaller decreases across all ages.
  51. 51. KEY DATA BY COUNTRY
  52. 52. 53 Local television reaches 42% across traditional and online sources. Fox follows with a reach of 37%, local newspapers reach 33% USA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  53. 53. 54 USA: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  54. 54. 55 USA: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  55. 55. 56 BBC News remains the most popular form of news accessed in the last week for both traditional and online access – achieving a reach of 78% across both higher than the national newspaper total reach of 63% UK: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  56. 56. 57 UK: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  57. 57. 58 UK: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  58. 58. 59 Tagesschau has a total reach of 51% across traditional and online sources, and local papers reach 39% when including both online and offline GERMANY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  59. 59. 60 GERMANY: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  60. 60. 61 GERMANY: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  61. 61. 62 BFM has an overall reach of 48%, a slight extension of its traditional reach of 44%. TF1 has a total reach of 44% and M6 27% FRANCE: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  62. 62. 63 FRANCE: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  63. 63. 64 FRANCE: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  64. 64. 65 ITALY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  65. 65. 66 ITALY: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  66. 66. 67 ITALY: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  67. 67. 68 Antena 3 maintains the top spot for traditional sources and has a reach of 60% when including online usage. LaSexta has a total reach of 49%. SPAIN: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  68. 68. 69 SPAIN: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  69. 69. 70 SPAIN: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  70. 70. 71 PORTUGAL: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  71. 71. 72 PORTUGAL: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  72. 72. 73 PORTUGAL: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  73. 73. 74 Irish Independent/ Herald reaches 44% and then Sky with 38% IRELAND: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  74. 74. 75 IRELAND: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  75. 75. 76 IRELAND: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  76. 76. 77 NORWAY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK The print source VG reaches 70% of the sample across offline and online sources, TV2 reaches 64% and Dagbladet 51%
  77. 77. 78 NORWAY: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  78. 78. 79 NORWAY: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  79. 79. 80 SWEDEN: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK SVT reaches 60% of the sample across traditional and online sources, Aftonbladet reaches 58% and TV4 reaches 55%
  80. 80. 81 SWEDEN: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  81. 81. 82 SWEDEN: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  82. 82. 83 FINLAND: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK Ilta-Sanomat reaches 64% across both platforms and Iltalehti 61%
  83. 83. 84 FINLAND: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  84. 84. 85 FINLAND: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  85. 85. 86 DENMARK: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  86. 86. 87 DENMARK: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  87. 87. 88 DENMARK: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  88. 88. 89 BELGIUM: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  89. 89. 90 BELGIUM: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  90. 90. 91 BELGIUM: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND DEVICES
  91. 91. 92 NETHERLANDS: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  92. 92. 93 NETHERLANDS: NEWS SOURCES AND DEVICES
  93. 93. 94 NETHERLANDS: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  94. 94. 95 SWITZERLAND: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  95. 95. 96 SWITZERLAND: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  96. 96. 97 SWITZERLAND: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  97. 97. 98 AUSTRIA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  98. 98. 99 AUSTRIA: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  99. 99. 100 AUSTRIA: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  100. 100. 101 HUNGARY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  101. 101. 102 HUNGARY: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  102. 102. 103 HUNGARY: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  103. 103. 104 CZECH REPUBLIC: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  104. 104. 105 CZECH REPUBLIC: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  105. 105. 106 CZECH REPUBLIC: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  106. 106. 107 POLAND: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  107. 107. 108 POLAND: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  108. 108. 109 POLAND: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  109. 109. 110 GREECE: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  110. 110. 111 GREECE: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  111. 111. 112 GREECE: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  112. 112. 113 TURKEY: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  113. 113. 114 TURKEY: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  114. 114. 115 TURKEY: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  115. 115. 116 KOREA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  116. 116. 117 KOREA: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  117. 117. 118 KOREA: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  118. 118. 119 JAPAN: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  119. 119. 120 JAPAN: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  120. 120. 121 JAPAN: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  121. 121. 122 AUSTRALIA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  122. 122. 123 AUSTRALIA: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  123. 123. 124 AUSTRALIA: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  124. 124. 125 CANADA: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  125. 125. 126 CANADA: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  126. 126. 127 CANADA: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  127. 127. 128 BRAZIL: NEWS BRANDS USED LAST WEEK
  128. 128. 129 BRAZIL: NEWS DEVICES AND SOURCES
  129. 129. 130 BRAZIL: TRUST, SOCIAL, AND BUSINESS
  130. 130. ADDITIONAL ANALYSIS
  131. 131. PROPORTION WHO USED EACH AS A SOURCE OF NEWS IN THE LAST WEEK SELECTED COUNTRIES TV and online are the two most popular news sources in every country. Print is still strong in Austria and the Netherlands
  132. 132. PROPORTION OF EACH GENDER AND AGE GROUP THAT USED EACH SOURCE OF NEWS IN THE LAST WEEK ALL COUNTRIES 133 Social media is the only news source used more commonly by women.
  133. 133. 134 SEGMENTATION BY SOURCES AND DEVICES
  134. 134. 135 PROPORTION OF DIGITALISTS AND TRADITIONALISTS ALL COUNTRIES Germany most traditional. Greece most digital.
  135. 135. WHO ARE THE TRADITIONALISTS?
  136. 136. 137 SEGMENTATION BY FREQUENCY AND INTEREST
  137. 137. WHO ARE THE NEWS LOVERS?
  138. 138. 139 ONLINE REACH OF NEWSPAPERS, BROADCASTERS AND DIGITAL BORN BRANDS SELECTED COUNTRIES Broadcasters perform well online in the USA, Canada and the UK. Print brands are popular online in Germany, France, Spain and Finland. Digital born brands lead in Poland, Korea and Japan.
  139. 139. 140 TOP ONLINE NEWS BRANDS SELECTED COUNTRIES
  140. 140. GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF DIGITAL BORN NEWS BRANDS SELECTED COUNTRIES
  141. 141. STARTING POINTS FOR NEWS ALL COUNTRIES
  142. 142. WEEKLY REACH OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTERS VIA BROADCAST AND ONLINE SELECTED COUNTRIES PSBs in some countries have a large online reach. In other countries, there is a large difference between their online and offline use.
  143. 143. WEEKLY REACH OF STRONG PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTERS ONLINE BY AGE SELECTED COUNTRIES
  144. 144. PROPORTION THAT AGREED THAT THEY CAN TRUST MOST NEWS MOST OF THE TIME SELECTED COUNTRIES
  145. 145. PROPORTION OF OVER AND UNDER 35S THAT AGREED THAT THEY CAN TRUST MOST NEWS MOST OF THE TIME SELECTED COUNTRIES In most countries older people are more likely to say that they trust most news most of the time.
  146. 146. PROPORTION OF LEFT WINGERS, RIGHT WINGERS, AND CENTRISTS THAT AGREED THAT THEY CAN TRUST MOST NEWS MOST OF THE TIME SELECTED COUNTRIES Trust in the news is higher among left-leaning respondents in the USA, but in Spain and the UK those are the right are more likely to trust the news.
  147. 147. STRENGTH OF CORRELATION WITH OVERALL TRUST IN NEWS SELECTED COUNTRIES Trust in news organisations is most closely linked to overall trust in the news. Trust in journalists is second.
  148. 148. PROPORTION OF USERS OF DIGITAL BORN BRANDS THAT SAID EACH WAS THEIR MAIN BRAND UK, USA, SPAIN, GERMANY (AGE OF BRAND IN BRACKETS) It takes time for digital-born brands to be regard as primary news sources. Older brands boast a larger proportion of users who say it is their main news source.
  149. 149. INTEREST IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF NEWS BY GENDER ALL COUNTRIES
  150. 150. PROPORTION THAT ARE MORE INTERESTED IN HARD NEWS OR MORE INTERESTED IN SOFT NEWS ALL COUNTRIES Outside of Asia, most people say they are more interested in hard news topics. In Japan and Korea, a preference for soft news is more common than elsewhere.
  151. 151. PROPORTION OF MALES AND FEMALES THAT ARE MORE INTERESTED IN SOFT NEWS TOPICS THAN HARD NEWS TOPICS SELECTED COUNTRIES Women in most countries are more likely to say that they are more interested in soft news, but this of course depends on how different news topics are grouped.
  152. 152. PROPORTION WITHIN EACH AGE GROUP THAT ARE MORE INTERESTED IN SOFT NEWS TOPICS THAN HARD NEWS TOPICS SELECTED COUNTRIES Younger people are more likely to say they are more interested in soft news.
  153. 153. PROPORTION OF THOSE THAT ARE MORE INTERESTED IN HARD NEWS AND SOFT NEWS TOPICS THAT SAY SOCIAL MEDIA IS THEIR MAIN SOURCE OF NEWS SELECTED COUNTRIES There is a link between soft news preference and social media use.
  154. 154. PROPORTION THAT SAY THEY ENGAGE IN SOME FORM OF NEWS PARTICIPATION DURING THE AVERAGE WEEK ALL COUNTRIES Participation around news is most common in southern European countries, and Brazil.
  155. 155. PROPORTION THAT SHARED A NEWS STORY ON SOCIAL MEDIA COMPARED TO THE PROPORTION THAT USE SOCIAL MEDIA FOR NEWS SELECTED COUNTRIES Although social media news use is increasing rapidly, sharing and commenting on the news remains static in most countries.
  156. 156. PROPORTION THAT COMMENTED ON A NEWS STORY ON SOCIAL MEDIA COMPARED TO THE PROPORTION THAT USE SOCIAL MEDIA FOR NEWS SELECTED COUNTRIES
  157. 157. PARTICIPATION SEGMENTATION
  158. 158. PROPORTION OF POSITIVE PARTICIPATORS, REACTIVE PARTICIPATORS, AND PASSIVE CONSUMERS IN EACH COUNTRY ALL COUNTRIES In around two third of countries surveyed, most people are passive consumers and do not participate with the news.
  159. 159. PROPORTION THAT SAID THEY MOSTLY SHARE NEWS STORIES BECAUSE THEY APPROVE OF THE COVERAGE SELECTED COUNTRIES Most people share the news they approve of and news they disapprove of in roughly equal amounts. Sharing is more likely to be used to express disapproval in the UK.
  160. 160. PROPORTION THAT PAID FOR ONLINE NEWS IN THE LAST YEAR ALL COUNTRIES Less than one in five paid for any form of online news in the last year. In Norway, publishers have seen some success with digital/print bundles, which partly explains the high figure.
  161. 161. YEARLY MEDIAN PAYMENT FOR ONLINE NEWS ALL COUNTRIES (IN POUNDS STERLING) On average, those that do pay for online news tend to pay different amounts in different countries. Though only 7% of people pay in the UK, the average payment is the highest of any country.
  162. 162. COUNTRIES GROUPED BY DOMINANT METHOD OF PAYMENT FOR ONLINE NEWS ALL COUNTRIES
  163. 163. YEARLY MEDIAN PAYMENT FOR ONLINE NEWS COUNTRIES DOMINATED BY ONE-OFF AND ON-GOING PAYMENTS (IN POUNDS STERLING) In countries where on-going subscriptions are more common, the average payment tends to be higher. Average payments are low in countries where one-off payments are popular.
  164. 164. More information www.digitalnewsreport.org #DNP2016 reuters.institute@politics.ox.ac.uk 165

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