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Ontology creation and management for Requirements Quality
 

Ontology creation and management for Requirements Quality

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    Ontology creation and management for Requirements Quality Ontology creation and management for Requirements Quality Presentation Transcript

    • Ontology creation and management within RQA www.reusecompany.com
    • Ontology creation and managementContents Brief Introduction to RQA Ontologies in System Engineering The PDCA cycle and its application to Ontologies Ontology Creation Ontology Mantainment2 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementWhat is the Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA The Requirements Quality Analyzer is a software tool that aids quality assessment and improvement within requirements oriented systems and software projects. RQA allows to define, measure, improve and manage the quality of requirements specifications in systems and software projects. The assessment is modeled by evaluating metrics.3 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementRQA’s main business coreMetrics Defining, measuring and managing metrics that affect Requirements represented in Natural Language Text.4 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementMetric´s need of knowledge about the domain of application The more semantics we want to put in a metric, the more dependence on the knowledge about the domain of application. In general, this rule is applied to whatever System Development and Management process. 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Domain Terms Domain Verbs Readability Trace between Requirements Size inconsistent Coupling Modules ….. ….. units  Knowledge is packaged within a knowledge structure (from glossaries to ontologies)  The selection of the structure to use depends on the interest of the organization to «understand and get use of» the possibilities each of them offers5 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementMetric´s need of knowledge about the domain of application In built Ontology in RQA. OUT OF THE BOX 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Domain Terms Domain Verbs Readability Trace between Requirements Size inconsistent Coupling Modules ….. ….. units6 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementMetric´s need of knowledge about the domain of application In built Ontology in RQA. OUT OF THE BOX OPTIONAL 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Domain Terms Domain Verbs Readability Trace between Requirements Size inconsistent Coupling Modules ….. ….. units7 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementWhat is an ontology? Ontology (from the Greek) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality as such, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Parménides10 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementOntologies use within RQA The Requirements Quality Analyzer is a tool that uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to assess the quality of individual or sets of requirements. Storing conceptual information that makes it easier for a machine to understand the real meaning of a requirement Storing inference rules that allows the tool implement algorithms to emulate a human reasoning NL Reqs. T1: T2: Semantic Information Trace metrics Knowledge Retrieval and Coupling metrics Harvesting Reqs Metrics calculation Inconsistent units Formal Representation Other…11 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementWhat is an ontology for TRC? Controlled vocabulary: valid terms, forbidden terms… Optionally can include a Glossary (description for every term) Taxonomy: terms hierarchically organized Thesaurus: hierarchies, associations, synonyms… Light Ontology: syntactic and Semantic groupings for Terms and Actions (verbs). Domain terms and verbs Ontology: inference rules for Identifying the semantics of the requirements12 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementControlled Vocabulary in RQA Needed for assessing the quality of individual requirements using Text based Metrics. Using a glossary with different categories of terms, the ontology may store: Business related Terms : those terms central to the business area the requirements are related to General Language Terms: Invalid terms: those terms that could be banned out of a requirement such us ambiguous terms,… Security Window Air Doors Vehicle conditionin structure g Door Air flow structure Legislation Vehicules Conduct Engine Noise based Hvac system and vehicles Safety and vibratio Engines health ns Pollution Pressure emissions Diesel loss Hibrid engines Environmen engines Gass Engines tal impact Emissions Electric evaluation control Engines13 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementControlled Vocabulary in RQAUR044 : The Rad8 shall be able to identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per second Rad8 The shall to identify at hit minimum unit ….. second14 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementTaxonomies and Thesaurus in RQA The Thesaurus stores relational information regarding the terms in the glossary. Stakeholder Security Window User Customer Doors Air conditioning Vehicle structure Administrator Door structure Air flow Legislation Ordinary user Vehicules Engine Conduct based Noise and vehicles Hvac system vibrations Engines Safety and health Pollution Administrator emissions Pressure loss Diesel engines Environmental Gass Engines Hibrid engines impact Admin Emissions evaluation Electric Engines control15 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementTaxonomies and ThesaurusUR044 : The Rad8 shall be able to identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondUR03442 : The Radar shall be able to distinguish hits at a minimum rate of 10 elements per s Rad8 PTT = Rad8 Radar Sonar Distinguish = identify ….. s = second16 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementLight Ontology: Semantics groupingUR044 : The Radar shall be able to detect hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondUR563 : The Doppler Radar shall be able to Identify hits at a minimum rate of 10 units persecond <OBJECT DETECTION> Doppler radar Radar Sonar Term Semantic <DETECT> identify Detect Recognize Verb Semantic DOMAIN TERMS DOMAIN VERBS Doppler radar Radar identify17 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementOntology: Inference rulesUR044 : The Radar shall be able to detect hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondFulfills Detection Pattern 1 Detection Pattern 1 THE <OBJECT DETECTION> SHALL <DETECT> <ITEMS> AT <MINIMUM> <RATE VALUE> <<Minimum <<Detect>> Value>> Radar Hits 10 units second18 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementInference Layer in RQA: Boilerplates The inference rules layer of the Ontology allows us to identify and represent a requirement into a graph (which is needed for the coupling functionality): Boiler plates are used as patters UR001: …. UR023: The system shall send weekly notifications to the customers including our offers URxxx: … UR842: The application shall be able to notify periodically all of our offers to our clients UR999: … <<Notify>> UR023 UR842 System Customer Offer19 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementPDCA cycle applied to Ontology management • Take initial measurements • General training and • Identify initial metrics and communication thresholds • Define Quality Goals • Operate the tool • Define the metrics to reach with the Ontology and build • Take actual it measurements Plan Do • Perform training Act Check • How is the quality evolving? • Manage metrics • Tune quality functions • Do we need additional training? • More communication • Evolve the Ontology towards • Are Global metrics the planed complexity working properly?22 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and management Ontology PDCA: User’s Roles RQA supports a multi-role ontology management within a software/systems intensive organization Defines and controls the processDomain Leads the domain Management process Solve conflictsManager Evaluates PDCA for the Ontology Q Quality Cost Delays goalsDomain Best practices fulfilling Improve project performancesExperts Identify gaps: quality evolution vs teams Process improvement: training, support Requirements QualityDomain Improve work efficiency Identify critical issues: bad formulations,Architects ambiguous terms inconsistencies Process improvement: self training 24 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementOntology creation effort ROI The ontology creation effort has a clear pay-off during time due to maturation The ontology change is relatively small for stable business companies The Boilerplates modeling is done almost once for ever25 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementOntology creation in RQA: The process A documents corpus is needed as input to the process Manuals describing the domain General purpose Glossaries (or specific ones if exist) Existing Thesauri Design documents (for design terms) Ontologies through standard representations (OWL,…) And , of course Requirements (user, system, functional, …) To identify terminology, relationships, boiler plates31 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementOntology creation in RQA : The process Creating an ontology means several tasks: The ontology may contain all the layers Controlled Vocabulary Taxonomies and Thesaurus Light Ontology Inference Rules: Boilerplates An ontology usually fits a business domain: business dependent The ontology is language dependent The business domain evolves over time: PDCA cycle.32 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and managementOntology creation in RQA: The process The activities to be carried out are: Terms Identification Terms Validation Relationships Identification Relationships Validation Terms Semantics Identification Verbs Semantic Identification Terms and Verbs Semantics Validation Boiler plates Identification and programming Boiler plates presentation and acceptance Definition of a a procedure to communicate new boiler plates33 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Ontology creation and management Ontology Evolution and Management in RQA V3• Identify the Domain areas to • Operate the tool be modelled• Identify the domain • Calculate global metrics dynamics to be modelled (index the requirements)• Identify the Boilerplates that should be covered • Take actual measurements Plan Do • How is the quality of• Work with the new discovered terms and verbs. Decide if they Act Check the coupling results? belong to the Domain, controlled vocabulary or are rubish. • Are we using new or• Find the correct place in the different boilerplates? ontology for them and add Relationships • Are we getting in• Identify and program new new domain areas? boilerplates 37 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
    • Margarita Salas, 16 2nd FloorInnovation Center http://www.reusecompany.comLEGATEC Technology Park28919 Leganés – MadridSPAIN – EUTel: (+34) 91 146 00 30Fax: (+34) 91 680 98 26 contact@reusecompany.com