Events by Year


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Events by Year

  1. 1. <ul><li>“Events by Year 1925 – 2007” </li></ul><ul><li>Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Make Class Reunion Quizzes and Games </li></ul><ul><li>Use Arrow to Search Data </li></ul><ul><li>View Full Screen to Enlarge </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail for Free Copy: </li></ul>
  2. 2. 1925 <ul><li>January 5 – Nellie Tayloe Ross becomes Governor of Wyoming , the first female governor in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>January 27 – February 1 – The 1925 serum run to Nome (the &quot;Great Race of Mercy&quot;) relays diphtheria antitoxin by dog sled across the U.S. territory of Alaska , to combat an epidemic . </li></ul><ul><li>March 4 – Calvin Coolidge becomes the first President of the United States to have his inauguration broadcast on radio . </li></ul><ul><li>March 15 – The Phi Lambda Chi fraternity (original name &quot;The Aztecs&quot;) is founded on the campus of Arkansas State Teacher's College in Conway, Arkansas (now the University of Central Arkansas ). </li></ul><ul><li>March 18 – The Tri-State Tornado rampages through Missouri , Illinois , and Indiana , killing 695 people and injuring 2,027. It hits the towns of Murphysboro, Illinois ; Gorham, Illinois ; Ellington, Missouri ; and Griffin, Indiana . </li></ul><ul><li>March 21 – Tennessee Governor Austin Peay signs the Butler Act , prohibiting the teaching of evolution in the state's public schools. </li></ul><ul><li>March 31 – Radio station WOWO in Ft. Wayne, Indiana begins broadcasting. </li></ul><ul><li>April 1 – Frank Heath and his horse Gypsy Queen leave Washington, D.C. to begin a two-year journey to visit all 48 states. </li></ul><ul><li>April 10 – F. Scott Fitzgerald publishes The Great Gatsby . </li></ul><ul><li>May 5 – Scopes Trial : Dayton, Tennessee , biology teacher John Scopes is arrested for teaching Charles Darwin 's Theory of Evolution . </li></ul><ul><li>June 6 – The Chrysler Corporation is founded by Walter Percy Chrysler . </li></ul><ul><li>June 13 – Charles Francis Jenkins achieves the first synchronized transmission of pictures and sound, using 48 lines, and a mechanical system. A 10-minute film of a miniature windmill in motion is sent across 5 miles from Anacostia to Washington, DC . The images are viewed by representatives of the National Bureau of Standards , the U.S. Navy , the Commerce Department , and others. Jenkins calls this &quot;the first public demonstration of radiovision&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>June 29 – Santa Barbara Earthquake of 1925: A 6.3 earthquake destroys downtown Santa Barbara, California . </li></ul><ul><li>July 10 – Scopes Trial : In Dayton, Tennessee , the so-called &quot;Monkey Trial&quot; begins with John T. Scopes , a young high school science teacher, accused of teaching evolution in violation of a Tennessee state law. </li></ul><ul><li>July 21 – Scopes Trial : In Dayton, Texas , high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution in class and fined $100. </li></ul><ul><li>August 14 – The original Hetch Hetchy Moccasin Powerhouse is completed and goes on line. </li></ul><ul><li>September 3 – The U.S. dirigible Shenandoah breaks up en route to Scottfield, St. Louis ; 14 crewmen are killed. </li></ul><ul><li>December 16 – Alpha Phi Omega , a national service fraternity, is founded at Lafayette College . </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1926 <ul><li>February 1 – Land on Broadway and Wall Street in New York City is sold at a record $7 per sq inch. </li></ul><ul><li>March 16 – Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fuel rocket , at Auburn, Massachusetts . </li></ul><ul><li>April 12 – By a vote of 45–41, the United States Senate unseats Iowa Senator Smith W. Brookhart and seats Daniel F. Steck , after Brookhart had already served for over one year. </li></ul><ul><li>April 30 – African-American pilot Bessie Coleman is killed after falling 2,000 feet (610 m) from an airplane. </li></ul><ul><li>May 10 – Planes piloted by Major Harold Geiger and Horace Meek Hickam , students at the Air Corps Tactical School , collide in mid-air at Langley Field, Virginia. Hickam parachutes to safety. </li></ul><ul><li>May 18 – Evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson disappears while visiting a Venice, California beach. </li></ul><ul><li>May 20 – The United States Congress passes the Air Commerce Act , licensing pilots and planes. </li></ul><ul><li>June 19 – DeFord Bailey is the first African-American to perform on Nashville's Grand Ole Opry . </li></ul><ul><li>July 12 – A lightning strike destroys an ammunition depot in Dover, New Jersey . </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 – The National Bar Association incorporates in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>August 6 – In New York , the Warner Brothers ' Vitaphone system premieres with the movie Don Juan starring John Barrymore . </li></ul><ul><li>August 18 – A weather map is televised for the first time, sent from NAA Arlington to the Weather Bureau Office in Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>September 11 – Aloha Tower is officially dedicated at Honolulu Harbor in the Territory of Hawai'i . </li></ul><ul><li>September 16 – Philip Dunning and George Abbott's play Broadway premieres in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>September 18 – Great Miami Hurricane : A strong hurricane devastates Miami, Florida , leaving over 100 dead and causing several hundred million dollars in damage (equal to nearly $100 billion dollars today). </li></ul><ul><li>September 20 – Twelve cars full of gangsters open fire at the Hawthorne Inn, Al Capone 's Chicago headquarters. Only one of Capone's men is wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>November 10 – In San Francisco, California , a necrophiliac serial killer named Earle Nelson (dubbed &quot;Gorilla Man&quot;) kills and then rapes his 9th victim, a boardinghouse landlady named Mrs. William Edmonds. </li></ul><ul><li>November 11 – U.S. Route 66 is established. </li></ul><ul><li>November 15 – The NBC radio network opens with 24 stations (formed by Westinghouse , General Electric and RCA ). </li></ul><ul><li>November 27 – In Williamsburg, Virginia , the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg begins. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1927 <ul><li>January 7 – The first transatlantic telephone call is made from New York City to London . </li></ul><ul><li>February 23 – The U.S. Federal Radio Commission (later renamed the Federal Communications Commission ) begins to regulate the use of radio frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>March 11 – In New York City , the Roxy Theater is opened by Samuel Roxy Rothafel . </li></ul><ul><li>March 11 – The first armoured car robbery is committed by the Flatheads Gang near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania . </li></ul><ul><li>April 22 – May 5 – The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 affects 700,000 people in the greatest national disaster in U.S. history at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>May 11 – The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences , the &quot;Academy&quot; in &quot; Academy Awards ,&quot; is founded. </li></ul><ul><li>May 14 – In the U.S., the University of Chicago 's local collegiate organization, Phi Sigma, becomes incorporated under the laws of the State of Illinois as Eta Sigma Phi , the National Honorary Classical Fraternity. </li></ul><ul><li>May 17 – Army aviation pioneer Major Harold Geiger dies in the crash of his Airco DH.4 de Havilland plane, at Olmsted Field, Pennsylvania. </li></ul><ul><li>May 18 – Bath School disaster : Bombings result in 45 deaths, mostly children, in Bath Township , Michigan . </li></ul><ul><li>May 20– 21 – Charles Lindbergh makes the first solo non-stop trans-Atlantic flight, from New York to Paris in the single-seat, single-engine monoplane Spirit of St. Louis . </li></ul><ul><li>May 23 – Nearly 600 members of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers view the first live demonstration of television at the Bell Telephone Building in New York. </li></ul><ul><li>June 13 – A ticker-tape parade is held for aviator Charles Lindbergh down 5th Avenue in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>August 2 – U.S. President Calvin Coolidge announces, &quot;I do not choose to run for President in 1928.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>August 7 – The Peace Bridge opens between Fort Erie, Ontario and Buffalo, New York . </li></ul><ul><li>August 26 – Paul R. Redfern leaves Brunswick, Georgia, flying his Stinson Detroiter &quot;Port of Brunswick&quot; to attempt a solo non-stop flight to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil . He later crashes in the Venezuela jungle (the crash site is never located). </li></ul><ul><li>September 18 – The Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System (later known as CBS ) is formed and goes on the air with 47 radio stations . </li></ul><ul><li>September 27 – 79 are killed and 550 are injured in the East St. Louis Tornado, the 2nd costliest and at least 24th deadliest tornado in U.S. history. </li></ul><ul><li>October 6 – The Jazz Singer movie opens in the United States and becomes a huge success, marking the end of the silent film era. </li></ul><ul><li>October 8 – Murderer's Row : The New York Yankees complete a 4-game sweep of the Pittsburgh Pirates in the World Series. </li></ul><ul><li>October 28 – Pan American Airways ' first flight takes off from Key West , bound for Havana . </li></ul><ul><li>November 3– 4 – Floods devastating Vermont incur the &quot;worst natural disaster in the state's history&quot;. [1] </li></ul><ul><li>November 4 – Frank Heath and his horse Gypsy Queen return to Washington, D.C. , having completed a 2-year journey of 11,356 miles to all 48 states. </li></ul><ul><li>November 10 – Unexplained explosions occur in Canton, Ohio . </li></ul><ul><li>November 12 – The Holland Tunnel opens to traffic as the first Hudson River vehicular tunnel linking New Jersey to New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>November 14 – The Pittsburgh Gasometer Explosion : Three Equitable Gas storage tanks in the North Side of Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania explode, killing 26 people and causing damage estimated between contemporary totals of $4 million and $5 million. </li></ul><ul><li>December 2 – Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile. </li></ul><ul><li>December 15 – Marion Parker , 12, is kidnapped in Los Angeles. Her dismembered body is found on December 19, prompting the largest manhunt to date on the West Coast for her killer, William Edward Hickman , who is arrested on December 22 in Oregon . </li></ul><ul><li>December 17 – The U.S. submarine S-4 is accidentally rammed and sunk by the United States Coast Guard destroyer John Paulding off Provincetown, Massachusetts , killing everyone aboard after several unsuccessful attempts to raise the sub. </li></ul><ul><li>December 27 – Kern and Hammerstein's musical play Show Boat , based on Edna Ferber 's novel, opens on Broadway and goes on to become the first great classic of the American musical theatre. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1928 <ul><li>January 12 – U.S. murderer Ruth Snyder is executed at Ossining . </li></ul><ul><li>February 25 – Charles Jenkins Laboratories of Washington, D.C. becomes the first holder of a television license from the Federal Radio Commission . </li></ul><ul><li>March 12 – In California , the St. Francis Dam north of Los Angeles fails, killing 400. </li></ul><ul><li>March 21 – Charles Lindbergh is presented the Medal of Honor for his first trans- Atlantic flight. </li></ul><ul><li>April 10 – &quot; Pineapple Primary &quot;: The U.S. Republican Party primary elections in Chicago are preceded by assassinations and bombings. </li></ul><ul><li>May 10 – The first regular schedule of television programming begins in Schenectady , New York by the General Electric 's television station W2XB (the station is popularly known as WGY Television, after its sister radio station WGY ). </li></ul><ul><li>May 15 – The animated short Plane Crazy is released by Disney Studios in Los Angeles , featuring the first appearances of Mickey and Minnie Mouse . </li></ul><ul><li>June 17 – Aviator Amelia Earhart starts her attempt to become the first woman to successfully cross the Atlantic Ocean (she succeeds the next day). Wilmer Stultz was the pilot. </li></ul><ul><li>June 29 – New York Governor Alfred E. Smith becomes the first Catholic nominated by a major political party for U.S. President , at the Democratic National Convention in Houston, Texas . </li></ul><ul><li>July 6 – The world's largest hailstone falls in Potter, Nebraska . </li></ul><ul><li>July 12 – Mexican aviator Emilio Carranza dies in a solo plane crash in the New Jersey Pine Barrens , while returning from a goodwill flight to New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>July 25 – The United States recalls its troops from China . </li></ul><ul><li>August 16 – Murderer Carl Panzram is arrested in Washington, D.C. after killing about 20 people. </li></ul><ul><li>August 22 – Alfred E. Smith accepts the Democratic presidential nomination, with WGY/W2XB simulcasting the event on radio and television. </li></ul><ul><li>September 1 – Richard Byrd leaves New York for the Arctic. </li></ul><ul><li>September 11 – Kenmore 's WMAK station starts broadcasting in Buffalo, New York . </li></ul><ul><li>September 16 – The 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane kills at least 2,500 people in Florida . </li></ul><ul><li>October 12 – An iron lung respirator is used for the first time at Children's Hospital, Boston . </li></ul><ul><li>October 22 – The Phi Sigma Alpha Fraternity is founded at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus . </li></ul><ul><li>November 4 – At Park Central Hotel in Manhattan , Arnold Rothstein , New York City 's most notorious gambler, is shot to death over a poker game. </li></ul><ul><li>November 6 – U.S. presidential election, 1928 : Republican Herbert Hoover wins by a wide margin over Democrat Alfred E. Smith . </li></ul><ul><li>November 17 – The Boston Garden opens in Boston . </li></ul><ul><li>November 18 – Mickey Mouse appears in Steamboat Willie , the third Mickey Mouse cartoon released, but the first sound film . </li></ul><ul><li>December 5 – Police disperse a Sicilian gangs' meeting in Cleveland . </li></ul><ul><li>December 21 – The U.S. Congress approves the construction of Boulder Dam, later renamed Hoover Dam . </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1929 <ul><li>January 1 - California loses to the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets in the 15th Rose Bowl by a score of 8-7. </li></ul><ul><li>January 9 - The Seeing Eye is established with the mission to train dogs to assist the blind , in Nashville, Tennessee . </li></ul><ul><li>February 11 - Eugene O'Neill 's Dynamo premieres in New York . </li></ul><ul><li>February 14 - St. Valentine's Day Massacre : Seven gangsters , rivals of Al Capone , are murdered in Chicago . </li></ul><ul><li>February 26 - The Grand Teton National Park is established by Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>March 2 – The longest bridge in the world, the San Francisco Bay Toll-Bridge , opens. </li></ul><ul><li>March 4 - Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as the 31st President of the United States , succeeding Calvin Coolidge . </li></ul><ul><li>March 16 - A part-talkie film version of Show Boat , based on Edna Ferber 's novel rather than the musical, premieres in Palm Beach (starring Laura La Plante and Joseph Schildkraut ). It is critically panned and not successful at the box office. </li></ul><ul><li>May - The Wickersham Commission begins its investigation of alcohol prohibition in the United States . </li></ul><ul><li>May 13 - The National Crime Syndicate is founded in Atlantic City . </li></ul><ul><li>May 16 – The 1st Academy Awards are presented at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Hollywood, California , with Wings winning Best Picture . </li></ul><ul><li>May 17 - Al Capone and his bodyguard are arrested for concealing deadly weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>June 16 - Otto E. Funk , 62, ends his marathon walk ( New York City to San Francisco , 4,165 miles in 183 days). </li></ul><ul><li>June 21 – An agreement brokered by U.S. Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow ends the Cristero War in Mexico . </li></ul><ul><li>June 27 – The first public demonstration of color TV is held, by H. E. Ives and his colleagues at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. The first images are a bouquet of roses and an American flag . A mechanical system is used to transmit 50-line color television images between New York and Washington. </li></ul><ul><li>August 19 - The radio comedy show Amos and Andy makes its debut, starring Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll . </li></ul><ul><li>August 31 – The Young Plan , which set the total World War I reparations owed by Germany at US$ 26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years, is finalized. </li></ul><ul><li>September 3 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) peaks at 381.17, a height it would not reach again until November 1954. </li></ul><ul><li>October 11 - JC Penney opens Store #1252 in Milford, Delaware , making it a nationwide company with stores in all 48 states. </li></ul><ul><li>October 24 - October 29 - Wall Street Crash of 1929 : Three multi-digit percentage drops wipe out more than $30 billion from the New York Stock Exchange (10 times greater than the annual budget of the federal government). </li></ul><ul><li>October 25 – Former U.S. Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall is convicted of bribery for his role in the Teapot Dome scandal , becoming the first Presidential cabinet member to go to prison for actions in office. </li></ul><ul><li>November 7 - In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>November 15 - The Ambassador Bridge is opened to traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>November 29 – Floyd Bennett , U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd , Captain Ashley McKinley, and Harold June, become the first to fly over the South Pole . </li></ul><ul><li>December 3 - Great Depression : U.S. President Herbert Hoover announces to the U.S. Congress that the worst effects of the recent stock market crash are behind the nation, and that the American people have regained faith in the economy . </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1930 <ul><li>January 6 – The first diesel engine automobile trip is completed ( Indianapolis , Indiana, to New York City). </li></ul><ul><li>January 6 – The first literary character licensing agreement is signed by A. A. Milne , granting Stephen Slesinger U.S. and Canadian merchandising rights to the Winnie-the-Pooh works. </li></ul><ul><li>January 13 – The Mickey Mouse comic strip makes its first appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>February 18 – Elm Farm Ollie becomes the first cow to fly in an airplane , and also the first cow to be milked in an airplane. </li></ul><ul><li>February 18 – While studying photographs taken in January, Clyde Tombaugh confirms the existence of Pluto , a heavenly body considered a planet until 2006, when the term &quot;planet&quot; was officially defined. Pluto is now considered a Dwarf Planet . </li></ul><ul><li>March 3 – John Dillinger escapes prison using a wooden gun. </li></ul><ul><li>March 6 – The first frozen foods of Clarence Birdseye go on sale in Springfield, Massachusetts . </li></ul><ul><li>March 31 – The Motion Pictures Production Code is instituted, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in motion pictures for the next 40 years. </li></ul><ul><li>April 6 – Jimmy Dewar invents Hostess Twinkies . [1] </li></ul><ul><li>April 21 – A fire in the Ohio Penitentiary near Columbus kills 320 people. </li></ul><ul><li>April 22 – The United Kingdom , Japan and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty regulating submarine warfare and limiting shipbuilding . </li></ul><ul><li>April 28 – The first night game in organized baseball history takes place in Independence, Kansas . </li></ul><ul><li>May 10 – The National Pan-Hellenic Council is founded in Washington, D.C. . </li></ul><ul><li>May 15 – Aboard a Boeing tri-motor, Ellen Church becomes the first airline stewardess (the flight was from Oakland, California to Chicago, Illinois ). </li></ul><ul><li>May 30 – Sergei Eisenstein arrives in Hollywood to work for Paramount Pictures ; they part ways by October. </li></ul><ul><li>June 9 – Chicago Tribune journalist Jake Lingle is shot in Chicago , Illinois . Newspapers promise $55,000 reward for information. Lingle is later found to have had contacts with organized crime . </li></ul><ul><li>June 14 – An act of Congress establishes the Federal Bureau of Narcotics as a replacement for the Narcotics Division of the Prohibition Unit. </li></ul><ul><li>June 17 – U.S. President Herbert Hoover signs the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act into law. </li></ul><ul><li>July 7 – Building of the Boulder Dam (now known as Hoover Dam ) is started. </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 – Charles Creighton and James Hargis leave New York for Los Angeles on a roundtrip journey, driving 11,555 km using only a reverse gear; the trip lasts the next 42 days. </li></ul><ul><li>July 30 – New York station W2XBS is put in charge of NBC broadcast engineers . </li></ul><ul><li>July 31 – The radio drama The Shadow airs for the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>August 6 – Judge Joseph Force Crater steps into a taxi in New York and disappears. </li></ul><ul><li>August 9 – Betty Boop premiers in the animated film Dizzy Dishes . </li></ul><ul><li>September 8 – 3M introduces Scotch Tape . </li></ul><ul><li>December 2 – Great Depression : U.S. President Herbert Hoover goes before Congress and asks for a US$150 million public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy . </li></ul><ul><li>December 7 – W1XAV in Boston , Massachusetts broadcasts video from the CBS radio orchestra program, The Fox Trappers . The broadcast also includes the first television commercial in the United States, an advertisement for I.J. Fox Furriers, who sponsored the radio show. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1931 <ul><li>January 2 – South Dakota native Ernest Lawrence invents the cyclotron , used to accelerate particles to study nuclear physics . </li></ul><ul><li>January 6 – Thomas Edison submits his last patent application. </li></ul><ul><li>February 20 – California gets the go-ahead by the U.S. Congress to build the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge . </li></ul><ul><li>March 1 – The USS Arizona is placed back in full commission after a refit. </li></ul><ul><li>March 3 – The Star-Spangled Banner is adopted as the United States national anthem . </li></ul><ul><li>March 17 – Nevada legalizes gambling . </li></ul><ul><li>March 25 – The Scottsboro Boys are arrested in Alabama and charged with rape . </li></ul><ul><li>April 15 – The Castellemmarese War ends with the assassination of Joe &quot;The Boss&quot; Masseria , briefly leaving Salvatore Maranzano as capo di tutti i capi (&quot;boss of all bosses&quot;) and undisputed ruler of the American Mafia . Maranzano is himself assassinated less than 6 months later, leading to the establishment of the Five Families . </li></ul><ul><li>April 18 – Cheverly, Maryland is incorporated. </li></ul><ul><li>April 22 – Austria , Britain , Denmark , Germany , Italy , Sweden and the USA recognize the Spanish Republic . </li></ul><ul><li>May 1 – Construction of the Empire State Building is completed in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>June 19 – In an attempt to stop the banking crisis in Central Europe from causing a worldwide financial meltdown, President Herbert Hoover issues the Hoover Moratorium . </li></ul><ul><li>June 23 – Wiley Post and Harold Gatty take off from Roosevelt Field, Long Island in an attempt to accomplish the first round-the-world flight in a single-engine plane. [1] </li></ul><ul><li>July – John Haven Emerson of Cambridge, Massachusetts perfects the Emerson iron lung just in time for the growing polio epidemic. </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 – The millennialist Bible Student movement adopts the name Jehovah's Witnesses at a meeting in Columbus, Ohio . </li></ul><ul><li>October – The Caltech Department of Physics Faculty and graduate students meet with Albert Einstein as a guest. </li></ul><ul><li>October 17 – American gangster Al Capone is sentenced to 11 years in prison for tax evasion in Chicago, Illinois . </li></ul><ul><li>October 24 – The George Washington Bridge is dedicated; it opens to traffic the following day. </li></ul><ul><li>December 12 – The Eta Chapter of Kappa Delta Phi is founded at The University of Maine at Machias. </li></ul><ul><li>December 26 – Phi Iota Alpha , the oldest existing Latino fraternity , is founded. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1932 <ul><li>January 1 – The United States Post Office Department issues a set of 12 stamps commemorating the 200th anniversary of George Washington 's birth. </li></ul><ul><li>January 12 – Hattie W. Caraway becomes the first woman elected to the United States Senate . </li></ul><ul><li>February 2 – The Reconstruction Finance Corporation begins operations in Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>February 4 – The 1932 Winter Olympics open in Lake Placid, New York . </li></ul><ul><li>February 15 – Clara, Lu & Em , generally regarded as the first daytime network soap opera , debuts in its morning time slot over the Blue Network of NBC Radio, having originally been a late evening program. </li></ul><ul><li>March 1 – Charles Lindbergh, Jr. , the infant son of Anne Morrow Lindbergh and Charles Lindbergh , is kidnapped from the family home near Hopewell, New Jersey . </li></ul><ul><li>March 7 – Four people are killed when police fire upon 3,000 unemployed autoworkers marching outside the Ford River Rouge Plant in Dearborn, Michigan . </li></ul><ul><li>April 6 – U.S. president Herbert Hoover supports armament limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>May 12 – Ten weeks after his abduction, the infant son of Charles Lindbergh is found dead just a few miles from the Lindberghs' home. </li></ul><ul><li>May 20–21 – Amelia Earhart flies from the USA to Derry , Northern Ireland in 14 hours 54 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>May 29 – The first of approximately 15,000 World War I veterans arrive in Washington, D.C. demanding the immediate payment of their military bonus, becoming known as the Bonus Army . </li></ul><ul><li>June 6 – The Revenue Act of 1932 is enacted, creating the first gas tax in the United States at 1 cent per US gallon (0.26 ¢/L) sold. </li></ul><ul><li>June 29 – The comedy serial Vic and Sade debuts on NBC Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>July 8 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level of the Great Depression , bottoming out at 41.22. </li></ul><ul><li>July 28 – U.S. President Herbert Hoover orders the U.S. Army to forcibly evict the Bonus Army of World War I veterans gathered in Washington, D.C. . Troops disperse the last of the Bonus Army the next day. </li></ul><ul><li>July 30 – The 1932 Summer Olympics open in Los Angeles . </li></ul><ul><li>July 30 – Walt Disney's Flowers and Trees , the first animated cartoon to be presented in full Technicolor , premieres in Los Angeles, California. It releases in theaters, along with Eugene O'Neill 's experimental play Strange Interlude (starring Norma Shearer and Clark Gable ), and will go on to win the first Academy Award for Best Animated Short. </li></ul><ul><li>August – A farmers' revolt begins in the Midwestern United States . </li></ul><ul><li>August 7 – Raymond Edward Welch becomes the first one legged man to scale the 6,288 feet (1,917 m) Mount Washington . </li></ul><ul><li>August 10 – A 5.1 kg chondrite -type meteorite breaks into at least 7 fragments and strikes earth near the town of Archie in Cass County, Missouri . </li></ul><ul><li>August 31 – A total solar eclipse is visible from northern Canada through northeastern Vermont, New Hampshire, southwestern Maine, and the Capes of Massachusetts. </li></ul><ul><li>October 15 – The Michigan Marching Band (then called the Varsity band) debuts Script Ohio at the Michigan versus Ohio State game in Columbus. </li></ul><ul><li>October 23 – Fred Allen 's radio comedy show debuts on CBS . </li></ul><ul><li>November 1 – The San Francisco Opera House opens. </li></ul><ul><li>November 7 – Buck Rogers in the 25th Century airs on American radio for the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>November 8 – U.S. presidential election, 1932 : Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt defeats Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide victory. </li></ul><ul><li>November 16 – New York City 's Palace Theatre fully converts to a cinema , which is considered the final death knell of vaudeville as a popular entertainment in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>November 24 – In Washington, D.C., the FBI Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory (better known as the FBI Crime Lab) officially opens. </li></ul><ul><li>December 27 – Radio City Music Hall opens in New York City. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1933 ( pg.1 ) <ul><li>January 5 – Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge begins in San Francisco Bay . </li></ul><ul><li>January 17 – The U.S. Congress votes favorably for Philippines independence, against the view of President Herbert Hoover . </li></ul><ul><li>January 23 – The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, changing Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20. </li></ul><ul><li>January 30 – The Lone Ranger debuts on American radio. </li></ul><ul><li>February 6 – The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution goes into effect. </li></ul><ul><li>February 6–February 7 – Officers on the USS Ramapo record a 34-meter high sea- wave in the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>February 10 – The New York City -based Postal Telegraph Company introduces the first singing telegram . </li></ul><ul><li>February 15 – In Miami, Florida , Giuseppe Zangara attempts to assassinate President -elect Franklin D. Roosevelt , but instead fatally wounds Chicago Mayor Anton J. Cermak . </li></ul><ul><li>February 17 – The Blaine Act ends Prohibition in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>March 2 – The original film version of King Kong , starring Fay Wray , premieres at Radio City Music Hall and the RKO Roxy Theatre in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>March 3 – Mount Rushmore National Memorial is dedicated. </li></ul><ul><li>March 4 – U.S. President Herbert Hoover is succeeded by Franklin D. Roosevelt , who in reference to the Great Depression , proclaims &quot;The only thing we have to fear, is fear itself&quot; in his inauguration speech. FDR is sworn in by Chief Justice Charles . It is also the last time Inauguration Day in the United States occurs on March 4. </li></ul><ul><li>March 4 – Frances Perkins becomes United States Secretary of Labor , and the first female member of the United States Cabinet . </li></ul><ul><li>March 5 – Great Depression : President Franklin D. Roosevelt declares a &quot;bank holiday&quot;, closing all United States banks and freezing all financial transactions (the 'holiday' ends on March 13). </li></ul><ul><li>March 6 – Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago dies of the wound he received on February 15. </li></ul><ul><li>March 9 – Great Depression: The U.S. Congress begins its first 100 days of enacting New Deal legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>March 10 – An earthquake in Long Beach, California kills 117 people. </li></ul><ul><li>March 12 – Great Depression : Franklin D. Roosevelt addresses the nation for the first time as President of the United States , in the first of his &quot; Fireside Chats &quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>March 15 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average rises from 53.84 to 62.10. The day's gain of 15.34%, achieved during the depths of the Great Depression, remains to date as the largest 1-day percentage gain for the index. </li></ul><ul><li>April 4 – The U.S. airship Akron crashes off the coast of New Jersey , leaving 73 dead. </li></ul><ul><li>April 5 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declares a national emergency and issues Executive Order 6102 , making it illegal for U.S. citizens to own gold. </li></ul><ul><li>April 7 – Beer is legalized in the U.S., 8 months before the full repeal of Prohibition in December. </li></ul><ul><li>April 19 – The United States officially goes off the gold standard . </li></ul><ul><li>April 26 – Editors of the Harvard Lampoon steal the Sacred Cod of Massachusetts from the State House (it is returned two days later). </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1933(pg.2) <ul><li>May 3 – Nellie Tayloe Ross becomes the first woman to be named director of the United States Mint. </li></ul><ul><li>May 5 – The detection by Karl Jansky of radio waves from the center of the Milky Way Galaxy is reported in the New York Times . The discovery leads to the birth of radio astronomy. </li></ul><ul><li>May 12 – Agricultural Adjustment Act is enacted in the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>May 18 – New Deal: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs an act creating the Tennessee Valley Authority. </li></ul><ul><li>May 27 – New Deal: The Federal Securities Act is signed into law, requiring the registration of securities with the Federal Trade Commission. </li></ul><ul><li>May 27 – The Century of Progress World's Fair opens in Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>May 27 – Walt Disney's classic Silly Symphony cartoon The Three Little Pigs is first released. </li></ul><ul><li>June 5 – The U.S. Congress abrogates the United States' use of the gold standard by enacting a joint resolution (48 Stat. 112) nullifying the right of creditors to demand payment in gold. </li></ul><ul><li>June 6 – The first drive-in theater opens in Camden, New Jersey. </li></ul><ul><li>June 17 – Union Station Massacre: In Kansas City, Missouri, Pretty Boy Floyd kills four unarmed FBI agents and captures fugitive Frank Nash in a failed attempt to free him. </li></ul><ul><li>June 26 – The American Totalisator Company unveils its first electronic pari-mutuel betting machine at the Arlington Park Racetrack near Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>July 6 – The first Major League Baseball All-Star Game is played at Comiskey Park in Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>July 22 – &quot;Machine-Gun&quot; Kelly and Albert Bates kidnap Charles Urschel, an Oklahoma oilman, and demand $200,000 ransom. </li></ul><ul><li>July 24 – Several members of the Barrow Gang are injured or captured during a running battle with local police near Dexter, Iowa. </li></ul><ul><li>August 14 – Loggers cause a forest fire in the Coast Range of Oregon, later known as the first forest fire of the Tillamook Burn. It is extinguished on September 5, after destroying 240,000 acres (971 km²). </li></ul><ul><li>October 10 – A United Airlines Boeing 247 is destroyed near Chesterton, Indiana by a bomb. This is the first proven case of air sabotage in commercial airline history. </li></ul><ul><li>October 12 – The United States Army Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz is acquired by the United States Department of Justice, which plans to incorporate the island into its Federal Bureau of Prisons as a federal penitentiary. </li></ul><ul><li>October 17 – Albert Einstein arrives in the United States as a refugee from Nazi Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>November 8 – New Deal: – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveils the Civil Works Administration, an organization designed to create jobs for more than 4 million of the unemployed. </li></ul><ul><li>November 11 – Dust Bowl: In South Dakota, a very strong dust storm strips topsoil from desiccated farmlands (one of a series of disastrous dust storms that year). </li></ul><ul><li>November 16 – The United States and the Soviet Union establish formal diplomatic relations. </li></ul><ul><li>December 5 – The 21st Amendment to the United States Constitution, repealing Prohibition, goes into effect. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1934 <ul><li>January 24 – Albert Einstein visits the White House . </li></ul><ul><li>January 26 – The Apollo Theater opens in Harlem , New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>February 22 – Frank Capra 's It Happened One Night , starring Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert , is released. It becomes a smash hit and the first of Capra's great screen classics. It becomes the first film to win all 5 of the major Academy Awards – Best Actor , Best Actress , Best Screenplay, Best Director , and Best Picture . Gable and Colbert receive their only Oscars for this film. </li></ul><ul><li>March 3 – John Dillinger escapes from jail in Crown Point, Indiana , using a wooden pistol. </li></ul><ul><li>March 13 – John Dillinger , Baby Face Nelson and their gang rob the First National Bank in Mason City, Iowa . </li></ul><ul><li>March 24 – The Philippine Commonwealth becomes established allowing for more self-government from the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>April 1 – Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker kill 2 young highway patrolmen near Grapevine, Texas . </li></ul><ul><li>April 12 – U.S. publication of the novel Tender Is the Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald </li></ul><ul><li>April 12 – The worlds largest ever recorded surface wind speed of 231 miles per hour (372 km/h) was recorded on the summit of Mount Washington (New Hampshire) . </li></ul><ul><li>April 14 – Black Sunday : Twenty of the worst dust storms within the Dust Bowl occur. </li></ul><ul><li>April 22 – John Dillinger and two others shoot their way out of an FBI ambush in northern Wisconsin . </li></ul><ul><li>May 11 – Dust Bowl : A strong 2-day dust storm removes massive amounts of Great Plains topsoil in one of the worst dust storms of the Dust Bowl. </li></ul><ul><li>May 15 – The United States Department of Justice offers a $25,000 reward for John Dillinger . </li></ul><ul><li>May 23 – A team of police officers, led by Texas Ranger Cordell Walker, ambush bank robbers Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow near their hide-out in Black Lake, Louisiana , killing them both. </li></ul><ul><li>May 24 – The 5-day &quot;Battle of Toledo&quot; occurs during the Auto- Lite strike in Toledo, Ohio . </li></ul><ul><li>June 6 – New Deal : U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Securities Exchange Act into law, establishing the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission . </li></ul><ul><li>July 1 – The world famous Brookfield Zoo opens in Brookfield, Illinois . </li></ul><ul><li>July 1 – The Hays Office censorship code for motion pictures goes into full effect in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>July 17 – The North Dakota Supreme Court declares Lieutenant Governor Ole H. Olson the legitimate governor and tells William Langer to resign. Langer proceeds to declare North Dakota independent. He revokes the declaration after the Supreme Court justices meet him. </li></ul><ul><li>July 22 – Outside Chicago 's Biograph Theatre, &quot;Public Enemy No. 1&quot; John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents. </li></ul><ul><li>August 19 – The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio . </li></ul><ul><li>August 25 – Anti-union vigilantes seize the town of McGuffey , Ohio , during the Hardin County onion pickers strike . </li></ul><ul><li>September 8 – Off the New Jersey coast, a fire aboard the passenger liner Morro Castle kills 134 people. </li></ul><ul><li>October 22 – &quot;Pretty Boy&quot; Floyd is shot and killed by FBI agents near East Liverpool, Ohio. </li></ul><ul><li>November 20– 21 – Business Plot : An alleged coup to overthrow President Franklin D. Roosevelt is investigated by the McCormack-Dickstein Committee and is reported by the Philadelphia Record . </li></ul><ul><li>November 21 – Cole Porter 's musical Anything Goes , starring Ethel Merman , premieres in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>November 26 – Universal Pictures releases the first film version of Fannie Hurst 's novel, Imitation of Life , starring Claudette Colbert and Louise Beavers . It gives Beavers, usually featured in small roles as a maid, her best screen role, and features the largest supporting role played by a black person in a Hollywood film up till then. Its storyline is extremely daring for a 1934 film – part of it revolves around a young mulatto girl rejecting her mother and trying to &quot;pass for white&quot;. It is the first Hollywood film to seriously deal with this subject. The 1936 film version of Show Boat , also from Universal, will deal with a similar storyline. </li></ul><ul><li>November 27 – A running gun battle between FBI agents and bank robber Baby Face Nelson results in the death of one FBI agent and the mortal wounding of special agent Samuel P. Cowley , who was still able to mortally wound Nelson. </li></ul><ul><li>December 26 – An American Airlines aircraft crashes in the Adirondack Mountains . </li></ul><ul><li>December 29 – Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1935 <ul><li>January 3 – The trial of Bruno Richard Hauptmann , accused of the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr. , begins in Flemington, New Jersey . </li></ul><ul><li>January 11 – Amelia Earhart becomes the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California . </li></ul><ul><li>January 16 – The FBI kills the Barker Gang, including Ma Barker , in a shootout. </li></ul><ul><li>February 13 – Bruno Richard Hauptmann is convicted and sentenced to death for the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr. </li></ul><ul><li>February 22 – Airplanes are banned from flying over the White House . </li></ul><ul><li>March 2 – Porky Pig makes his debut in Looney Tunes 's I Haven't Got a Hat . </li></ul><ul><li>April 14 – Dust Bowl : The great Black Sunday dust storm (made famous by Woody Guthrie in his &quot;dust bowl ballads&quot;) hits hardest in eastern New Mexico and Colorado, and western Oklahoma. </li></ul><ul><li>April 16 – Fibber McGee and Molly debuts on NBC Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>May 6 – New Deal : Executive Order 7034 creates the Works Progress Administration (WPA). </li></ul><ul><li>May 24 – The first nighttime Major League Baseball game is played between the Cincinnati Reds and Philadelphia Phillies at Crosley Field in Cincinnati, Ohio . </li></ul><ul><li>May 27 – Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (aka the &quot;Sick Chicken Case&quot;): The U.S. Supreme Court declares the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>May 30 – Eventual Baseball Hall of Famer Babe Ruth appears in his last career game, playing for the Boston Braves in Philadelphia against the Phillies . </li></ul><ul><li>June 10 – Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio by William G. Wilson and Dr. Robert Smith . </li></ul><ul><li>June 12 – Senator Huey Long of Louisiana makes the longest speech on Senate record, taking 15½ hours and containing 150,000 words. [1] </li></ul><ul><li>June 13 – James J. Braddock defeats Max Baer at Madison Square Garden Bowl to win the heavyweight boxing championship of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>July 5 – The National Labor Relations Act becomes law in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>July 16 – The world's first parking meters are installed in Oklahoma City . </li></ul><ul><li>July 16 – Deportivo Saprissa is founded by Roberto Fernández in his shoe store in El Barrio Los Angeles in San Jose, Costa Rica . </li></ul><ul><li>July 24 – The Dust Bowl heat wave reaches its peak, sending temperatures in Chicago to a record-high 109 °F (43 °C) </li></ul><ul><li>July 27 – Federal Writers' Project is established in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>August 5 – The Leo Burnett Advertising Agency opens in Chicago, Illinois. </li></ul><ul><li>August 14 – United States President Franklin Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law. </li></ul><ul><li>August 15 – Humorist Will Rogers and aviator Wiley Post are killed when Post's plane crashes shortly after takeoff near Barrow, Alaska . </li></ul><ul><li>September 2 – Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 : The strongest hurricane ever to strike the United States makes landfall in the Upper Florida Keys killing 423. It is rated as a Category 5 storm with 185 mph winds. </li></ul><ul><li>September 8 – Carl Weiss kills Huey Long , U.S. Senator from Louisiana (&quot;The Kingfish&quot;), in the Louisiana Capitol Building in Baton Rouge . </li></ul><ul><li>September 24 – Earl Bascom and his brother Weldon Bascom produce the first night rodeo held outdoors under electric lights at Columbia, Mississippi . </li></ul><ul><li>September 30 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicates Hoover Dam . </li></ul><ul><li>November 22 – The China Clipper takes off from Alameda, California in an attempt to deliver the first airmail cargo across the Pacific Ocean (the aircraft later reaches its destination, Manila , and delivers over 110,000 pieces of mail ). </li></ul><ul><li>November 30 – The 1935 British -made film Scrooge , the first all-talking film version of Charles Dickens classic, opens in the U.S. after its British release. Seymour Hicks plays Scrooge, a role he has played onstage hundreds of times. The film is criticized by some for not showing all of the ghosts physically, and quickly fades into obscurity. Widespread interest does not surface until the film is shown on television in the 1980s, in very shabby-looking prints. It is eventually restored on DVD . </li></ul><ul><li>December 9 – American newspaper editor Walter Liggett is killed in a gangland murder plot. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1936 <ul><li>January 15 – The first American building to be completely covered in glass is completed in Toledo, Ohio , for the Owens-Illinois Glass Company . </li></ul><ul><li>February 17 The first superhero to wear a skin-tight costume and mask, The Phantom , makes his first appearance in U.S. newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>March 1 – Construction of Hoover Dam is completed. </li></ul><ul><li>March 17– 18 – St. Patrick's Day Flood: Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania , suffers the worst flooding in its history. </li></ul><ul><li>March 26 – The longest game in the history of the National Hockey League is played. The Montreal Maroons and Detroit Red Wings were scoreless until 16 and a half minutes into the sixth overtime when Mud Bruneteau ends it at 2:25 am. It would hold the record as the longest game until May 4, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>April 3 – Bruno Richard Hauptmann , convicted of kidnapping and killing Charles Lindbergh III , is executed in New Jersey . </li></ul><ul><li>April 5 – A tornado hits Tupelo, Mississippi , killing 216 and injuring over 700 (the 4th deadliest tornado in U.S. history). </li></ul><ul><li>April 6 – Two tornadoes strike Gainesville, Georgia . The smaller tornado hits north Gainsville, the stronger tornado the west side of town. 203 die and 1,600 are injured in the 5th deadliest tornado in U.S. history. </li></ul><ul><li>May 12 – The Santa Fe railroad in the United States inaugurates the all-Pullman Super Chief passenger train between Chicago, Illinois and Los Angeles, California . </li></ul><ul><li>June – A major heat wave strikes North America ; high temperature records are set and thousands die. </li></ul><ul><li>June – The first production model PCC trolley car, built by St. Louis Car Company, is placed in service by Pittsburgh Railways . </li></ul><ul><li>June 7 – The Steel Workers Organizing Committee is founded in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>June 19 – Max Schmeling knocks out Joe Louis in the 12th round of their heavyweight boxing match at Yankee Stadium in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>July 11 – Triborough Bridge in New York City is opened to traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>July 13 – 14 – Peak of July 1936 heat wave: The U.S. states of Wisconsin , Michigan , and Indiana all set new state records for high temperature. At Mio in northern Michigan, it soars to 113 °F (45 °C). </li></ul><ul><li>August 3 – African-American athlete Jesse Owens wins the 100-meter dash at the Berlin Olympics . </li></ul><ul><li>August 14 – Rainey Bethea was hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky , in the last public execution in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>August 14 – 1936 Summer Olympics : The United States men's national basketball team wins its first ever Olympic basketball tournament in the final game over Canada, 19–8. </li></ul><ul><li>October 11 – Earl Bascom , rodeo cowboy and artist, designs and builds Mississippi 's first permanent rodeo arena at Columbia, Mississippi . </li></ul><ul><li>October 19 – H.R. Ekins, reporter for the New York World-Telegram , wins a race to travel around the world on commercial airline flights, beating out Dorothy Kilgallen of the New York Journal and Leo Kieran of the New York Times . The flight takes 18 1/2 days. </li></ul><ul><li>October 29 – The historic Uptown Theater opens in Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>November 3 – U.S. presidential election, 1936 : Franklin D. Roosevelt is reelected to a second term in a landslide victory over Alf Landon . </li></ul><ul><li>November 12 – In California , the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge opens to traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>November 25 – The Abraham Lincoln Brigade sails from New York City on its way to the Spanish Civil War . </li></ul><ul><li>December 3 – Radio station WQXR is officially founded in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>December 29 – The United Auto Workers begins the Flint Sit-Down Strike in Flint, Michigan . </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1937 <ul><li>January 11 – The first issue of LOOK Magazine goes on sale in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>January 12 – Adventurer and filmmaker Martin Johnson, of Martin and Osa Johnson fame, is killed along with four others in the crash of Western Air Express Flight 7 in mountainous terrain near Saugus, California . </li></ul><ul><li>January 19 – Howard Hughes sets a new record by flying from Los Angeles to New York City in 7 hours, 28 minutes and 25 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>January 20 – Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes swears in Franklin D. Roosevelt for a second term. This is the first time Inauguration Day in the United States occurs on that date, in response to the ratification in 1933 of the 20th amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Inauguration has occurred on January 20 ever since. </li></ul><ul><li>January 26 – Michigan celebrates its Centennial Anniversary of statehood. </li></ul><ul><li>January 31 – The Ohio River floods. </li></ul><ul><li>February 5 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposes a plan to enlarge the Supreme Court of the United States . </li></ul><ul><li>February 11 – A sit-down strike ends when General Motors recognizes the United Automobile Workers Union . </li></ul><ul><li>March 26 – William Henry Hastie becomes the first African-American appointed to a federal judgeship. </li></ul><ul><li>March – The first issue of the comic book Detective Comics is published in the United States. Twenty-seven issues later, Detective Comics introduces Batman . The comic goes on to become the longest continually published comic magazine in American history; it is still published as of 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>March 17 – The Atherton Report (private investigator Edwin Atherton 's report detailing vice and police corruption in San Francisco) is released. </li></ul><ul><li>March 18 – In the worst school disaster in American history in terms of lives lost, the New London School in New London, Texas suffers a catastrophic natural gas explosion, killing in excess of 295 students and teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>March 18 – Mother Frances Hospital opens in Tyler, Texas in response to the New London School explosion . </li></ul><ul><li>March 26 – In Crystal City, Texas , spinach growers erect a statue of the cartoon character Popeye . </li></ul><ul><li>April 12 – NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel : The Supreme Court of the United States rules that the National Labor Relations Act is constitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>April 17 – The animated short Porky's Duck Hunt , directed by Tex Avery for the Looney Tunes series, featuring the debut of Daffy Duck , is released. </li></ul><ul><li>May – 7 million unemployed in the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>May 6 – Hindenburg disaster : The German airship Hindenburg bursts into flame when mooring to a mast in Lakehurst, New Jersey . </li></ul><ul><li>May 27 – In California , the Golden Gate Bridge opens to pedestrian traffic, creating a vital link between San Francisco and Marin County . The next day, President Franklin D. Roosevelt pushes a button in Washington, D.C. , signaling the start of vehicle traffic over the Golden Gate Bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>June 14 – Pennsylvania becomes the first (and only) of the United States to celebrate Flag Day officially as a state holiday . </li></ul><ul><li>July 2 – Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappear after taking off from New Guinea during Earhart's attempt to become the first woman to fly around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>July 2 – A guard first stands post at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Washington, DC ; continuous guard has been maintained there ever since. </li></ul><ul><li>July 22 – New Deal : The United States Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt 's proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States . </li></ul><ul><li>July 24 – Alabama drops rape charges against the so-called Scottsboro Boys . </li></ul><ul><li>September 7 – CBS broadcasts a two-and-a-half hour memorial concert nationwide on radio in memory of George Gershwin, live from the Hollywood Bowl . Many celebrities appear, including Oscar Levant , Fred Astaire , Otto Klemperer , Lily Pons , and members of the original cast of Porgy and Bess . The concert is recorded and released complete years later in what is excellent sound for its time, on CD . The Los Angeles Philharmonic is the featured orchestra. </li></ul><ul><li>September 26 – Street and Smith Publications launches a half-hour radio program, The Shadow , with Orson Welles in the title role. </li></ul><ul><li>October 1 – The Marijuana Tax Act becomes law in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>October 1 – U.S. Supreme Court associate justice Hugo Black , in a nationwide radio broadcast, refutes allegations of past involvement in the Ku Klux Klan . </li></ul><ul><li>October 5 – Roosevelt gives his famous Quarantine Speech in Chicago . </li></ul><ul><li>October 15 – Ernest Hemingway 's novel To Have and Have Not is first published. </li></ul><ul><li>December 12 – Panay incident : Japanese bombers sink the American gunboat USS Panay . </li></ul><ul><li>December 12 – Mae West makes a risque guest appearance on the NBC Chase and Sanborn Hour that eventually results in her being banned from radio. </li></ul><ul><li>December 21 – Walt Disney 's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs , the first feature-length animated cartoon with sound, opens and becomes a smash hit. </li></ul><ul><li>December 25 – At the age of 70, legendary conductor Arturo Toscanini conducts the NBC Symphony Orchestra on radio for the first time, beginning his successful 17-year tenure with that orchestra. This first concert consists of music by Vivaldi (at a time when he was still seldom played), Mozart , and Brahms . Millions tune in to listen, including U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt . </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1938(pg.1) <ul><li>January 3 – The March of Dimes is established by Franklin D. Roosevelt . </li></ul><ul><li>January 16 – Two landmark live recordings are produced this day: the very first of Mahler's Ninth by the Vienna Philharmonic under Bruno Walter in the face of dire circumstance ; and Benny Goodman and his orchestra become the first jazz musicians to headline a concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>January 22 – Thornton Wilder 's play Our Town is performed for the first time anywhere in Princeton, New Jersey . It premieres in New York City on February 4. </li></ul><ul><li>January 27 – The Niagara Bridge at Niagara Falls, New York collapses due to an ice jam. </li></ul><ul><li>January 28 – The first ski tow in America begins operation in Vermont . </li></ul><ul><li>March 3 – The Santa Ana River in California spills over its banks during a rainy winter, killing 58 people in Orange County and causing trouble as far inland as Palm Springs . [1] </li></ul><ul><li>April 25 – Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins : The U.S. Supreme Court overturns a century of federal common law. </li></ul><ul><li>April 28 – The towns of Dana , Enfield , Greenwich , and Prescott in Massachusetts are disincorporated to make way for the Quabbin Reservoir . </li></ul><ul><li>May 17 – Information Please debuts on NBC Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>June 22 – Heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis knocks out Max Schmeling in the first round of their rematch at Yankee Stadium in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>June 23 – The Civil Aeronautics Act is signed into law, forming the Civil Aeronautics Authority in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>June 23 – Marineland opens near St. Augustine, Florida . </li></ul><ul><li>June 24 – A 450- metric-ton (496- short-ton ) meteorite explodes about 12 miles (19 km) above the earth near Chicora, Pennsylvania . </li></ul><ul><li>June 30 – Action Comics #1 is published, which is the first publication featuring the comic book character Superman . </li></ul><ul><li>July 3 – The last reunion of the Blue and Gray commemorates the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania . </li></ul><ul><li>July 5 – The Non-Intervention Committee reaches an agreement to withdraw all foreign volunteers from the Spanish Civil War . The agreement is respected by most Republican foreign volunteers, notably by those from England and the United States, but is ignored by the governments of Germany and Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>July 18 – Wrong Way Corrigan takes off from New York , ostensibly heading for California . He lands in Ireland instead. </li></ul><ul><li>August 6 – The Looney Tunes animated short Porky & Daffy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>August 18 – The Thousand Islands Bridge , connecting the United States with Canada , is dedicated by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt . </li></ul><ul><li>August 31 – Winston Churchill , still believing France and Britain mean to honor their promises to defend Czechoslovakia against Nazi aggression, suggests in a personal note to Neville Chamberlain that His Majesty's Government may want to set up a broad international alliance including the United States (specifically mentioning U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as possibly receptive to the idea) and the Soviet Union . </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1938(pg.2) <ul><li>September 4 – During the ceremony marking the unveiling of a plaque at Pointe de Grave, France celebrating Franco-American friendship, American Ambassador William Bullitt in a speech states, &quot;France and the United States were united in war and peace&quot;, leading to much speculation in the press that if war did break out over Czechoslovakia, then the United States would join the war on the Allied side. </li></ul><ul><li>September 9 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt disallows the popular interpretation of Bullitt’s speech at a press conference at the White House. Roosevelt states it is “100% wrong” the U.S. would join a “stop-Hitler bloc” under any circumstances, and makes it quite clear that in the event of German aggression against Czechoslovakia, the U.S. would remain neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>September 12 – Hitler makes his much-anticipated closing address at Nuremberg, in which he vehemently attacks the Czech people and President Beneš. American news commentator Hans von Kaltenborn begins his famous marathon of broadcast bulletins over the CBS Radio Network with a summation of Hitler's address. </li></ul><ul><li>September 21 – The New England Hurricane of 1938 strikes Long Island and southern New England, killing over 300 along the Rhode Island shoreline and approximately 600 in total. </li></ul><ul><li>September 22 – Olsen and Johnson's musical comedy revue Hellzapoppin' begins its 3-year run on Broadway. </li></ul><ul><li>October 10 – The Blue Water Bridge opens, connecting Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario. </li></ul><ul><li>October 16 – Winston Churchill, in a broadcast address to the United States, condemns the Munich Agreement as a defeat and calls upon America and western Europe to prepare for armed resistance against Adolf Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>October 24 – The minimum wage is established by law in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>October 30 – Orson Welles's radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds is broadcast, causing panic in various parts of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>October 31 – Great Depression: In an effort to try restore investor confidence, the New York Stock Exchange unveils a 15-point program intended to upgrade protection for the investing public. </li></ul><ul><li>November 1 – Horse Racing: Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral by four lengths in their famous match race at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Maryland. </li></ul><ul><li>November 10 – On the eve of Armistice Day, Kate Smith sings Irving Berlin's &quot;God Bless America&quot; for the first time on her weekly radio show. </li></ul><ul><li>December – President Franklin Roosevelt agrees to lend $25 million to Chiang Kai-shek, cementing the Sino-American relationship and angering the Japanese government. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1939 <ul><li>January 1 – The Hewlett-Packard Company is founded. </li></ul><ul><li>January 1 – Texas A&M University wins its only football national championship. </li></ul><ul><li>January 5 – Amelia Earhart is officially declared dead after her 1937 disappearance. </li></ul><ul><li>February 21 – The Golden Gate International Exposition opens in San Francisco, California . </li></ul><ul><li>February 27 – Sit-down strikes are outlawed by the Supreme Court of the United States . </li></ul><ul><li>March 3 – Students at Harvard University demonstrate the new tradition of swallowing goldfish to reporters. </li></ul><ul><li>March 28 – American adventurer Richard Halliburton delivers a last message from a Chinese junk, before he disappears on a voyage across the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>April 9 – African-American singer Marian Anderson performs before 75,000 people at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. , after having been denied the use both of Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution , and of a public high school by the federally controlled District of Columbia . </li></ul><ul><li>April 14 – John Steinbeck 's novel The Grapes of Wrath is first published. </li></ul><ul><li>April 30 – The 1939 New York World's Fair opens. </li></ul><ul><li>May 2 – Major League Baseball 's Lou Gehrig , the legendary Yankee first baseman known as &quot;The Iron Horse&quot;, ends his 2,130 consecutive games played streak after contracting amyotrophic lateral sclerosis . The record stands for 56 years before Cal Ripken , Jr. plays 2,131 consecutive games. </li></ul><ul><li>May 20 – Pan-American Airways begins trans-Atlantic mail service with the inaugural flight of its Yankee Clipper from Port Washington, New York . </li></ul><ul><li>June 4 – The St. Louis , a ship carrying a cargo of 907 Jewish refugees, is denied permission to land in Florida after already having been turned away from Cuba . Forced to return to Europe , many of its passengers later die in Nazi death camps during the Holocaust . </li></ul><ul><li>June 12 – The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is officially dedicated in Cooperstown, New York . </li></ul><ul><li>July 2 – The 1st World Science Fiction Convention opens in New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>August 2 – Albert Einstein writes to President Franklin Roosevelt about developing the atomic bomb using uranium . This leads to the creation of the Manhattan Project . </li></ul><ul><li>August 15 – MGM's classic musical film The Wizard of Oz , based on L. Frank Baum's famous novel , and starring Judy Garland as Dorothy, premieres at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood . </li></ul><ul><li>September 5 – World War II : The United States declares its neutrality in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>September 21 – Radio station WJSV in Washington, D.C. records an entire broadcast day for preservation in the National Archives . </li></ul><ul><li>September 29 – Gerald J. Cox, speaking at an American Water Works Association meeting, becomes the first person to publicly propose the fluoridation of public water supplies in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>October 11 – Manhattan Project : U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt is presented a letter signed by Albert Einstein , urging the United States to rapidly develop the atomic bomb . </li></ul><ul><li>October 15 – The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport ) is dedicated. </li></ul><ul><li>October 24 – Nylon stockings go on sale for the first time anywhere in Wilmington, Delaware . </li></ul><ul><li>October 25 – The Time of Your Life , a drama by William Saroyan , debuts in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>November 4 – World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the United States Customs Service to implement the Neutrality Act of 1939 , allowing cash-and-carry purchases of weapons to non-belligerent nations. </li></ul><ul><li>November 6 – Hedda Hopper's Hollywood debuts on radio with Hollywood gossip columnist Hedda Hopper as host (the show runs until 1951, making Hopper a powerful figure in the Hollywood elite). </li></ul><ul><li>November 15 – In Washington, D.C. , U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt lays the cornerstone of the Jefferson Memorial . </li></ul><ul><li>December 2 – La Guardia Airport opens for business in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>December 15 – The film Gone with the Wind , starring Vivien Leigh , Clark Gable , Olivia de Havilland and Leslie Howard , premieres at Loew's Grand Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia . It is based on Margaret Mitchell's best-selling novel . It is the longest American film made up to that time (nearly four hours). </li></ul>
  19. 19. 1940(pg.1) <ul><li>February 7 – RKO release Walt Disney 's second full-length animated film , Pinocchio . </li></ul><ul><li>February 20 – Tom and Jerry make their debut in Puss Gets the Boot . </li></ul><ul><li>February 27 – Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discover carbon-14 . </li></ul><ul><li>March – Truth or Consequences debuts on NBC Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>March 2 – Cartoon character Elmer Fudd makes his debut in the animated short Elmer's Candid Camera . </li></ul><ul><li>April 7 – Booker T. Washington becomes the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp . </li></ul><ul><li>April 12 – Opening day at Jamaica Racetrack features the use of pari-mutuel betting equipment, a departure from bookmaking heretofore used exclusively throughout New York state. Other NY tracks follow suit later in 1940. </li></ul><ul><li>April 21 – Take It or Leave It makes it debut on CBS Radio , with Bob Hawk as host. </li></ul><ul><li>April 23 – A fire at the Rhythm Night Club in Natchez, Mississippi kills 198. </li></ul><ul><li>May 15 – The very first McDonald's restaurant opens in San Bernardino, California . </li></ul><ul><li>May 16 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt , addressing a joint session of Congress , asks for an extraordinary credit of approximately $900 million to finance construction of at least 50,000 airplanes per year. </li></ul><ul><li>May 29 – The Vought XF4U-1, prototype of the F4U Corsair U.S. fighter later used in WWII , makes its first flight. </li></ul><ul><li>June 10 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounces Italy's actions with his &quot;Stab in the Back&quot; speech during the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia . </li></ul><ul><li>June 14 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Naval Expansion Act into law, which aims to increase the United States Navy 's tonnage by 11%. </li></ul><ul><li>June 16 – The Sturgis Motorcycle Rally is held for the first time in Sturgis, South Dakota . </li></ul><ul><li>June 24 – U.S. politics: The Republican Party begins its national convention in Philadelphia and nominates Wendell Willkie as its candidate for president. </li></ul><ul><li>July 1 The first Tacoma Narrows Bridge opens for business, built with an 8-foot girder and 190 feet above the water, as the third longest suspension bridge in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>July 15 – U.S. politics: The Democratic Party begins its national convention in Chicago , and nominates Franklin D. Roosevelt for an unprecedented third term as president. </li></ul><ul><li>July 27 – Bugs Bunny makes his debut in the Oscar -nominated cartoon short, A Wild Hare . </li></ul><ul><li>August 4 – Gen. John J. Pershing , in a nationwide radio broadcast, urges all-out aid to Britain in order to defend the Americas, while Charles Lindbergh speaks to an isolationist rally at Soldier Field in Chicago . </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1940(pg.2) <ul><li>September – The U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division (previously a National Guard Division in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma), is activated and ordered into federal service for 1 year, to engage in a training program in Ft. Sill and Louisiana, prior to serving in World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>September 2 – WWII: An agreement between America and Great Britain is announced to the effect that 50 U.S. destroyers needed for escort work will be transferred to Great Britain. In return, America gains 99-year leases on British bases in the North Atlantic, West Indies and Bermuda. </li></ul><ul><li>September 12 – The Hercules Munitions Plant in Succasunna-Kenvil, New Jersey explodes, killing 55 people. </li></ul><ul><li>September 16 – WWII: The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 is signed into law by Franklin D. Roosevelt, creating the first peacetime draft in U.S. history. </li></ul><ul><li>September 26 – WWII: The United States imposes a total embargo on all scrap metal shipments to Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>October 16 – The draft registration of approximately 16 million men begins in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>October 29 – The Selective Service System lottery is held in Washington, D.C.. </li></ul><ul><li>November 5 – U.S. presidential election, 1940: Democrat incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt defeats Republican challenger Wendell Willkie and becomes the United States' first and only third-term president. </li></ul><ul><li>November 7 – In Tacoma, Washington, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge (known as Galloping Gertie) collapses in a 42-mile per hour wind storm, causing the center span of the bridge to sway. When it collapses, a 600 foot-long design of the center span falls 190 feet above the water, killing Tubby, a black male cocker spaniel dog. </li></ul><ul><li>November 11 – Armistice Day Blizzard: An unexpected blizzard kills 144 in U.S. Midwest. </li></ul><ul><li>November 13 – Walt Disney's Fantasia is released. It is the first box office failure for Disney, though it eventually recoups its cost years later, and becomes one of the most highly regarded of Disney's films. </li></ul><ul><li>November 16 – An unexploded pipe bomb is found in the Consolidated Edison office building (only years later is the culprit, George Metesky, apprehended). </li></ul><ul><li>December 8 – The Chicago Bears, in what will become the most one-sided victory in National Football League history, defeat the Washington Redskins 73–0 in the 1940 NFL Championship Game. </li></ul><ul><li>December 17 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt, at his regular press conference, first sets forth the outline of his plan to send aid to Great Britain that will become known as Lend-Lease. </li></ul><ul><li>December 29 – Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a fireside chat to the nation, declares that the United States must become &quot;the great arsenal of democracy.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>December 30 – California's first modern freeway, the future State Route 110, opens to traffic in Pasadena, California, as the Arroyo Seco Parkway (now the Pasadena Freeway). </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1941(pg.1) <ul><li>January 4 – The short subject Elmer's Pet Rabbit is released, marking the second appearance of Bugs Bunny , and also the first to have his name on a title card. </li></ul><ul><li>January 6 – The keel of the USS Missouri (BB-63) is laid at the New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn . </li></ul><ul><li>January 10 – Lend-Lease is introduced into the U.S. Congress . </li></ul><ul><li>January 13 – All persons born in Puerto Rico since this day are declared U.S. citizens by birth, through U.S. federal law 8 U.S.C.   § 1402 . </li></ul><ul><li>January 20 – Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes swears in U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt for his third term. </li></ul><ul><li>January 23 – Aviator Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler . </li></ul><ul><li>January 27 – World War II – Attack on Pearl Harbor : U.S. Ambassador to Japan Joseph C. Grew passes on to Washington a rumor overheard at a diplomatic reception about a planned surprise attack upon Pearl Harbor, Hawaii . </li></ul><ul><li>February 4 – World War II: The United Service Organization (USO) is created to entertain American troops. </li></ul><ul><li>February 8 – World War II – The U.S. House of Representatives passes the Lend-Lease Act (260–165). </li></ul><ul><li>February 9 – Winston Churchill , in a worldwide broadcast, asks the United States to show its support by sending arms to the British: &quot;Give us the tools, and we will finish the job.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>February 14 – World War II – Attack on Pearl Harbor: Admiral Kichisaburo Nomura begins his duties as Japanese ambassador to the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>March – Captain America Comics #1 issues the first Captain America & Bucky comic. </li></ul><ul><li>March 1 – W47NV begins operations in Nashville, Tennessee , becoming the first FM radio station. </li></ul><ul><li>March 1 – Arthur L. Bristol becomes Rear Admiral for the U.S. Navy 's Support Force, Atlantic Fleet . </li></ul><ul><li>March 8 – World War II: The U.S. Senate passes the Lend-Lease Act (60–31). </li></ul><ul><li>March 11 – World War II: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act into law, allowing American-built war supplies to be shipped to the Allies on loan. </li></ul><ul><li>March 16 – A fleet of U.S. warships arrive in Auckland , New Zealand on a goodwill visit. On March 20, they visit Sydney , Australia . </li></ul><ul><li>March 17 – In Washington, D.C. , the National Gallery of Art is officially opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt . </li></ul><ul><li>March 22 – Washington 's Grand Coulee Dam begins to generate electricity . </li></ul><ul><li>March 27 – World War II – Attack on Pearl Harbor: Japanese spy Takeo Yoshikawa arrives in Honolulu, Hawaii and begins to study the United States fleet at Pearl Harbor . </li></ul><ul><li>March 30 – All German, Italian, and Danish ships anchored in United States waters are taken into &quot;protective custody&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>April 9 – The U.S. acquires full military defense rights in Greenland . </li></ul><ul><li>April 10 – World War II: The U.S. destroyer Niblack , while picking up survivors from a sunken Dutch freighter, drops depth charges on a German U-Boat (the first &quot;shot in anger&quot; fired by America against Germany). </li></ul><ul><li>April 15 – World War II: The U.S. begins shipping Lend-Lease aid to China . Axis forces reach Halfaya Pass on the Libyan-Egyptian frontier. </li></ul><ul><li>April 23 – The America First Committee holds its first mass rally in New York City , with Charles Lindbergh as keynote speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>April 25 – Franklin D. Roosevelt , at his regular press conference, criticizes Charles Lindbergh by comparing him to the Copperheads of the Civil War period. In response, Lindbergh resigns his commission in the U.S. Army Air Corps Reserve on April 28. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1941(pg.2) <ul><li>May 1 – Orson Welles' film Citizen Kane premieres in New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>May 1 – The first Defense Bonds and Defense Savings Stamps go on sale in the United States, to help fund the greatly increased production of military equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>May 6 – At California's March Field, entertainer Bob Hope performs his first USO Show. </li></ul><ul><li>May 15 – Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak begins as the New York Yankee center fielder goes one for 4 against Chicago White Sox Pitcher Eddie Smith. </li></ul><ul><li>May 21 – World War II: 950 miles off the coast of Brazil, the freighter SS Robin Moor becomes the first United States ship sunk by a German U-boat. </li></ul><ul><li>May 27 – World War II: President Roosevelt proclaims an &quot;unlimited national emergency.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>June 14 – All German and Italian assets in the United States are frozen. </li></ul><ul><li>June 16 – All German and Italian consulates in the United States are ordered closed and their staffs to leave the country by July 10. </li></ul><ul><li>June 20 – Walt Disney's live-action animated feature, The Reluctant Dragon , is released. </li></ul><ul><li>July 7 – World War II: American forces take over the defense of Iceland from the British. </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 – World War II: In response to the Japanese occupation of French Indo-China, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>July 26 – World War II: General Douglas MacArthur is named commander of all U.S. forces in the Philippines; the Philippines Army is ordered nationalized by President Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>July 30 – World War II: The U.S. gunboat Tutuila is attacked by Japanese aircraft while anchored in the Yangtze River at Chungking. Japan apologizes for the incident the following day. </li></ul><ul><li>August 6 – Six-year-old Elaine Esposito goes to an appendix operation in Florida and lapses into a coma. She dies in 1978, still in a coma. </li></ul><ul><li>August 9 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet at Argentia, Newfoundland and Labrador. The Atlantic Charter is created as a result. </li></ul><ul><li>August 12 – By one vote (203–202), the U.S. House of Representatives passes legislation extending the draft period for selectees and the National Guard from 1 year to 30 months. </li></ul><ul><li>August 31 – The Great Gildersleeve debuts on NBC Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>September 4 – World War II: The USS Greer becomes the first United States ship fired upon by a German submarine in the war, even though the United States is a neutral power. Tension heightens between the 2 nations as a result. </li></ul><ul><li>September 11 – World War II: Charles Lindbergh, at an America First Committee rally in Des Moines, Iowa, accuses &quot;the British, the Jewish, and the Roosevelt administration&quot; of leading the United States toward war. Widespread condemnation of Lindbergh follows. </li></ul><ul><li>September 27 – The first Liberty Ship, the SS Patrick Henry , is launched at Baltimore, Maryland. </li></ul><ul><li>September 29 – World War II: The Moscow Conference begins; U.S. representative Averill Harriman and British representative Lord Beaverbrook meet with Soviet foreign minister Molotov to arrange urgent assistance for Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>September – First production P38E Lightning fighter produced by Lockheed. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1941(pg.3) <ul><li>October 17 – World War II: The destroyer USS Kearny is torpedoed and damaged near Iceland, killing 11 sailors (the first American military casualties of the war). </li></ul><ul><li>October 23 – Walt Disney's animated film Dumbo is released. </li></ul><ul><li>October 30 – World War II: Franklin Delano Roosevelt approves US$1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>October 31 – After 14 years of work, drilling is completed on Mount Rushmore. </li></ul><ul><li>October 31 – World War II: The destroyer USS Reuben James is torpedoed by a German U-boat near Iceland, killing more than 100 United States Navy sailors. </li></ul><ul><li>November 10 – In a speech at the Mansion House in London, Winston Churchill promises, &quot;should the United States become involved in war with Japan, the British declaration will follow within the hour.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>November 14 – World War II – Attack on Pearl Harbor: Japanese diplomat Saburo Kurusu arrives in the United States to assist Ambassador Kichisaburo Nomura in peace negotiations. </li></ul><ul><li>November 17 – World War II – Attack on Pearl Harbor: Joseph Grew, the United States ambassador to Japan, cables to Washington a warning that Japan may strike suddenly and unexpectedly at any time. </li></ul><ul><li>November 24 – World War II: The United States grants Lend-Lease to the Free French. </li></ul><ul><li>November 26 – U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs a bill establishing the 4th Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day in the United States (this partly reverses a 1939 action by Roosevelt that changed the celebration of Thanksgiving to the third Thursday of November). </li></ul><ul><li>November 26 – The Hull note ultimatum is delivered to Japan by the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>November 27 – A group of young men stop traffic on U.S. Highway 99 south of Yreka, California, handing out fliers proclaiming the establishment of the State of Jefferson. </li></ul><ul><li>November 27 – World War II – Attack on Pearl Harbor: All U.S. military forces in Asia and the Pacific are placed on war alert. </li></ul><ul><li>December 1 – World War II: Fiorello La Guardia, Mayor of New York City and Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, signs Administrative Order 9, creating the Civil Air Patrol under the authority of the United States Army Air Force. </li></ul><ul><li>December 4 – The State of Jefferson is declared in Yreka, California, with judge John Childs as a governor. </li></ul><ul><li>December 6 – World War II – Attack on Pearl Harbor: Franklin D. Roosevelt makes a personal peace appeal to Emperor Hirohito of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>December 7, (December 8, Japan standard time) – The Japanese Navy launches a surprise attack on the United States fleet at Pearl Harbor, thus drawing the United States into World War II. Tobruk's garrison is relieved. </li></ul><ul><li>December 8 – World War II: The United States officially declares war on Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>December 11 – World War II: American forces repel a Japanese landing attempt at Wake Island. </li></ul><ul><li>December 11 – World War II: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States. The U.S. responds in kind. </li></ul><ul><li>December 12 – World War II: Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>December 12 – World War II: The United States seizes the French ship SS Normandie . </li></ul><ul><li>December 23 – World War II: A second Japanese landing attempt on Wake Island is successful, and the American garrison surrenders after a full night and morning of fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>December 26 – World War II: Winston Churchill becomes the first British Prime Minister to address a joint session of the U.S. Congress. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1942(pg.1) <ul><li>January 1 – WWII : The United States and Philippines troops fight the Battle of Bataan . </li></ul><ul><li>January 10 – WWII : The last German air-raid on Liverpool destroys the home of William Patrick Hitler , Adolf Hitler 's nephew. After his house is destroyed, William Hitler goes to the USA and joins the navy to fight against his uncle. </li></ul><ul><li>January 16 – Actress Carole Lombard and her mother are among those killed in a plane crash near Las Vegas, Nevada , while returning from a tour to promote the sale of war bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>January 19 – WWII : Japanese forces invade Burma . Establishment of United States VIII Bomber Command , later to become the Eighth Air Force in Savannah, Georgia . </li></ul><ul><li>January 25 – WWII : Thailand declares war on the United States and United Kingdom . </li></ul><ul><li>January 26 – WWII : The first American forces arrive in Europe , landing in Northern Ireland . </li></ul><ul><li>February 2 – WWII : President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs an executive order directing the internment of Japanese Americans and the seizure of their property. </li></ul><ul><li>February 8 – WWII : Top United States military leaders hold their first formal meeting to discuss American military strategy in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>February 8 – Daylight saving time goes into effect in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>February 9 – The SS Normandie Ocean Liner catches fire while being converted into the troopship USS Lafayette for World War II . </li></ul><ul><li>February 10 – In the early hours of the morning the SS Normandie capsizes at pier 88 in New York City . </li></ul><ul><li>February 19 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs executive order 9066 allowing the United States military to define areas as exclusionary zones. These zones affect the Japanese on the West Coast, and Germans and Italians primarily on the East Coast. </li></ul><ul><li>February 20 – Lieutenant Edward O'Hare becomes America's first World War II flying ace . </li></ul><ul><li>February 22 – WWII : President Franklin Delano Roosevelt orders General Douglas MacArthur out of the Philippines as American defense of the nation collapses. </li></ul><ul><li>February 23 – The Japanese submarine I-17 fires 17 high-explosive shells toward an oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California , causing little damage. </li></ul><ul><li>February 24 – The Voice of America begins broadcasting. </li></ul><ul><li>February 25 – Battle of Los Angeles : Over 1,400 AA shells are fired at an unidentified, slow-moving object in the skies over Los Angeles . The appearance of the object triggers an immediate wartime blackout over most of Southern California , with thousands of air raid wardens being deployed throughout the city. In total there are 6 deaths. Despite the several hour barrage no planes are downed. </li></ul><ul><li>February 26 – The 14th Academy Awards ceremony is held in Los Angeles ; How Green Was My Valley wins Best Picture . </li></ul><ul><li>March – Construction begins on the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (the largest in the United States during WWII ). </li></ul><ul><li>March 9 – WWII : Executive order 9082 (February 28, 1942) reorganizes the United States Army into three major commands: Army Ground Forces , Army Air Forces , and Services of Supply , later redesignated Army Service Forces . </li></ul><ul><li>April 3 – WWII : Japanese forces begin an all-out assault on the United States and Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula . </li></ul><ul><li>May 6 – WWII : On Corregidor , the last American and Filipino forces in the Philippines surrender to the Japanese . </li></ul><ul><li>May 14 – Aaron Copland 's Lincoln Portrait is performed for the first time by the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra . </li></ul><ul><li>May 15 – WWII : In the United States, a bill creating the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) is signed into law. </li></ul><ul><li>May 20 – The first African-American seamen are taken into the United States Navy . </li></ul>
  25. 25. 1942(pg.2) <ul><li>June 7 – WWII: Japanese forces invade the Aleutian Islands (the first invasion of American soil in 128 years). </li></ul><ul><li>June 13 – The United States opens its Office of War Information, a propaganda center. </li></ul><ul><li>June 21 – Fort Stevens, Oregon is fired upon by a Japanese submarine. </li></ul><ul><li>July 4 – WWII in the European Theater of Operations: US Eighth Air Force flies its first inauspicious mission in Europe using borrowed British planes — Six aircraft went out – only three came back.[1]. </li></ul><ul><li>July 19 – WWII – Battle of the Atlantic: German Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz orders the last U-boats to withdraw from their United States Atlantic coast positions, in response to an effective American convoy system. </li></ul><ul><li>August 7 – WWII: Battle of Guadalcanal begins – USMC initiate the first American offensive of the war with a landing on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>August 8 – WWII: In Washington, DC, six Germans would-be saboteurs are executed (two others were cooperative and received life imprisonment instead). </li></ul><ul><li>August 15 – WWII: The American tanker SS Ohio reaches Malta as part of the convoy of Operation Pedestal . </li></ul><ul><li>August 16 – The U.S. Navy blimp L-8 (Flight 101) comes ashore near San Francisco, eventually coming down in Daly City (the crew is missing). </li></ul><ul><li>October 11 – WWII – Battle of Cape Esperance: On the northwest coast of Guadalcanal, United States Navy ships intercept and defeat a Japanese fleet on their way to reinforce troops on the island. </li></ul><ul><li>October 23 – Award-winning composer and Hollywood songwriter Ralph Rainger ( &quot;Thanks for the Memory&quot; ) is among 12 people killed in the mid-air collision between an American Airlines DC-3 airliner and a U.S. Army bomber near Palm Springs, California. </li></ul><ul><li>October 26 – WWII – Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands: 2 Japanese aircraft carriers are heavily damaged and 1 U.S. carrier is sunk. </li></ul><ul><li>October 28 – The Alaska Highway is completed. </li></ul><ul><li>November 8 – Operation Torch – United States and United Kingdom forces land in French North Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>November 9 – WWII: U.S serviceman Edward Leonski is hanged at Melbourne's Pentridge Prison for the &quot;Brown-Out&quot; murders of 3 women in May. </li></ul><ul><li>November 12 – WWII – Battle of Guadalcanal: A naval battle near Guadalcanal starts between Japanese and American forces. </li></ul><ul><li>November 13 – Battle of Guadalcanal: Aviators from the USS Enterprise sink the Japanese battleship Hiei. </li></ul><ul><li>November 15 – The Battle of Guadalcanal ends: Although the United States Navy suffers heavy losses, it retains control of Guadalcanal. </li></ul><ul><li>November 21 – The completion of the Alaska Highway (also known as the Alcan Highway) is celebrated (however, the &quot;highway&quot; is not usable by general vehicles until 1943). </li></ul><ul><li>November 26 – The movie Casablanca premières at the Hollywood Theater in New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>November 28 – In Boston, Massachusetts, a fire in the Cocoanut Grove night club kills 491 people. </li></ul><ul><li>December 1 – Gasoline rationing begins in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>December 2 – Manhattan Project: Below the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team led by Enrico Fermi initiates the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction (a coded message, &quot;The Italian navigator has landed in the new world&quot; is then sent to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt). </li></ul><ul><li>December 22 – In Aliquippa, Pennsylvania, an avalanche kills 26, including Vulcan Crucible Steel Co heir-apparent Samuel A. Stafford Sr., when two 100 ton boulders fall on a bus filled with wartime steel workers on their way home. </li></ul>
  26. 26. 1943(pg.1) <ul><li>January 4 – Culbert Olson , 29th Governor of California , is succeeded by Earl Warren . </li></ul><ul><li>January 11 – The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China . </li></ul><ul><li>January 14 – The Casablanca Conference , where Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes the first President of the United States to travel by airplane while in office ( Miami, Florida to Morocco to meet with Winston Churchill to discuss World War II ). </li></ul><ul><li>January 15 – The world's largest office building, The Pentagon , is dedicated in Arlington, Virginia . </li></ul><ul><li>January 23 – Duke Ellington plays at New York City 's Carnegie Hall for the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>January 23 – Critic and commentator Alexander Woollcott suffers an eventually fatal heart attack during a regular broadcast of the CBS Radio roundtable program &quot;People's Platform&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>February 3 – The legendary Four Chaplains of the U.S. Army are drowned, when their ship ( USAT Dorchester ) is struck by a German torpedo . </li></ul><ul><li>February 7 – WWII : In the United States, it is announced that shoe rationing will go into effect in 2 days. </li></ul><ul><li>February 8 – WWII – Battle of Guadalcanal : United States forces defeat Japanese troops. </li></ul><ul><li>February 11 – General Eisenhower is selected to command the Allied armies in Europe . </li></ul><ul><li>February 14 – Battle of the Kasserine Pass : German General Erwin Rommel and his Afrika Korps launch an offensive against Allied defenses in Tunisia ; it is the United States ' first major battle defeat of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>February 20 – American movie studio executives agree to allow the Office of War Information to censor movies. </li></ul><ul><li>February 27 – The Smith Mine #3 in Bearcreek , Montana , United States explodes, killing 74 men. </li></ul><ul><li>March 2 – WWII : Battle of the Bismarck Sea – United States and Australian forces sink Japanese convoy ships. </li></ul><ul><li>March 4 – The 15th Academy Awards ceremony is held in Los Angeles . </li></ul><ul><li>March 8 – WWII : American forces are attacked by Japanese troops on Hill 700 in Bougainville , in a battle that will last 5 days. </li></ul><ul><li>March 13 – WWII : On Bougainville , Japanese troops end their assault on American forces at Hill 700. </li></ul><ul><li>March 26 – WWII – Battle of the Komandorski Islands: In the Aleutian Islands , the battle begins when United States Navy forces intercept Japanese troops attempting to reinforce a garrison at Kiska . </li></ul><ul><li>March 31 – Rodgers and Hammerstein 's Oklahoma! opens on Broadway , heralds a new era in &quot;integrated&quot; stage musicals, becomes an instantaneous stage classic, and goes on to be Broadway's longest-running musical up to that time (1948). </li></ul><ul><li>April 27 – The U.S. Federal Writers' Project is shuttered. </li></ul><ul><li>May 11 – WWII : American troops invade Attu in the Aleutian Islands , in an attempt to expel occupying Japanese forces. </li></ul><ul><li>May 12 – The begins in Washington, D.C. , with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill taking part. </li></ul><ul><li>May 17 – The United States Army contracts with the University of Pennsylvania 's Moore School to develop the computer ENIAC . </li></ul><ul><li>May 17 – The Memphis Belle becomes the first airplane in the 8th Air Force to complete a 25-mission tour of duty. </li></ul><ul><li>May 19 – Winston Churchill addresses a joint session of the U.S. Congress . </li></ul><ul><li>May 31 – The Zoot Suit Riots erupt between military personnel and Mexican American youths in East Los Angeles. </li></ul><ul><li>June 22 – The U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division lands in North Africa, prior to training at Arzew , French Morocco. </li></ul><ul><li>July 6 – WWII : Americans and Japanese fight the Battle of Kula Gulf off Kolombangara . </li></ul><ul><li>July 10 – WWII – Allied invasion of Sicily : The allied invasion of Axis -controlled Europe begins with landings on the island of Sicily off mainland Italy , by the U.S. Army 45th Infantry Division and a number of Allied paratroopers. </li></ul><ul><li>July 11 – United States Army forces assault the village of Piano Lupo, just outside of Gela, Sicily. </li></ul><ul><li>July 24 – WWII : Operation Gomorrah begins: British and Canadian aeroplanes bomb Hamburg by night, those of the Americans by day. By the end of the operation in </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1943(pg.2) <ul><li>November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 30,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>August 1 – Operation Tidal Wave: 177 B-24 Liberator bombers from the U.S. Army Air Force bomb oil refineries at Ploieşti, Romania. </li></ul><ul><li>August 3 – WWII: John F. Kennedy's PT-109 is rammed by a destroyer. </li></ul><ul><li>August 4 – WWII: The USS Intrepid is launched. </li></ul><ul><li>August 5 – WWII: John F. Kennedy and crew are found by Solomon Islanders coastwatchers Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana with their dugout canoe. </li></ul><ul><li>August 6 – WWII – Battle of Vella Gulf: Americans defeat a Japanese convoy off Kolombangara, as the U.S. Army drives the Japanese out of Munda airfield on New Georgia. </li></ul><ul><li>August 14 – The Quadrant Conference begins in Quebec City; Canadian Prime Minister MacKenzie King meets with Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>August 17 – WWII: The US 7th Army under General George S. Patton arrives in Messina, Sicily, followed several hours later by the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, thus completing the Allied conquest of Sicily. </li></ul><ul><li>September 5 – WWII: The 503rd Parachute Regiment under American General Douglas MacArthur lands and occupies Nadzab, just east of the port city of Lae in northeastern Papua New Guinea. </li></ul><ul><li>September 7 – A fire at the Gulf Hotel in Houston, Texas, kills 55 people. </li></ul><ul><li>September 8 – United States General Dwight D. Eisenhower publicly announces the surrender of Italy to the Allies. </li></ul><ul><li>October 1 – WWII: American forces enter liberated Naples. </li></ul><ul><li>October 6 – WWII: Americans and Japanese fight the naval Battle of Vella Lavella. </li></ul><ul><li>October 28 – The alleged date of The Philadelphia Experiment, in which the U.S. destroyer escort USS Eldridge was to be rendered invisible to human observers for a brief period. </li></ul><ul><li>October 30 – The Merrie Melodies animated short Falling Hare