Gordon’s Personal View of The  Early Days of Digital… DECWorld, 16 June 2001 Gordon Bell [email_address] http://www.resear...
Whirlwind c1953 … 1st generation, 16-bit word; 4 KB memory; 8 K drum Whirlwind begot TX-O/TX-2 begot DEC PDP-1 Real time, ...
Whirlwind console, drum, 1 Kw core
SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) Operator Console
TX-0 Console c1959… one of the first transistorized  personal  computers Speech, handwriting recognition, neuro data analy...
MIT Speech group with TX-0, c1959.
DEC Computer before PDP-11 1957   1961  1963
DEC PDP-1 c1961
DEC PDP-1 c1961 Being tested Building ?
PDP-1 Production Line c 1962
Livermore Labs machine: they bought one of everything in our virtual catalog
Wes Clark & LINC c1962: Personal computers for bio-medical research
PDP-4
PDP-5 c1964: PDP-8 predecessor Process control, real time experiments. Fortran ran in 4 K, 12 bit words
PDP- 5: as  pulse height analyzer
PDP-8 Modules
PDP-8: first mini First OEM computer.  OS/8 (from timesharing) begot RT-11 begot CPM
Gbell as old man, with LINC and PDP-8 c1965
PDP-8/E
PDP-8 and Linc Family Tree
PDP-8 12 bit word price (t)
Timesharing: giving everyone their own, low cost, personal computer
PDP-6 with GB at the console
PDP-6 c1965 : First commercial time shared computer. Gbell & Alan Kotok
PDP-6 team
Gordon’s Packaging Folly:  double sided connectors for PDP-6
PDP-6/10/ DECsystem 10/20  family tree
Minis and timesharing contributions <ul><li>Editors, calculators, interactive debuggers, interpreters, including mail and ...
Equating  yourself  to the average “user/buyer”  is risky . . .  unless you’re an average user like me. G. Bell
Why didn’t Digital lead   personal computers? That’s another story…
There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.   <ul><li>Ken Olsen President, Chairman and founder of Digi...
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Gordon’s Personal View of The Early Days of Digital…

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DECWorld, 16 June 2001
Gordon Bell

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Gordon’s Personal View of The Early Days of Digital…

  1. 1. Gordon’s Personal View of The Early Days of Digital… DECWorld, 16 June 2001 Gordon Bell [email_address] http://www.research.microsoft.com/~gbell
  2. 2. Whirlwind c1953 … 1st generation, 16-bit word; 4 KB memory; 8 K drum Whirlwind begot TX-O/TX-2 begot DEC PDP-1 Real time, first compiler, ECAD, text editor
  3. 3. Whirlwind console, drum, 1 Kw core
  4. 4. SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) Operator Console
  5. 5. TX-0 Console c1959… one of the first transistorized personal computers Speech, handwriting recognition, neuro data analysis, etc. Interactive editors, debuggers, etc.
  6. 6. MIT Speech group with TX-0, c1959.
  7. 7. DEC Computer before PDP-11 1957 1961 1963
  8. 8. DEC PDP-1 c1961
  9. 9. DEC PDP-1 c1961 Being tested Building ?
  10. 10. PDP-1 Production Line c 1962
  11. 11. Livermore Labs machine: they bought one of everything in our virtual catalog
  12. 12. Wes Clark & LINC c1962: Personal computers for bio-medical research
  13. 13. PDP-4
  14. 14. PDP-5 c1964: PDP-8 predecessor Process control, real time experiments. Fortran ran in 4 K, 12 bit words
  15. 15. PDP- 5: as pulse height analyzer
  16. 16. PDP-8 Modules
  17. 17. PDP-8: first mini First OEM computer. OS/8 (from timesharing) begot RT-11 begot CPM
  18. 18. Gbell as old man, with LINC and PDP-8 c1965
  19. 19. PDP-8/E
  20. 20. PDP-8 and Linc Family Tree
  21. 21. PDP-8 12 bit word price (t)
  22. 22. Timesharing: giving everyone their own, low cost, personal computer
  23. 23. PDP-6 with GB at the console
  24. 24. PDP-6 c1965 : First commercial time shared computer. Gbell & Alan Kotok
  25. 25. PDP-6 team
  26. 26. Gordon’s Packaging Folly: double sided connectors for PDP-6
  27. 27. PDP-6/10/ DECsystem 10/20 family tree
  28. 28. Minis and timesharing contributions <ul><li>Editors, calculators, interactive debuggers, interpreters, including mail and chat from timesharing </li></ul><ul><li>Minis established embedded computers, importance of I/O to interconnect anything </li></ul><ul><li>SpaceWar demonstrated interactive graphics and settled lots of later law suits </li></ul><ul><li>OEM Distribution and marketing model… Harlan Anderson, after Tecumseh </li></ul><ul><li>SCO’s all-in-one module and computer handbooks… </li></ul>
  29. 29. Equating yourself to the average “user/buyer” is risky . . . unless you’re an average user like me. G. Bell
  30. 30. Why didn’t Digital lead personal computers? That’s another story…
  31. 31. There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home. <ul><li>Ken Olsen President, Chairman and founder of Digital, 1977 </li></ul>
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