Transcript of "Dryland Agriculture in Africa and Asia"
® The SEF provides solutions to most constraints of the current rainfed production systems (low soil fertility, soil erosion, bio-diversity exploitation, inefficient use of labor, and most importantly, low income). ISRAEL and ICRISAT It has the potential of transforming rainfed agriculture in the Sudano- Sahel, which in turn should lead to eradication of poverty on a massive Partners for Better Dryland Agriculture in Africa and Asia scale, and in preserving natural resources (soil and biodiversity) for future generations. ICRISAT, and Israel’s Ministry of Agriculture, advanced research institutes, and the Israeli Department of International Cooperation, MASHAV share many goals – to help alleviate poverty, sustain The African Market Garden agricultural production, and protect the environment in desert prone Developed by ICRISAT scientists, the innovative African Market Garden regions. Given these common goals the Government of Israel and (AMG) uses gravity-based drip irrigation for vegetable farming. It has ICRISAT are in a collaborative research partnership to help the poor of now been adopted by about 4000 farmers all across the Sudano-Sahel. the dry tropics. Over the last 3 years itself, IPALAC has promoted the installation of about 2000 AMG units in Cape Verde, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Israel’s intensive agricultural production was made possible due to collaboration between growers, industry, extension and R&D in Prof Dan Levanon, Dr William D Dar,The African Market Garden uses gravity- Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Chad, and parts of Nigeria. Chief Scientist, Ministry Director General, the agriculture sector. The ICRISAT-Israel collaboration was furtherbased drip irrigation for successful In the AMG, a mix of vegetables (onions, peppers, tomatoes, lettuce, of Agriculture, Israel. ICRISAT. enhanced when Israel joined the CGIAR and Dr David Cohencultivation. potatoes) is interspersed between date palms. Varieties are chosen (Chairman, R&D Evaluation Committee, Chief Scientist’s Office, Ministry that can tolerate the Sahelian heat so they can grow year-round, of Agriculture, Israel) was appointed Israeli liaison to ICRISAT. With more than doubling the length of the growing season, which was wholehearted support from Prof Dan Levanon (Chief Scientist, Ministry formerly confined to the cooler winter months. This spreads the labor of Agriculture, Israel), scientists from ICRISAT and Israel began working requirements of market gardening more evenly across the year, and together from mid-2006 on joint projects of mutual interest. Currently generates a steadier flow of food and income for the farm family. By four projects are underway. using low-cost gravity-driven drip irrigation and a combination of other techniques the AMG reduces the drudgery of labor, increases yields and employment, raises produce quality, and improves the overall well Progress in Collaborative Research being of the people, as well as the micro-climate of the region. Integrated management of mycotoxins Dr David Cohen (center) gets a warm welcome to Conclusion Aflatoxin contamination in staple diets leads to malnutrition, and ICRISAT from Dr WD Dar, DG-ICRISAT (left) and can affect food security, and the health and livelihoods of people in Dr BI Shapiro. Israel and ICRISAT complement each other in furthering agriculture developing countries. The purpose of this project is to develop simple for the small-scale farmers of the SAT. ICRISAT is grateful to Israel, and and low-cost mycotoxin diagnostic tools. In the last few months Dr especially to the Ministry of Agriculture, MASHAV, Ben Gurion University, Farid Waliyar (ICRISAT) and Dr Nami Paster [Agriculture Research and our other partners in Israel for helping us to do Science with a Organization (ARO), Ministry of Agriculture, Israel] have been workingThe African Market Garden successfully Human Face to alleviate poverty in the semi-arid regions ofintercrops vegetables and date palms. on up-scaling integrated management of mycotoxins such as pre- and Africa and Asia. post-harvest technologies and resistant groundnut varieties. Farmer participatory varietal selection trials were conducted with About ICRISAT four aflatoxin-tolerant varieties in Anantapur district, and five varieties in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state of India. In general, an The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is a nonprofit, non-political organization that does innovative agricultural research and capacity building for average increase of 17-34% in mean pod yields were recorded sustainable development with a wide array of partners across the globe. ICRISAT’s mission is to help with improved varieties against control, TMV-2, which yielded 590 empower 600 million poor people to overcome hunger, poverty and a degraded environment in the dry kg/ha in Anantapur area. A variety of low-cost integrated aflatoxin tropics through better agriculture. ICRISAT belongs to the Alliance of Centers of the Consultative Group Aflatoxin reduction through integrated management on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). management technologies and the use of mechanical pod threshers practices. resulted in a significant reduction in aflatoxin contamination. Contact Information ICRISAT-Patancheru (Headquarters) Liaison Office CG Centers Block ICRISAT-Nairobi (Regional hub ESA) ICRISAT-Niamey (Regional hub WCA) Diversifying sorghum end-uses to feed and fodder Patancheru 502 324 Andhra Pradesh, India NASC Complex Dev Prakash Shastri Marg Contact information Nairobi, Kenya PO Box 39063, Tel +254 20 7224550 BP 12404 Niamey, Niger (Via Paris) to enhance the livestock industry in Eastern and Tel +91 40 30713071 Fax +91 40 30713074 New Delhi 110 012, India Tel +91 11 32472306/32472307/32472308 Fax +254 20 7224001 email@example.com Tel +227 20 722529, 20 722725 Fax +227 20 734329 Central Africa firstname.lastname@example.org Fax +91 11 25841294 email@example.com This is a collaborative project between ICRISAT, ARO-Israel, and the ICRISAT-Bamako ICRISAT-Bulawayo ICRISAT-Lilongwe ICRISAT-Maputo University of Nairobi. Sorghum is a major cereal crop with high BP 320 Matopos Research Station Chitedze Agricultural Research Station c/o INIA, Av. das FPLM No 2698 resistance to drought. In most of Africa, and especially in the semi-arid Bamako, Mali PO Box 776, PO Box 1096 Caixa Postal 1906 Tel +223 2223375 Bulawayo, Zimbabwe Lilongwe, Malawi Maputo, Mozambique regions of Kenya where most of the livestock is raised, high productive Fax +223 2228683 Tel +263 83 8311 to 15 Tel +265 1 707297/071/067/057 Tel +258 21 461657 firstname.lastname@example.org Fax +263 83 8253/8307 Fax +265 1 707298 Fax +258 21 461581 dual-purpose (for food and fodder) types of sorghum, resistant to dry email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com conditions could be very beneficial, but are not used. This project will Visit us at www.icrisat.org develop the use of productive dual-purpose sorghums, in semi-arid B35 is an improved stay-green sorghum variety. Feb 2007 March 2006 I s r a e l a a n dC C I S A T T China n d I I R R I S A
Israel a n d I C R I S AT Central and Eastern Africa, for increasing grain and forage yields. It under conditions of terminal drought stress combined with phenology will also examine the possibilities of introducing into Africa the new and panicle characters similar to R 16. Dr Carmi visited ICRISAT- Israeli/American dual-purpose sorghums. Patancheru and observed the project-multiplied seed of stay-green QTL introgression lines in other genetic backgrounds during this season. Dr Mary Mgonja of ICRISAT and Israeli scientists, Drs Avner Carmi (ARO-Israel) and David Cohen are collaborating on this project. Twenty-five potential forage sorghum lines for dry lowlands were MASHAV Activities identified, made into a trial and established at three sites in Eastern Kenya in November 2006, under rainfed conditions. This will ascertain Training Courses given with MASHAV the suitability of the material for dual-purpose use in the drylands. This season has been exceptionally good and the trials are excellent, with ICRISAT and MASHAV are cooperating in giving training courses on some lines showing excellent dual-purpose potential. In the next trial, vegetable and fruit production under IPALAC. MASHAV provides IsraeliIESV 91131 is an improved dry lowland variety of elite materials from Israel will be tested for their adaptability to African experts who teach the courses together with ICRISAT scientists. For Training on tree propagation techniques.sorghum from ICRISAT-ESA developed in Eastern environments. instance, since 2005, four courses have been given as follows on:Kenya. • Nursery methods and tree propagation techniques in Niger in Genetics of root traits for enhancing the chickpea late 2005 molecular breeding strategies for drought • Nursery training at Sadore from 19-23 September 2005 tolerance in the Semi-Arid Tropics (SAT) • Vegetable seeds multiplication and storage from 7-11 November 2005 Chickpea is an important source of protein, minerals, vitamins, and • Vegetable seed multiplication and storage methods in 2006. fiber in the diets of millions in Asia and Africa. Terminal drought is the foremost constraint to chickpea production in over 70% of growing areas. Biotechnology and genomic tools have made it possible to The Jean Paul II Foundation Project (AMG) breed for better root traits. This will enable plants to evade drought This project is co-funded by MASHAV and the Vatican through the Jean because of better root strength, which will enable it to extract water Paul II Foundation with the technical support of ICRISAT. About 300 from deeper soil layers. African Market Garden units have been installed so far in nine Sahelian A team of ICRISAT scientists led by Dr RK Varshney, as well as countries (Cape Verde, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Dr Shahal Abbo (Hebrew University, Israel) are working on breeding Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad) within the framework of this program and for drought tolerance in chickpea. Phenotyping of the mapping the project continues. population for measuring root traits is in progress. Two parental Prof Dov Pasternak and others discuss new avenues genotypes of the mapping populations are being screened with Other Initiatives for sustainable economic development within IPALAC. molecular markers developed by Dr Abbo’s group in collaboration with Australia, and new SSR markers developed for identification ofRoots screening facility at ICRISAT Patancheru. polymorphic markers. The International Program for Arid Land Crops (IPALAC) IPALAC, a joint program of ICRISAT and Ben Gurion University, seeks to Drought tolerance enhancement in sorghum promote sustainable economic development in desertification prone This project was developed to foster collaboration on sorghum regions through the judicious use of plants, associated technologies and improvement for water-limited production environments. Scientists human capacity enhancement. Core support for IPALAC comes from working on this are Drs Tom Hash and Vincent Vadez of ICRISAT, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, MASHAV, ICRISAT, Ben Gurion Dr Avner Carmi of ARO-Israel. University, and the Brach family. As the project started too late for the normal sorghum production The main mover in IPALAC is Prof Dov Pasternak, formerly of the season, ICRISAT scientists were forced to drop plans for parallel testing Institute for Agriculture and Applied Biology at BGU. Now working of introgression lines (at ICRISAT-Patancheru and Israel). Instead for ICRISAT and stationed at ICRISAT-Niamey, he has enthusiastically they focused on the final generation advance of a marker-assisted pursued ways to achieve a transformation of Sahelian agriculture like backcrossing program to further introgress several stay-green QTLS that accomplished by Israel in the Negev Desert. The year 2005 marked from donor parent B35 into the genetic background of Indian rabi- the beginning of large-scale dissemination of IPALAC technologies that adapted pollinator line R 16. This was followed by initial field testing had successfully passed the research phase. Presently the following are and multiplication of these materials during the 2006/07 postrainy underway: season. This has resulted in sets of near-isogenic lines with and without the B35 alleles at stay-green loci stgB, stg1, stg3 and stg4 (individually and in several pair-wise combinations) in the genetic The Sahelian Eco-Farm (SEF) background of R 16. Ongoing assessment has identified several Over the last several years IPALAC has been developing and testing The Sahelian Eco Farm employs various methods to product lines with pronounced improvement of green leaf retention a new rainfed production system called the Sahelian Eco-Farm (SEF). overcome the constraints of current rainfed systems.Typical stay green (left) and senescent (right)sorghum material. I s r a e l a n d I C R I SAT
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