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Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins
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Tsibudeeva D. Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation, water issues and problems of the lake Baikal and transboundary river Selenge basins

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1. The lake Baikal – one of the largest, deepest lake, the greatest freshwater lake in the world – is located in Russia, in the Republic of Buryatia …

1. The lake Baikal – one of the largest, deepest lake, the greatest freshwater lake in the world – is located in Russia, in the Republic of Buryatia
2. The Selenge River – the main tributary of the lake Baikal, transboundary river,which flows from Khanghai Mountains in Mongolia into the lake Baikal
3. Russian-Mongolian cooperation are regulated Intergovernmental Agreement between Russian Federation and Mongolia

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  • 1. Seminar 16-18 November 2011 Ljubljana “Forging Targets and Solutionsfor Rivers and Water Ecosystem Restoration” WATER ISSUES AND PROBLEMS OF THE LAKE BAIKAL AND TRANSBOUNDARY RIVER SELENGE BASINS Darima Tsibudeeva, Valerii Molotov Agency for lake Baikal water resources, Federal Agency of water resources Ulan-Ude Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation
  • 2. 2The lake Baikal – one of the largest, deepest lake, the greatest freshwater lake in the world – is located in Russia, in the Republic of Buryatia The square – 31 500 sguare km The length – 636 km, The width – 40 – 80 km The depth – 1 637 m The coastline – 2 100 km The age – 25 million years old
  • 3. 4 The Selenge River – the main tributary of the lake Baikal, transboundary river,which flows from Khanghai Mountains in Mongolia into the lake Baikal The length – roughly 1 024 km, while in Russia – 409 km, in Mongolia – 615 km The water catchment – 447,1 square km, while in Russia 148,1, in Mongolia – 299,0 square km Ratio of catchment of area of the lake Baikal – 82,8%, while in Russia 27,4%, in Mongolia – 55,4%
  • 4. 4
  • 5. 5 Russian-Mongolian cooperation are regulated Intergovernmental Agreement between Russian Federation and Mongolia Rational use and protection from the pollution and disappearance of water objects Investigation and assessment of water quality Evaluating the status of transboundary water objects Elaboration of the Scheme of complex use and protection of water resources of Selenge river basin (Russian part)
  • 6. 6 Mongolia Russia (Buryatia)Main tributaries Ider, Delger, Khanui, Eg, Dzhida, Chikoi, Khilok, Orkhon UdaPopulation, thousand people2000 1 328,6 758,82010 1 713,0 724,5Density, people/square km,2010 5,7 5,1 1,8 in Mongolia 2,7 inBuryatiaMajor cities Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, Ulan-Ude, Erdenet Gusinoozersk, Zakamensk, KyahtaGDP, million $ USA, (officialcourse),2000 638,9 770,32009 3 705,1 4 120,7 (in Buryatia)Main sectors of economy Mining, light industry, Industry, mining, agriculture, tourism agriculture, tourism
  • 7. 7 Main economic activities Mongolia Russia (Buryatia)1. Mining – export of copper, 1.Industry (22% of GRP in 2005) –molybdenum concentrate, fluorite power engineering, machine-concentrate, gold, coal building, instrument-making, pulp and paper production, building materials production, food industry2. Light industry –wool, leather and 2. Miningcashmere manufacturing3. Agriculture (live-stock) – sheep, 3.Agriculture (9,6% of GRP in 2005)goat, cattle, horse – cattle-breeding and vegetable- growing4. Tourism 4. Tourism
  • 8. 8 Main ecological problems Mongolia Russia (Buryatia) The nature impactLow precipitation, climate The floods and mud-flows,conditions – “White and Black climate change impacts,Dzuds”, drought seasonal variations The anthropogenic factorsIndustrial wastes pollution, Industrial wastes pollution,growing water demands for outdated water supply systemindustrial and power use and its inefficient operationMining –pollution, Mining –pollution,morphological changes, morphological changesincreased water use
  • 9. 9 Main ecological problems Mongolia Russia (Buryatia)Urbanization processes, Outdated water supply systemgrowing population, scarce and its inefficient operation,wastewater treatment systems municipal wastes pollutionThe soil erosion of plough land, The soil degradation,decomposition processes, loss of reduction of biodiversity,nutrient balance, insufficient use decrease of plant-growingof organic fertilizer, non-point production, non-pointsources sourcesDeforestation, forest fires Environmentally harmful clear cutting method of forest extraction, forest fires
  • 10. 10Main ecological problems
  • 11. 11 The small river Modonkul The Dzhida tungsten-molybdenum preparation plant was closed in 1996. Now it is necessary 1 560 133,86 thousands rubles for elimination of consequences of this plant activities. This measure is included in Federal Target Program“The preservation of the Lake Baikal and socio-economicdevelopment of Baikal Nature Territory” - today 500 millionrubles is given from federal budget on this purpose.
  • 12. 12 The small river KyahtinkaThe quality of water is characterized as “extremely dirty”.The main source of pollution are the municipal waste-water discharges.The building for the purification of sewage in 2012-2013 is planned at the framework of the Federal Target Program “The Preservation of the Lake Baikal and socio-economic development of Baikal Nature Territory”. The cost of building 520,655 million rubles.
  • 13. 13 Tourism is expected one of the main sectors of economy in Mongolia and Buryatia Since 1995 (nineteen ninety five) the Republic of Buryatia has seen tourism growth increase. Foreign tourism for the period 2003-2005 (twenty three-twenty five) rose by 36% (thirty six) per cent. The largest resources are located in regions bordering Lake Baikal. Today the large-scale project of Special Economic Zone is building on the shore of Lake Baikal.
  • 14. 14 The main uses for water resources in the Selenge River Basin Water supply for the population, industry and agriculture Drainage water discharge Production of mineral resources, fishing, navigation and recreation
  • 15. 15Delta of the Selenge river –natural filter and indicatorof the real ecological status of the lake Baikal
  • 16. 16 Russian Federation Water Laws and Regulation• Federal Law “On the protection of Lake Baikal” (No 94, May 1st, 1999);• Federal Law “On the protection of environment”(No 7, January,10th,2002);• Federal Law “Water Code of Russian Federation” (No 74, June 3rd, 2006); “Concept of Long-Term Socio-economic Development of the Russian Federation to the year 2020”, produced by Ministry for Economic Development of the Russian Federation, adopted by Government of Russian Federation 17.11.2008 No. 1662-p; “Water Strategy of the Russian Federation until 2020”, adopted by Government of Russian Federation 27.08.2009 No. 1235-p;
  • 17. 17 The Regional Target Programs: “The ecological safety of Republic of Buryatia 2009-2011 and till 2017”; “The program of socio-economic development of Selenginski region of republic of Buryatia 2008–2012 and till 2017”; The Republic Target program “The Clear Water of Republic of Buryatia 2009-2017”; Measures for reconstruction of irrigated lands; The Program “Tourism and recreation in Republic of Buryatia”; “The Scheme of complex use and protection of water resources of Selenge river basin (Russian part)”
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  • 21. Thank You for Your attention and invite for co-operation

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