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120510 iasi   morave river - Albert Schwingshandl
 

120510 iasi morave river - Albert Schwingshandl

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restoration measures at Austrian-Slovakian border section of river Morava: concepts, experience and outlokk.

restoration measures at Austrian-Slovakian border section of river Morava: concepts, experience and outlokk.

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    120510 iasi   morave river - Albert Schwingshandl 120510 iasi morave river - Albert Schwingshandl Presentation Transcript

    • Restoration measures atAustrian-Slovakian border section of Morava river Presentation at RESTORE - Workshop 10th May 2012, Iasi, Romania DI Albert Schwingshandl riocom – Consulting Engineers Siebensterngasse 31/2, A-1070 Wien. www.riocom.at
    • CONTENT1. Introduction to the area2. History of river training works at Morava river.3. Development of fluvial morphology.4. Sediment processes.5. Effects on flooding processes.6. Restoration measures.7. Monitoring results.
    • 1. Introduction to the area2. History of river training works at Morava river.3. Development of fluvial morphology.4. Sediment processes.5. Effects on flooding processes.6. Restoration measures.7. Monitoring results.
    • INTRODUCTION TO THE AREAMorava river has itssource in North-East ofCzech Republic at1.275 m a.s.l.
    • Introduction to the area GEOGRAPHIC SITUATION Morava river has its source in North-East of Chech Republic at 1.275 m a.s.l. at its lower reach it forms the border between Austria and Slovakia at a length of 70 kilometres (136 m a.s.l.)
    • Introduction to the area HYDROLOGICAL-HYDRAULIC CHARACTERIZATION flood (100 years return period) HQ100 1.400 m³/s mean annual flood discharge HQ1 440 m³/s bankfull discharge 265 m³/s mean water MQ 115 m³/s low water NQ 33 m³/s • discharge maximum in spring, minimum in autumn. • nivo-pluvial discharge regime.
    • Introduction to the area HYDROLOGICAL-HYDRAULIC CHARACTERIZATION channel width 40 – 200 m, mean width 70 m mean slope 0,18 ‰ water depth (measured from MQ level) 2 – 6 m velocity at MQ 0,8 m/s
    • Introduction to the area RIVER MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS initially meandering river course initial bed slope 0,12 ‰ before river training (aereal picture 1942 )
    • 1. Introduction to the area2. History of river training works at Morava river.3. Development of fluvial morphology.4. Sediment processes.5. Effects on flooding processes.6. Restoration measures.7. Monitoring results.
    • HISTORY OF RIVER TRAINING WORKS Objectives of river training works: Improvement of land use. Reduction of high probability flooding. Improvement of conditions for navigation. After 1918: Border definition between CSSR and AT. Main phases of construction works: 1. phase 1911 to 1918: river mouth longitudinal structures March km 0-4,7.With the foundation Joint 2. phase 1919 to 1934: AT until 1925 woodenTechnical Commission in structures for river bank protection; partial1931 Morava river trainingworks got a new bilateral excavation of cut-offs.administrative basis 3. phase 1935 to 1967: Revision of „General Project 1935“ -> detail projects (meander cut- offs, standard cross section .
    • History of river training works Example TRAINING WORKS MORAVA Cut-Off V Upper core of Cut-off V. Source: Archiv der ehemalg. Marchbauleitung des Bundesstrombauamtes im Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Abteilung IV/W3. Digitale Reproduktion: DI Gerald Benz Photografische Bearbeitung: Mag. Elisabeth Beer
    • History of river training works Example TRAINING WORKS MORAVA Cut-Off V Opening of the upper core of Cut-off V. Quelle: Archiv der ehemalg. Marchbauleitung des Bundesstrombauamtes im Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Abteilung IV/W3. Digitale Reproduktion: DI Gerald Benz Photografische Bearbeitung: Mag. Elisabeth Beer
    • History of river training works Example TRAINING WORKS MORAVA Cut-Off V Quelle: Archiv der ehemalg. Marchbauleitung des Bundesstrombauamtes im Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Abteilung IV/W3. Digitale Reproduktion: DI Gerald Benz Photografische Bearbeitung: Mag. Elisabeth Beer
    • 1942 RESULTS OF RIVER TRAINING WORKS Source: BEV 1941-42. Bearbeitung: riocom, A. Schwingshandl
    • Regulierungsgeschichte RESULTS OF 1995 RIVER TRAINING WORKS Results: The river training which has been implemented in past century has changed the fluvial morphology of Morava river sistematically and substantially, regarding layout, longitudinal profile and cross section geometry. Kex data: 17 cut-offs were built, the river course was shortened by 11 kilometres. About 70% of the river banks are stabilized by engineering structures. Standardization of the channel geometry and increase of the discharge capacity of the standard cross section, consequently decrease of lateral connectivity. Source: BEV
    • History of river training works RESULTS OF RIVER TRAINING WORKS Meander XVIa.
    • History of river training works RESULTS OF RIVER TRAINING WORKS Cut-off section IV (concave bank already with restoration measures).
    • History of river training works RESULTS OF RIVER TRAINING WORKS Still, high potential for restoration, due to partly low intensity of uses most important lowland river ecosystem in Austria Meadow near Marchegg
    • Introduction to the area RIVER RESTORATION PLANNING PROCESS 1994 RAMSAR concept 1995-97 MARTHA95 river development scheme 1999-2002 LIFE pilot restoration project MUF 2003-2005 MUF monitoring 2004-2006 BGM Bilateral General Project 2011-2013 LIFE project, MORE (ETZ)
    • 1. Introduction to the area2. History of river training works at Morava river.3. Development of fluvial morphology.4. Sediment processes.5. Effects on flooding processes.6. Restoration measures.7. Monitoring results.
    • Development of fluvial morphology CROSS SECTION GEOMETRY 7,0 Profilgeometrie vor Regulierung 6,5Situation before rivertraining shows a 6,0wide range of cross 5,5section geometry. Mittlere Profiltiefe [m] 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 3,0 B = 72 -83 m, T = 3,1 bis 3,6 m 2,5 B = 64 -99 m, T = 1,9 bis 2,7 m 2,0 1,5 B = 84 -112 m, T = 1,5 bis 1,9 mQuelle: 1,0Erstellung von wasserwirtschaftlichenPlanungsgrundlagen für die Ö-SK 0,5Marchgrenzstrecke.riocom, G. Benz, A. Schwingshandl0,0Im Auftrag:via donau – Österr. Wasserstraßen- 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140Gesellschaft mbH. Bordkantenentfernung [m]
    • Development of fluvial morphology CROSS SECTION GEOMETRY 7,0 Profilgeometrie vor Regulierung 6,5Situation before river Profilgeometrie nach Regulierungtraining shows a 6,0wide range of cross 5,5section geometry. Mittlere Profiltiefe [m] 5,0By training measures 4,5a standardized profile 4,0 B = 60 – 80 m, T = 2,8 -3,8 mwas put in place. 3,5 3,0 B = 72 -83 m, T = 3,1 bis 3,6 m 2,5 B = 64 -99 m, T = 1,9 bis 2,7 m 2,0 1,5 B = 84 -112 m, T = 1,5 bis 1,9 m 1,0 0,5 0,0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Bordkantenentfernung [m]
    • Development of fluvial morphology STANDARDIZATION OF CHANNEL GEOMETRIEThis standardizing of thechannel geometry alsomeans, that over longsections a bank levee wasconstructed.This levee mostly is higherthan the sourrounding floodplain and therefore builds abarrier for frequentinundation. Moravka Zaya
    • Development of fluvial morphology DEVELOPMENT OF RIVER BED ELEVATION 150 Mean river bed elevation 149 148 Sohlhöhe 1908 147 146 145 144 143 Sohlhöhe [m.ü.A.] 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 Thaya Hohenau 135 134 Baumgarten Weidenbach D XVI - XVIII Marchegg 133 Dürnkrut D III - VII D IX - XII Angern Malina 132 D XIV Zaya D XIII D XV D II 131 130 70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0 Stationierung [m]
    • Development of fluvial morphology DEVELOPMENT OF RIVER BED ELEVATION 150 Mittlere Sohlhöhen 149 148 Sohlhöhe 1908 147 Sohlhöhe 1934 146 145 144 143 Sohlhöhe [m.ü.A.] 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 Thaya Hohenau 135 134 Baumgarten Weidenbach D XVI - XVIII Marchegg 133 Dürnkrut D III - VII D IX - XII Angern Malina 132 D XIV Zaya D XIII D XV D II 131 130 70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0 Stationierung [m]
    • Development of fluvial morphology DEVELOPMENT OF RIVER BED ELEVATION 150 Mittlere Sohlhöhen 149 Sohlhöhe 1908 148 Sohlhöhe 1934 147 Sohlhöhe 1956/58 146 145 144 143 Sohlhöhe [m.ü.A.] 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 Thaya Hohenau 135 134 Baumgarten Weidenbach D XVI - XVIII Marchegg 133 Dürnkrut D III - VII D IX - XII Angern Malina 132 D XIV Zaya D XIII D XV D II 131 130 70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0 Stationierung [m]
    • Development of fluvial morphology DEVELOPMENT OF RIVER BED ELEVATION 150 Mittlere Sohlhöhen 149 Sohlhöhe 1908 148 Sohlhöhe 1934 Sohlhöhe 1956/58 147 Sohlhöhe 1988/95 146 145 144 143 Sohlhöhe [m.ü.A.] 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 Thaya Hohenau 135 134 Baumgarten Weidenbach D XVI - XVIII Marchegg 133 Dürnkrut D III - VII D IX - XII Angern Malina 132 D XIV Zaya D XIII D XV D II 131 130 70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0 Stationierung [m]
    • Development of fluvial morphology DEVELOPMENT OF RIVER BED ELEVATION 150 Mittlere Sohlhöhen Sohlhöhe 1908 149 Sohlhöhe 1934 148 Sohlhöhe 1956/58 147 Sohlhöhe 1988/95 146 Sohlhöhe 2006 145 144 143 Sohlhöhe [m.ü.A.] 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 Thaya Hohenau 135 134 Baumgarten Weidenbach D XVI - XVIII Marchegg 133 Dürnkrut D III - VII D IX - XII Angern Malina 132 D XIV Zaya D XIII D XV D II 131 130 70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0 Stationierung [m]
    • Development of fluvial morphology DEVELOPMENT OF RIVER BED ELEVATION 150 Mittlere Sohlhöhen Sohlhöhe 1908 149 Sohlhöhe 1934 148 Sohlhöhe 1956/58 147 Sohlhöhe 1988/95 146 Sohlhöhe 2006 145 144 143 Sohlhöhe [m.ü.A.] 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 Thaya Hohenau 135 134 Baumgarten Weidenbach D XVI - XVIII Marchegg 133 Dürnkrut D III - VII D IX - XII Angern Malina 132 D XIV Zaya D XIII D XV D II 131 130 70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0 Stationierung [m]
    • 1. Introduction to the area2. History of river training works at Morava river.3. Development of fluvial morphology.4. Sediment processes.5. Effects on flooding processes.6. Restoration measures.7. Monitoring results.
    • SEDIMENT PROCESSES
    • sediment processes SUSPENDED SEDIMENT MODELLINGThe aim is to gainknowledge on thesedimentation processes inthe floodplains.Results of long-termmodelling (31 years).Source:Num. 2D-Modell für March und Thaya in A,SK und CZ.ARGE riocom-IB Humer-AquasoliIm Auftrag:via donau und Land NÖ-WA2
    • sediment processes SUSPENDED SEDIMENT MODELLINGResults of long termmodelling (31 years).Section: Morava atZaya river mouthQuelle:Num. 2D-Modell für March und Thaya in A,SK und CZ.ARGE riocom-IB Humer-AquasoliIm Auftrag:via donau und Land NÖ-WA2
    • sediment processes MORPHOLOGICAL DYNAMICS: EROSION - SEDIMENTATIONThe digital terrain model(laserscan 2007;3d-Shade) how the balancebetween sedimentation anderosion is proceeding in adynamic river system:by erosion on the concavebank the river „consumes“ thenatural bank levee andmigrates,and leaves behind a naturalbank levee on the convexbank. Grafik Quelle: Num. 2D-Modell für March und Thaya in A, SK und CZ. ARGE riocom-IB Humer-Aquasoli. Im Auftrag: via donau und Land NÖ-WA2
    • Entwicklung derGewässermorphologie MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT Due to morphological changes the bankfull discharge is exceeded less frequently. Event 1: Morava river morphology was shifted into an Discharges between NQ and new system stage by the river training works HQ1 remain within the (singulary event). bankfull cross section. Process 1 River bed deepening: in lage sections of Morava river the channel bed deepened significantlyFür das morphologische between the river training and ca. 1990Gesamtsystem der March stellt (Continous process … +/- terminated).sich in Hinblick auf die Zukunftdie essentielle Frage: Process 2: sedimentation along river bank, while riverkommt (u.a.) durch das layout is fixed, causes a successive raisening of riverFortschreiten von Prozess 2 bank (Continous process … ongoing).(Sedimentation) in einerbestimmten Phase/Abschnittwieder Prozess 1(Sohleintiefung)in Gang ?
    • 1. Introduction to the area2. History of river training works at Morava river.3. Development of fluvial morphology.4. Sediment processes.5. Effects on flooding processes.6. Restoration measures.7. Monitoring results.
    • EFFECTS OF MORPHOLOGYON FLOODING PROCESSES Quelle: Hydromonitoring für die Maßnahmen an der March in Marchegg Km 15-25. riocom, A. Schwingshandl Im Auftrag: Wasserstraßendirektion / via donau
    • EFFECTS OF MORPHOLOGY ON FLOODING PROCESSESQuelle:Hydromonitoring für die Maßnahmen an der March in MarcheggKm 15-25. riocom, A. SchwingshandlIm Auftrag: Wasserstraßendirektion / via donau Quelle: Hydromonitoring für die Maßnahmen an der March in Marchegg Km 15-25. riocom, A. Schwingshandl Im Auftrag: Wasserstraßendirektion / via donau
    • 1. Introduction to the area2. History of river training works at Morava river.3. Development of fluvial morphology.4. Sediment processes.5. Effects on flooding processes.6. Restoration measures (-> pres.#2).7. Monitoring results.
    • 1. Introduction to the area2. History of river training works at Morava river.3. Development of fluvial morphology.4. Sediment processes.5. Effects on flooding processes.6. Restoration measures.7. Monitoring results.
    • INTERDISCIPLINARY MONITORINGThe main aim of the Project at river Morava was to• Re-structure the river banks• Increase the lateral connectivity with wetland areas• Partly re-connect cut-off meandersAfter the implementation of measures, the success of the measures was assessed within a interdisciplinary monitoring (2003-2005).Eight different groups of organisms were chosen as bioindicaors to cover the whole range of effects of the measures on the entire river stretch and the backwaters
    • Evaluation summary phytobenthos macrophytes amphibians dragonflies makrozoo- vegetation benthos birds fishtype description Total removal of outer bank protectionA1.1 + +/- + + + with preventive erosion limits Partial removal of river protection atA2 outer bank + Initiation of steep flanks+ at the+outer bank + + +B3* Deposition of material at inner bank, + by (partially) removing+ bank protection + + + + +/- + partial removal of bank protectionB4* Deposition of material at inner bank + Creation of sediment banks + + + +C1 Reactivation of former gully systems + +/- +/- at the inner bank + +/- + Reconnection of meander systems fromD1 downstream +/- +/- Reactivation and +/- + + integration of +/- +D2 Initiations of outer banks in preparation +/- meander and gully systems +/- +/- +/- to upstream meander openingE2 Relocation of bed sediments + + + Installation of woody structuresE3 Installation of woody structures +/- + + Partial removal of river protection andF1 +/- + + + + reshape to mean-flow groins
    • BIRDS Indicator for river-bank connectionsSteep concave banks are important breeding places for some birds especially for the kingfisherThe study at Morava river showed that also artificially built river sediment banks were settled by some species (e.g. the little ringed plover)A minimum size of 400m2 bank area should be aspiredLateral connectivity increases the habitat quality of many aquatic birdsStructual diversity demonstrably has a positive influence on species diversity[TEUFELBAUER & ZUNA-KRATKY, 2004, 2005, 2006]
    • AMPHIBIANS Indicator for river-floodplain connectionsThe artificial built flat and muddy river banks at the Morava river due to perfect summer habitats for juvenile frogsWetlands and flooded meadows are significant spawning grounds for amphibian invertebratesTherefore the lateral connectivity is very important for these animals.[WARINGER-LÖSCHENKOHL, 2005]
    • FISH Indicator for the ecological situation of the whole river systemThe arising results of removing bank protections are pools which are suitable habitats for many adult fish.Furthermore structural diversity and wooden nests increased the number of individuals of the dominant fish species in the Morava river, like carp, catfish and bream.Flat overflowed banks (riffles) have positive effects on rheophile river faunaOverall 36 (2004) different species were located with a high ratio of endangered fish.The reactivation of former gully sytems and side channels increased the number of individuals of indifferent and stagnophil species.[SPINDLER & WINTERSBERGER, 2003, 2004, 2005]
    • MACROZOOBENTHOS Indicator for waterbody structures and organic loadThe removal of the river bank protection in the Morava river mainly reduced the individuals which are not typical for that location.In fact the typical local species creates an increasing number of individuals.The flattening of concave banks leads to high biocenotical ratio. Flat banks are very essential habitats for the characteristical macrozoobenthos invertebrates in the Morava river.Also the connectivity to former gully systems and side channels led to a higher biocenotical ratio and reduced the number of untypical individuals.The artificial installation of woody structures showed also positive effects.[GRAF & BLOCH, 2005]
    • DRAGONFLIES Indicator for structural heterogenity and lateral interaction of the river with its forelands50% of the identified taxae are endangered according to the “red list” of Lower Austria.A high portion of the found taxae are sensitive and serve therefore as a good indicator.Removal of bank protection has a positive impact on the dragonfly- fauna.Created sediment banks are used by dragonfly larvae and therefore essential habitats.These banks already show a fully developed coenosis of certain species as well as a high density of taxae.The implementation of woody structures has a positive impact. The increase in structures is evaluated positively.[SCHULTZ, 2005]
    • MACROPHYTES Indicator for river structures and lateral connectivity80 taxae could be identified during the field investigation29 taxae of these are listed no the “red list”The aquativ vegetation can therefore be accounted as very specious and valuable.The removal of riverbank protection created habitats for pioneer vegetation.Increased stream curvature and stream velocity variability create a range of new habitats for a range of endangered taxae.New sediment banks provide habitats for site-specific plants.The created water-foreland interaction zones induced a significant increase in taxae.The dimension of measures set had most influence on the aquatic vegetation.[PALL & MOSER, 2005]
    • PHYTOBENTHOS Indicator for the contaminant load of the water body118 taxae could be identified during the field investigation.Only two taxae of these are listed on the “red list”.Region-specific reference-taxae made up to 40% of the total.No significant change, caused by the set measures could be identified. This goes well with experiences from other locations.Structural changes therefore don’t have a significant impact on water quality.[PFISTER, 2005]
    • VEGETATION Indicator for the change in interaaction with the forelands on different sites21 taxae of neophytes could be identified in the investigation areaThe high spatial and temporal variability of the outer banks are evaluated as positive indicatorThe presence of the winged saltbush (Graumelde), on created sediment banks can be seen as a great success.The permanent succession furthermore leads to a constant change in vegetationThe change in water supply of the surrounding areas induces a gradual change in the vegetation ecotype.The reactivation of meanders and gullys therefore is seen as a positive aspect.The reinstalled interaction of the river with the foreland allows to reestablish the typical potamal flood plain ecosystem[LAZOWSKI, 2007]
    • OVERALL CONCLUSIONSThe analysis shows that for most of the biota the implementation of measures lead to an improvement of the habitat quality.Especially the interaction between river and wetland improved significantly.The results of the study are important for river restoration projects of lowland rivers and will provide useful information for the implementation of the program of measures according to the EU Water Framework Directive
    • THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION Acknowledgements to clients and partners via donau – Österr. Wasserstraßen-Gesellschaft mbH Austrian Waterways Assoc. Regional Government of Lower Austria – UBA Austrian Environment Agency and all project partners for excellent collaboration.! riocom - Albert Schwingshandl albert.schwingshandl@riocom.at